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TITLE: Mind -wandering in people with hippocampal damage
(Cornelia McCormick1 , Clive R. Rosenthal2 , Thomas D. Miller2 ...
TITLE: Mind -wandering in people with hippocampal damage
(Cornelia McCormick1 , Clive R. Rosenthal2 , Thomas D. Miller2
and Eleanor A. Maguire)
Name: Sundeep Nagra
Course: BIOL4P28 (Development al Neurobiology)
Due date: March 30th , 2021
Mind wandering is comprised of defining features of human cognition. It may have an
effect on the prefrontal processes in the brain, including organizing, logical reasoning, and
strategic thinking. The average propensity of the human brain is around 30 -50 percent when
it has been engaged in doing the same or similar tasks. The definition of mind
wandering covers many aspects, including memory retrieval, long term -planning, conflict
resolution, and man y other emotional mechanisms. The default mode network (DMN) is
related to mind wandering in the role of cognition within the brain.
The hippocampus is an essential component of the paleo mammalian cortex, which
consolidates short -term memories. In orde r to create new experiences and thinking’s , the
hippocampus plays an important role. Past experiments have looked at the impact of
traumatic experiences that rely on the hippocampus, such as impressionistic memory
retrieval. Individuals with trauma to t heir hippocampus were able to disengage from the
existing input levels (Andrews -Hanna et al., 2013). Furthermore, the study found that when
specific bilateral lesions are made to the damaged hippocampus, the inner thoughts of the
individual are dissociated .
Neuroscience has made substantial strides in explaining the association between
wandering of the mind as well as the neural connections. More thorough study of thinking as
well as how it develops dynamically can help to explain how it occurs in individ uals with
trauma to the Default Mode Network scopes well beyond original study issue. The research
effectively used earlier studies as a framework to clarify and expand prior findings and
produced relevant facts in regards to further studies. Age, sexuali ty, and overall cognitive
skills were similarly distributed between the groups to monitor the hippocampus - dependent
injury groups. Lastly , persons with hippocampal injury, but almost no background of
thorough mental imaging have been proven more vulnerab le to mind wandering .
For individuals with hippocampus - dependent injury, mind wandering is common;
nevertheless, the hippocampus plays an important role in the functioning and the processing
of the content that makes up the mind wandering. However, thoro ugh mental imaging is vital
to deciding their sensory perceptions, material, so the position of the hippocampus is retained
(Andrews -Hanna et al., 2013). Like previous research, these results affirmed the nature of the
reality of mind wandering , yet they s howed the wide -ranging importance of the hippocampus
in memory recall as well (Andrews -Hanna et al., 2013). The research findings indicated that
perhaps the DMN could be damaged during default setting, so no other domains in -related
findings were identifie d. The lesions that selectively interrupt the hippocampus were
considered to portray mind wandering only at the neuronal stage (Andrews -Hanna et al.,
2013). Owing to trauma to the hippocampus, people appear to think mainly in the present.
The study shows that, as a general rule, people tend to be heavily reliant on their visual
and/geometrical memory for maintaining balance when doing mind -wandering tasks The
participants were no longer able to picture scenes, focusing entirely on verbal definitions
requi ring an increased use of linguistic processes. Finally, the hippocampus is crucial to mind
wandering , which appears to be almost entirely guided by semantics.
The researcher in his study found that it is possible for people with hippocampal injury to
consc iously detach from present visual feedback, and if so, should they indulge in internal
mental time travel? How does their daydreaming run: conceptual, descriptive, or precise?
Unless thoughts are auditory or graphic? According to the study's hypotheses, th e
hippocampus is necessary for the production of mind -wandering information, patients with
hippocampal loss should exhibit probable and episodic memory deficits as well as compared
to those without.
The participants would have the unique qualifications: ex clusively right -handed
individuals, between the ages of 27 to 70, and moderate hippocampal memory impairment,
would be included within the sample. The researchers also selected 12 controls, with an
average age of 57.2 (16.6) years ranging between 25 through 77. There was an experimental
design to ensure each participant was paired with a control of equal physical as well
as mental abilities. The period of discovery following the injury to the hippocampus is
roughly seven years. Hippocampal lobe volume reduction was seen in individuals restricted
to both the cerebral hemispheres. An investigation of the automatic voxel -based
morphometry was additionally examined on the completely T1 -weighted MRIs. Patients
were shadowed with bilateral injury over two days throughout the day. The researchers
used descriptive selection method for his participants, in which respondents were
encouraged only when they were being asked q uestions to consciously describe what was
going on their The researcher studied substance and shape of mind as a whole though
attempting to distinguish the form of mind -wandering. Teh questions that the researcher
asked the respondent were what were you thinking about before I asked you this
question? To avoid prolonged post hoc analysis, the testing process took not more than one
minute. The respondents had not already learned to follow up on further questions. For
respondents to reduce the probability of problems with orders that could arise because of
their amnesia, they advised them to obtain external clues.
The data derived through mind -wandering as well as time variables revealed increased
perceived decoupling incidents as opposed to coupling. More time was spent remembering
previous events rather than planning future ones, and inspiring episodic imagery.
Additionally, contextual and theoretical thought is displayed in light of abstraction. It was
suggested that perhaps the patient spends much more time focused on the present rather than
The conclusions from the self -relative thinking illustrated responses indicated that the
respondents had episodic rather than conceptual feelings, and believed them to be more
important. The participants engaged in more self -conscious and abstract expression. Yet
overall, the subjects in the experiment had much more feelings of themselves than the control
group. Additionally, the study tested the effects in sense of thinking and found that
the control gro up had greater ability to process and think about image sequences than digital
elements. Many patients saw little distinction between pictures and styles, except for written
Andrews -Hanna JR, Reidler JS, Sepulcre J, Poulin R, Bu ckner RL (2010) Functional -anatomic
fractionation of the brain's default network. Neuron 65:550 –562.
Bertossi E, Ciaramelli E (2016) Ventromedial prefrontal damage reduces mind -wandering and biases
its temporal focus. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 11:1783 –1791. doi:10.1093/scan/nsw099
Catani M, Dell'acqua F, Thiebaut de Schotten M (2013) A revised limbic system model for memory,
emotion and behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37:1724 –1737.
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