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Philosophy of Science

Relativism

Relativism

1.Ethical relativism is judgmental and descriptive.

2.Ethical relativism is flaws because it uses its own criteria to assess its validity.

3.Ethical relativism argues that values are subjective or objective.

4.Ethical relativism argues that values are never absolute or universal.

5.Ethical relativism argues that values are unknowable.

6.Ethical relativism argues that values are meaningless.

7.Ethical relativism arues that it is possible to be a subjectivist to be a relativist.

8.Ethical relativism argues that it is possible for a relativist to be an objectivist.

9.Ethical relativism argues that it is possible for an objectivist to be an absolutist.

10.Ethical relativism’s flaw is that if cultural values are always correct then there is no place for moral dialogue.

11.Ethical relativism argues that  the fact that cultures disagree on what is right or wrong is does not prove that they ought to disagree.

12.Ethical relativism argues that saying which values apply to individuals is difficult because people belong to varying subcultures.

13.Ethical relativism for instances has no applicability to the issue of suffering and how we should respond ethically to the reality of suffering in the world.  

14.Critics of ethical relativism argue that while there are universally held values the specific manner in which those values are applied vary from culture to culture.  Thus there are moral absolutes, and the difference in in how those absolutes are applied.

15.Critics of ethical relativism argue that the problem with ethical relativism lies in its devotion to the naturalistic fallacy, which argues that because a certain thing “is” in the culture, then that is the say it should be in the culture morally.  In other words ethical relativism derives an “ought” from an “is.”

16.Critics of ethical relativism argue that because there is no moral absolute, then there is no place for ethical dialogue concerhing what is right or wrong, nor is there any reason to hope for a progressing understanding of morality.

17.Ethical relativism comlete rejects the notion that there is one moral absolute standard which is to govern the moral behavior of all individuals.  

Existentialism

1.Exitetentialism asserts that morality is not based on any absolute moral foundation.

2.Existentialism roots values are based in our freedom to make moral choices

3.Existentialism argues that our freedom to choose shape our moral identity/destiny.

4.Existence precedes essence is the primary doctrine of existentialism.

5.Existence precedes essence  replces the traditional notion that essence precedes existence.

6.Existence precedes essence argues that our decisions/existence shapes our essence.

7.Existentialism argues that in our moral choices we shape our character and identity.

8.Existentialist assert that acting shapes being versus our being shapeing our actions.

9.Existentiails argue that there is o human nature, good or bad.

10.Existentialist argue that as self conscious humans we choose our nature thru moral choices.

11.Existentialism emphasizes that we act freely in our moral decisions and under no moral compulsion of an extant nature.

12.Existentialist argue decisions are not shaped in any fahion by any preexistent moral nature.

Nietzsche

1.Nietzsche argues that moral decisions are an expression of the moral will.

2.Nietzsche condemns the victimization culture by arguing that the values of sympathy, and compassion toward the herd members use these categories to control the powerful and get them off their backs so to speak.

3.For Nietzsche morality is all about the expression of the will to power.

4.Nietzsche disdains Christianity because it is an obstacles to human progress.

5.Nietzsche argues that the desire to benefit the common good is no more than a will to denial of life and progress in the human condition.

6.Nietzxshce argues that as long as God is believed to exist there will be no human progress or advancement.

Feminist ethics

1.Concerned with an ethic of care

2.Rejects male hierarchical approaches to ethics.

3.Emphasizes compassion, nurting, relationship.

Nursing Ehtics

1.Autonomy

2.Beneficence

3.Maleficence

4.Justice

5.Loyalty

Capital punishment

1.Know different types of punishment

2.Look at all slides regarding capital punishment

Animal ethics

1.Sentience

2.Peter Singer

3.Speciesism

4.Tom Regan

5.Animal welfare

6.Animal dominion

7.Animal rights

War

1.Just war

2.Requirements for just war

3.Aristotle and just war

4.Aquinas and just war

Euthanasia/physician assisted suicide

1.Euthanasia definition

2.Active euthanasia

3.Passive euthanasia

Arguing both sides exercises

1.Just know generally how to do so.

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