Testing Citizen Identities: Australian Migrants And The Australian Values Debate
Q1: What is the article about? What does it tell us about the particular issue?
This is the article that deals with how the public in Australia is thinking about the values of Australia and their impact on the migrants. The migrants in this article are those who want to be the Australian citizen. It has been analysed that government of Australia has declared that the migrants or the people who are migrating to Australia have to adopt the core values of the country so that the national identify of the country can be protected. In this article, the analysis has been done on the values that are defined about the Australians and how they are perceived by the migrant. For this purpose, the textual analysis has been done on Becoming an Australian Citizen booklet (Joppke, 2013). The later part of the article is about the thinking of the aspirants and the migrants about the values of Australia and how they accept and negotiate with the demand of accepting the Australian culture in their life. All the aspects of Australia values have been clearly discussed in the article along with the deviation in the thinking of the migrants because of difference in their perceptions about the Australian values. The last part of the article also discusses about the multicultural values of Australia ns their way of living. The detailed description about the values can helps in understanding the process and accepting the values by the migrants.
This article tells us about the values that are followed in Australia today. It provides us with the detailed description of all the core values of Australia that has been followed since years in the country. It also tells us about the Australian’s life and way of living. The major issue that has been discussed in the article is the perceptions and the myths, the migrants have about the Australian way of living and culture (Aleinikoff and Klusmeyer, 2013). It has been analysed that different people have different myths about the culture and the values of Australia which are not true. There can be any reason for this perception but this may restrict the migrants to accept the values of Australia. It has been analysed that because of the different perceptions and the myths in the mind of the migrants, various issues can be raised in the process of accepting the core values of the country which is demanded by the government of Australia.
Aleinikoff, T.A. and Klusmeyer, D. eds., 2013. From migrants to citizens: Membership in a changing world. Brookings Institution Press.
Joppke, C., 2013. Through the European looking glass: citizenship tests in the USA, Australia, and Canada. Citizenship studies, 17(1), pp.1-15.
Q2: What concepts from this unit does the article demonstrate?
In this unit, we have learnt many concepts. Most of the concepts that are covered in the unit are related to the role of government and the changes in social and economic aspects of the country. Government of any of the country interferes in different matters. There are many changes that are taking place in the economy and social life of the people in different countries. Thus, government has the right to make standard policies related to those changes. This unit also includes the concept of changes occurred due to globalisation and the related practices at international level (Elrick and Lightman, 2016). As far as the article is considered, it discusses about the government declaration of accepting the Australian values by the migrants who are migrating to Australia. Thus, the concept that is related to this article is political, social and economic changes as per the changes in the national and international environment. It also deals with the cultural values of the country and the maintenance of national identity. The article basically focuses on the changes in the migration and citizenship laws. The citizenship test has been conducted on the people who want to settle in Australia. This is because of the neo-liberalisation policies and more and more migration of people in Australia because of on or the other reasons. Many migrants have protested against this policy of the Australian government to save their local identity. The Australian government has declared this policy so as to save the national identify of the country and because of the contrasting culture of some of the non-western countries. The Australian citizenship is not only limited to legal and civic rights but it needs to be extended to acceptance of the Australian values and the way of living by the migrants. This article demonstrates that changes at the national and international level forces the countries like Australia to make changes in their government, economic and social policies (Walsh, 2014). This article has clearly defined the link between the government legislations and the social life of the place. As per the discussion in the article, it has been analysed that when the changes occurred in the policies of the government, many issues raised because of the non-acceptance of those policies by some of the people. As in the article, migration in Australia leads to the Australian government to make and change the migrants policy by declaring that migrants have to accept the Australian values and way of living along with having the civic rights in order to live and settle in Australia, this suggests that changes have to be made as per the changes in the social environment of the place.
Walsh, J.P., 2014. The marketization of multiculturalism: Neoliberal restructuring and cultural difference in Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(2), pp.280-301.
Elrick, J. and Lightman, N., 2016. Sorting or shaping? The gendered economic outcomes of immigration policy in Canada. International Migration Review,50(2), pp.352-384.
Q3: What key theories does the article draw upon?
As discussed, this article is based on the cultural issues that are being generated in Australia because of the migration of people from different cultural background. This develops the culture of multiculturalism in Australia. Thus, the theory on which the article draws upon is political theory of multiculturalism. This is because government policies are also involved with the multicultural issues in Australia. The theory of multiculturalism was introduced in order to respond the changes and the diversity amongst the culture of the country because of the immigration of people in the country belonging from different cultural background. The Australia’s first department if immigration was forms in the year of 1945. The policy of immigration has fluctuated because of the mass immigration and the ethno central diversity in the country and leads to shift of assimilation policy to multicultural policy (Shohat and Stam, 2014). The assimilation policy of the country believes in practicing similar cultural values by all the people irrespective of their local culture. This policy suggests that every migrant from outside the country have to accept the Australian culture and values along with the pattern of life and way of living of Australian people. This policy was followed at the time of1940’s. From late 1960’s, the policy has experienced shift because of the difficulties and the restrictive behaviour of the new migrants to fully accept the Australian culture. Multiculturalism was accepted in order to settle down the new migrants in the country and removing the cultural distinction amongst the people. It has been realised by the government that following assimilation policy is not possible and it is ruining the peace of the country (Kubota, 2014). It was required by the country to accept the policy of multiculturalism because of the increase in globalisation practices and interaction of businesses amongst different countries. This theory has been confided as the basis of discussion of the article because all the concepts that are explained in the article are related to the Australian cultural acceptance by the migrants and the issues that have been generated because of the different perceptions and myths of the people. It has been analysed that accepting the multicultural theory and framing the government policy according to the multicultural theory was the best decision take by the government in order to save the national identify of the country along with the peaceful settlement of the migrants in the country.
Kubota, R., 2014. The multi/plural turn, postcolonial theory, and neoliberal multiculturalism: Complicities and implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 37(4), pp.474-494.
Shohat, E. and Stam, R., 2014. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the media. Routledge.
Q4: What are some of the underlying assumptions, values and ideologies found in the article?
As far as the assumptions and the values are considered, it has been analysed that this article assumes that cultural values of the country are based on the religious beliefs. Framing of the Australia values and the basis of Judeo-Christian religion and British heritage results in additional effect on the difference amongst the migrants and the local people of the country. The assumptions, that religion is the basis of culture by the migrants in Australia results in different perceptions and myths about the Australian values and culture. It has been presumed that loyalty needs to be shown by the migrants toward the Australian culture and the people born are Australia already has that loyalty for the culture of the country.
It has been analysed that the article is based on the cultural values of the immigrants in the country as well as the local Australian population. It is required by the government to make the policy that can balance the cultural situation in Australian because of the mass immigration. Different perception and myths in the minds of the migrants results in anti-acceptance behaviour of the migrants for accepting the Australian culture in order to settle in Australia. Various issues have been generated in the local because of the cultural differences and thus the shit assimilation to integration policy has been observed in the country (Ng and Metz, 2015). The government has taken over the charge to change the immigration policy framed in 1945 because of the multicultural pressure on the country.
Different ideologies have been found that are the basis of this article. The first ideology is that cultural difference. It has been analysed that Australia is a country that is facing the cultural diversity because of the immigration process. There could be many other reasons such as globalisation, liberalisation etc. as the country has cultural diversity, and thus it is required to implement a policy for immigration that is assimilation policy in the year 1945 (Leong, Comas-Díaz, Nagayama Hall, McLoyd and Trimble, 2014). This policy forces the migrants to accept the culture of Australia if they want to live in Australia. When the country faced the mass immigration, thus policy fluctuated and the shift is being observed from assimilation to integration. This shift has developed new ideology that is multicultural ideology. This ideology is used to make the new governmental policy of multiculturalism in Australia so that the national identity as well as the immigration settlement can be balanced. The basis ideology of the article is that there should be cultural acceptance by the country and the country people should respect each and every culture. Making the country multicultural has resolved the issue of cultural diversity in the country.
Leong, F.T., Comas-Díaz, L.E., Nagayama Hall, G.C., McLoyd, V.C. and Trimble, J.E., 2014. APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 1: Theory and research. American Psychological Association.
Ng, E.S. and Metz, I., 2015. Multiculturalism as a strategy for national competitiveness: The case for Canada and Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(2), pp.253-266.
Q5: What is the article’s argument? Is the argument effective?
The major argument of the article is based on the textual analysis of the Australian values and the perceptions of the migrants about the Australian culture. The article explored the knowledge about the thinking of the aspiring citizens of Australian and the way of acceptance and negotiation regarding the Australian culture. They have observed to have different myths about the Australian values and culture and promoted various subjectivities. The first part of the article argues about the Australia values and culture. It has been argued that the Australian values needs to be accepted by the migrants who were entering the country so that the national identify of the country can be protected (Chisari, 2015). But, the variation in the culture of the country creates confusion amongst the people. It has been analysed that the migrants have not neglected to accept the culture of Australia and also not left their own culture and Australia has become a multicultural land. Australia is the country that is supported by many cultures and thus the migrants in Australia has evolved and developed the practices of multiculturalism. Many migrants have been interviewed in this study and suggested that for taking the citizenship of the country, it should not be mandatory for them to portray themselves as the part of the Australian community. They asked for the freedom to participate in their own way.
The argument that has been made in the article is found to be very effective because this clarifies the actual issues that the country is facing because of the multiculturalism theory in the country. It has been analysed that arguments f both the parties that is from the Australian people and from the migrants have ben discussed here. It has been analysed that Australian people have their own culture and the government wants that it needs to be followed so that the national identity can be protected but because of the variation in the Australian culture due to indigenous and aboriginal distinction, it has been analysed that migrants find it difficult to accept the culture (Chisari, 2009). The respondents in the article has not rejected the proposal of accepting Australian culture and nor they have accepted to reject their own cultire.at the end, the development of multicultural policy took place which is being followed by the Australian. The arguments made in the article were effective enough to discuss the subject and to identify the perception and myth related issues amongst the migrants in Australia.
Chisari, M., 2015. Testing citizen identities: Australian migrants and the Australian values debate. Social Identities, 21(6), pp.573-589.
Chisari, M., 2009. Critical constructions of a national Australian identity. Studies in applied linguistics and language learning.