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Ans 1: Steganography refers to the practice of concealing amessage wit ...
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Ans 1: Steganography refers to the practice of concealing amessage within another message.
This works by modifying bits of useless data in regular computer files with bots of invisible
information (Hindi et al., 2019). The information that is hidden can be anything starting from
plain text, images or any cipher text. It can be used legitimately for keeping secrets or
safeguarding sensitive information or be used illegitimately to deceive people.
Bit shifting refers to an operation that is done on all the bits of abinary value. In this the bits
are shifted by adefined number of place either to the left or to the right (Solak et al., 2019). It
is made use of when operand is used as aset of bits instead of asingle entity. Bit shifting is
generally made use of in programming and has at the least one variant in each programming
Ans 2: Iencountered steganography once when Iwas using acomputer system at acybercaf é.
Mistakenly Iopened an image file and itlooked abit wary from the normal image files. As it
is known that the most common form of steganography that is made use of these days is
hiding files within image files on acomputer system, Idoubted it. When the owner saw that I
was staring at the image file, he suddenly put off the main switch and then Irealized that
there was something serious with it. Realizing that Ihad sensed some abnormality in the
image file, he took the step. The clue here was that the colors looked a little off giving a
notion that the image was either taken from alow-quality camera or in a place where the
lighting was not proper. It could have been so but then the way the caf éowner reacted was
strange. There were already some rumors about the caf éregarding some criminal activities
being supported by the owners at the place which led me to realize that there was some secret
Ans 3: The steps that need to be taken are:
a. The background of the caf é properly investigated on before going into further
b. Italked to someone who is well knowledgeable about the concepts of steganography.
By sharing the matter with someone who has adequate knowledge on this helped me
get to the roots of this.
c. Every single thing that Ihad encountered that day was narrated so that the expert
could judge the situation on the basis of his experience in the field.
d. The expert then visited the caf é to check on the computer system and purposely
opened up the image file that Ihad mistakenly opened.
e. He found the same thing and agreed to my point that there was something wrong in
the image file, like some sort of information hidden in it.
f. Proper analysis made use realize that there was acode hidden which the was to be
sent to the local gangs.
g. Cyber cell was informed and they need to be acknowledged as they took prompt
h. The owners of the caf éwere taken in custody and still are being interrogated.
Ans 4: The paper provides aliterature review of various techniques of image steganography
in the spatial domain for the last 5 years (Hussain et al., 2018). The authors have properly
described image steganography and made the readers aware that in image steganography, the
carrier that conceals secret information is an image. The paper also discussed the basic
difference between various techniques such as steganography, watermarking and more such
as cryptography (Hussain et al., 2018). It came up with architecture of steganography with
various cover objects and laid stress spatial domain-based image steganography. The
advantages as well as disadvantages of all of the techniques has been given in tabular form so
that the readers can easily figure out the differences. Apart from steganography, steganalysis
has also been mentioned here. It is important to understand the role of steganalysis when one
is talking about steganography as well. It is thoughtful of the author to introduce the concept
of steganalysis to the readers as everyone should know the countermeasure of steganography.
Hindi, A. Y., Dwairi, M. O., & AlQadi, Z. A. (2019). A Novel Technique for Data
Steganography. Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research ,9(6), 4942-
Hussain, M., Wahab, A. W. A., Idris, Y. I. B., Ho, A. T., & Jung, K. H. (2018). Image
steganography in spatial domain: A survey. Signal Processing: Image
Communication ,65 ,46-66.
Solak, S. E. R. D. A. R., & ALTINI ŞIK, U. (2019). A new approach for Steganography: Bit
shifting operation of encrypted data in LSB (SED-LSB). Bili şim Teknolojileri
Dergisi ,12 (1), 75-81.
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