1)As used in paragraph 1, which is the best antonym for vigilant?
2)Based on information in the passage, it can be inferred that the author
A.used to be employed by an MTR company, but left because he or she was frustrated with its environmental practices
B.is more concerned about the environment than he or she is about human lives
C.believes that MTR companies care little for the environment or for the Appalachian community
D.works for an environmental protection group or agency
E.thinks that the United States should stop relying on coal power as a source of energy
3)Which of the following statements from the passage represents an opinion, as opposed to a fact?
A.“Although the mining companies have built structures known as ‘sludge dams’ that are intended to contain the toxic runoff, these dams can burst or leak, sending thousands of gallons of toxic chemicals into municipal drinking water.”
B.“However, instead of bringing jobs and prosperity to poor Appalachian communities, MTR companies actually bring destruction and poverty.”
C.“The overburden contains a variety of toxic substances, including explosive residue, silica, and coal dust.”
D.“While the coal companies may make enormous profits from MTR, Appalachian communities located near the mines suffer increased rates of kidney cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer, chronic pulmonary disorders, hypertension, and vision problems.”
E.“MTR operations clear enormous tracts of forest; some experts estimate that over 2000 square miles of forests in the Appalachian region will have been razed by mining companies by 2012.”
4)In paragraph 1, the author mentions Lespedeza cuneata in order to
A.provide an example of the natural vegetation that grew on the mountains before MTR companies cleared the forests
B.identify one type of plant that is likely to flourish on the newly-blasted mountaintops
C.justify the reasoning behind the MTR companies’ decision to plant a non-native species where the forests once were
D.convince readers that the MTR companies’ attempts at replanting the forests may not be perfect, but they do represent a respectable effort
E.argue that the MTR companies are more interested in saving money than addressing the damage they have caused to the environment
5) The destructive process of mountaintop removal mining (MTR) has caused temporary damage to Appalachia
6) MTR Company brings jobs and prosperity to poor Appalachian communities
7) During 1950 to 2004, the human labor force working in these mines are dimished.
2. Write a Summary regarding the following topic
What is Information Technology
Information Technology (IT) is the application of computers and internet to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT) and has evolved according to the needs.
It is worthwhile noting that the term IT is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce, and computer services.
Thanks to the continuous development of computers, the original computing systems became minicomputers and later personal computers took the lead. Nowadays, mobile phones are dethroning the personal computer and computing is evolving faster to become disembodied more like a cloud, becoming accessible more easily whenever needed. Information technology has transformed people and companies and has allowed digital technology to influence society and economy alike. It has, in this sense, shaped societies and adapted itself to people's needs.
If you want a brief history of Information Technology, here is one. Humans were the first "computers". Then, machines were invented to carry out the computational tasks. Now these machines have given way to new form of information technology. Information has become disembodied accessible from anywhere through cloud technology. Recent advances in IT is the consequence of the development in computing systems. Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
3. Using the words in parenthesis, complete the following sentences with appropriate tenses ( 1 mark each)
1. My sister and I ------ (help) our mother yesterday.
2. Faith----- (drank) an apple juice at lunch yesterday.
3. My brother----- (not/wash) his car last week
4. The train ----- (to leave) at 11.45
5. My ski instructor believes it ----- (to snow) in mountains tomorrow evening.
6. The English lesson---- (to start) at 8.45
7. She ---- (have) a bath every evening.
8. She ------ (have) a headache.
9. They ----- (not/have) a car.
10. The waiter------- (taste) the wine now.
11. I ----- (have) fun today.
3 (b). Transform the sentences to simple past
12. Did he finish his homework?
13. She didn’t eat her sandwich two hour ago