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The recommendations of the present article can be explored in the context of a BOSTES-produced Imaginative Writing learning activity, which is located within a Stage 4 unit on short stories (BOSTES, n.d.; Appendix). The imaginative writing task is developed on a foundation of knowledge about the function and qualities of short stories in terms of “situation and character” (BOSTES, n.d., p. 1). In this activity, students are asked to watch one minute extracts from the opening of four films, and use element/s from the clips to inspire a one to two page short story.

Beyond promoting imaginative textual engagement, this activity synthesises students’ ability to employ appropriate “language forms and features” (BOSTES, n.d., p. 1), and to produce a short story which conforms to the structural conventions of story-telling practice.

The Importance of Inclusion in Maths Education

The aim of the assessment is to account for the inclusion of all students in the k-10 mathematic syllabus as described by the article (Zeichner, 2012). The article describes teacher's perspectives on accommodating all students in schools despite the different features such as physical, social, linguistic and other conditions which bring differences amongst the students. The purpose of this write up is to analyse how inclusion is important for learners. Recommendations on the teaching are based on KLA which is maths.

Australia has formulated policies to incorporate all students in all technical subjects including in maths. These policies include Disability Standard for Education 2005 whereby it advocated for the rights of disabled students who were to be allowed to join different schools within the country (Smith, Polloway, Patton, Dowdy, 2014).

Inclusion is currently viewed as the controversial topic which is involving the current education. Generally, the overall success of students with the disabilities in maths always depends on the perspectives of the teachers. In most cases, the aspect involved in implementation can fail if teachers and support available may fail to offer maximum commitment in k-10 mathematics syllabus and new stage 6 mathematics lesson plan. Smith et al, (2014) show that inclusion is basically referred to as the acceptance and honor to all people within society. After the introduction of inclusive policies in Australia, the number of students joining schools for k-10 mathematic syllabus has increased.

Critical summary

            In addition, inclusion in k-10 mathematic syllabus takes into account individual needs for all students in schools before placing them in the entire education classroom. All the models in teaching maths concepts focus on key values such as fairness, justice, and equity which each leader in schools should use when teaching students.

Structure of the data by use of Shulman's domains

  Korthagen (2010) describes how Shulman's domains have been used by the author to structure the data obtained from the leaders on the issue of maths teaching in schools.

Firstly based on the knowledge of curriculum, content and pedagogical knowledge, the author shows that all leaders teaching K-10 mathematics concepts were comfortable with the subject. All the secondary schools in Australia incorporated maths curriculum which was essential for the inclusion education. The concept of pedagogical content assisted teachers to have a broad knowledge of the use of apt strategies to teach maths techniques for all students in schools.

 Korthagen (2010) indicates that the maths field in Australian schools has been left for the special students only. Reports from the leaders show how student's databases were used to provide information on some of the challenges experienced by students with disabilities in handling maths related courses in school. Inclusive teachers are aware of the goals of students in math class. The leaders argued that inclusive teachers knew what the students want when learning maths techniques. Some argued that students were to be shaped on skills received from different subjects in class, for example, Maths (Harvey, Yssel, Bauserman, Merbler, 2010). Recommendations

Policies for Inclusive Education in Australia

 As seen in the article teachers are recommended to ensure they carry out various practices so that they can understand all learners regardless of their social incapacity, disability, and slow learning.

Teachers should have a wide knowledge of the learner and their characteristic. Teachers in a classroom setting should ensure that they relate well to the learners in order for them to understand their personal needs, weaknesses, strengths, and challenges. By doing this teachers are able to be inclusive (Borg, 2011).  In order for teachers to map maths skills on child development, they should observe students emotions, social and behavioural characteristics. This helps them to identify how a child's disability affects him/her and support the learner to successfully move to the next stage.

They should also have personal knowledge of the kids. Personal background research is key to understanding a particular child. This helps the teacher to understand the learner and identify ways to help and advice in case of a maths problem (Hagger, McIntyre, Wilkin, 2013). The teacher acknowledges the strengths, experiences, history, personality, and interests of children. This interaction enables a teacher to help learners to relate well in class.

Teachers should also form a situation where they are able to reward the students including those with a disability for a task well accomplished (Danielewicz, 2014). This motivates them to achieve even more in maths assessment thus improving the classroom activities.

These particular recommendations will be considered in order highly modify a sample Maths lesson plan. The lesson plan gives adequate information on how maths will be taught in school. It mostly focuses on understanding the quadrilateral figures in maths content. It has a section indicating data analysis in the class. Each concept is clearly shown with the exact date. A given section of stage 6 Mathematics sample unit From NSW Syllabuses has been chosen for modification as seen in Appendix A. The entire topic focuses on evaluating data from various primary and secondary sources

Data interpretation and crucial evaluation and adjustments

Time /date

Calculating area and volume for special quadrilaterals

Calendars/season of study.

Data displays.

The maths stage 6 lesson plan recommends to design and provide opportunities for students to think in a more simple mathematical way for example understanding functions, trigonometric functions, calculus, statistical analysis and financial mathematics. The mathematical expression like data display, time, and data sources analysis in a close classroom enable development of modern knowledge, skills, understanding attitudes, perception, and cultural values. According to the article, this is done through inclusive teachers enabling the students to solve mathematic equations such as area and volumes of quadrilateral figures in class thus solving maths problems.

Use of a whole –class approach is recommended to enables the students from low SES backgrounds and those with disabilities to do such mathematical task by giving them technology resources. They can evaluate mathematical data sources from the internet.

There should exist a reflection on an engagement framework which is an efficient and largely cognitive element discussed in our article. It illustrates how each student will be in a position to manipulate different formulae's when calculating different concepts in the classroom.

Teachers' Perspectives on Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Maths Education

Another modification would include making mathematics learning to be important in context and culture. Some of the activity, in this case, involves students to read the maths questions and also reflect on how to solve the complex equations. Learners acquire mathematical connections, think critically, be creative and use the available maths resources and advanced technology to support the given mathematical activity in a classroom.

Actively involving learners to study maths in the class. Teachers need to involve students in various active practices during learning such as a physical description of a particular aspect or point, form groups and also ensure learner engage in a question and answer forums.

Increased pedagogical knowledge and contextual framework

As depicted in the research article having a vast knowledge of subject matter and learner's knowledge provides the basis for teachers to acquire pedagogical information. For instance, teachers ought to break a large task into smaller ones to make them easier for learners with disabilities to understand. Researchers argue that having proper teaching practices like offering clear instructions, offering immediate feedback, work revision so that learners can memorize in future, proper maintenance of time horizon gives desired results in an inclusive class setting (Darling, 2012).

  Different learning styles should also be enacted to reduce boredom in a classroom. According to the article, it is quite evident that students with disabilities mostly depended on parents and their peer friends for help. Through the implementation of this recommendation, disability students will be able to depend on themselves s and need little assistance to do a task in the future. This will serve to increase their confidence thus instil a high level of self-esteem.

Diversification of literacy, numeracy and living skills. Secondary school students who have disabilities should be well prepared to cope with life and work activities after leaving school (Darling-Hammond, & Lieberman, 2013).  This is done by ensuring the ultimate exposure to practical work rather than theoretical approaches. Teachers thus need to develop their reading, writing and improve their oral linguistics in order to counter literacy challenges.

As argued in the article, the leaders depicted empathy, dedication, and flexibility to be some of the key attributes that improve the classroom activities having students with disabilities. Teachers should also acquire contextual knowledge and educational purpose and values needed by the students.

Organizing for workshops' and leadership programs. Teachers should make it a norm to ensure that students attend beneficial workshops that is important to teach them on various life skills.

Also by teaching the children behaviours such as respect, obedience and disciplining their inappropriate behaviour will enable them to live harmoniously with each other (Gay, 2010). This involves setting a conducive social environment for students to actively interact, understand each other no matter their differences. Thus form as helping and harmonious culture among them.

Justification

As argued by the author, various factors and recommendations highlighted above are required in order for the teacher to be inclusive by acquiring diverse sets of skills, high knowledge levels, behaviours, and personal attributes. As a matter of fact, teachers need to have specialist training by providing them with optimum conditions to attend training programs and workshops in order for them to acquire the necessary information important for the classroom setting (Gay, 2010). The teachers need to be given a vast room for career and professional development. The school management should also ensure that they give each teacher a manageable class size so that it can offer job satisfaction.

Recommendations for Ensuring Inclusion in Maths Education

This will also reduce pressure on them and ensure that they give each student maximum focus so that they can fully understand each of them. Having a collaborative planning strategy in the curriculum will also make teaching in classroom easy to comprehend and implement successful activities. Teachers also need to carry out an evaluation involving distinction of curriculum strategies and assessment of operations. The management should also provide them with adequate resources such as teaching and learning materials in the classroom to ensure that teachers are fully committed in their duties without having difficulties and interruptions. Therefore, the article gives detailed information to promote immense progress an experience in a classroom setting.

According to the research, teachers need a broad range of pedagogical knowledge to ensure special practices to accomplish in education in the classroom setting. In the article, it is important to note that the given skills and knowledge of an individual teacher should include his/her capacity or increased capability to understand and tutor the learner in various aspects such as social and living skills (Forlin & Chambers, 2011). Contextual knowledge in teachers enables them to properly manage and coordinate classroom setting. In order for teachers to meet the optimum expectations from the school and society that should be independent to choose their priority areas and also the management should offer support and provide maximum resources needed to improve the classroom activities.

Conclusion

 As argued by the research article, it can be concluded that having an absolutely positive altitude to inclusion enables various secondary teachers to improve their knowledge and skills. The leaders identified in the article basically indicate or argue in simple terms that showing empathy is a vital attribute that enhanced inclusive altitude in teaching the students (Elliott, 2012). Other important attributes include having respect, much dedication to teaching, flexibility, confidence, and determination to learn and efficient communication in solving specific challenges that might arise. As seen in the article the society has high expectations on the secondary teachers required to garner enough pedagogic content and knowledge regarding their subject or area of expertise.

They are also expected to have high personal knowledge about each of the available learners, for example, increased awareness of the learner's emotional responses, behavioural characteristics and also childhood development both physically and psychologically. This would make it easier for them to clearly understand the effects of their minimal knowledge on such given areas of learning development.

In this case, classroom activities would be highly improved to ensure that teachers reach their long-term strategic goals in the future. 

References

Avalos, B. (2011). Teacher professional development in teaching and teacher education over ten years. Teaching and teacher education, 27(1), 10-20.

Borg, S. (2011). The impact of in-service teacher education on language teachers' beliefs. System, 39(3), 370-380.

Danielewicz, J. (2014). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education. Suny Press.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. John Wiley & Sons.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Lieberman, A. (2013). Teacher education around the world: What can we learn from international practice?. In Teacher education around the world(pp. 165-183). Routledge.

Elliott, J. (Ed.). (2012). Reconstructing teacher education (Vol. 221). Routledge.

Forlin, C., & Chambers, D. (2011). Teacher preparation for inclusive education: Increasing knowledge but raising concerns. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 17-32.

Gay, G. (2010). Acting on beliefs in teacher education for cultural diversity. Journal of teacher education, 61(1-2), 143-152.

Hagger, H., McIntyre, D., & Wilkin, M. (Eds.). (2013). Mentoring: Perspectives on school-based teacher education. Routledge.

Harvey, M. W., Yssel, N., Bauserman, A. D., & Merbler, J. B. (2010). Preservice teacher preparation for inclusion: An exploration of higher education teacher-training institutions. Remedial and Special Education, 31(1), 24-33.

Korthagen, F. A. (2010). Situated learning theory and the pedagogy of teacher education: Towards an integrative view of teacher behavior and teacher learning. Teaching and teacher education, 26(1), 98-106.

McDonald, M., Kazemi, E., & Kavanagh, S. S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education: A call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 378-386.

Milner IV, H. R. (2010). What does teacher education have to do with teaching? Implications for diversity studies. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 118-131.

Nichols, J., Dowdy, A., & Nichols, C. (2010). Co-teaching: An educational promise for children with disabilities or a quick fix to meet the mandates of no child left behind?. Education, 130(4).

Smith, T. E., Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Dowdy, C. A. (2014). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (Vol. 6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Zeichner, K. (2012). The turn once again toward practice-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(5), 376-382.

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