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Report Objectives

Mayonnaise is consumed in high amount throughout the world a few centuries ago. Heinz Mayonnaise is a well-known salad dressing and can be used for various food service applications that have developed and changed surprisingly in recent years with natural, decreased calories and varieties. Research and development food manufacturing company produces research and development team at the company is developing a new range of low-cost, fast manufacture mayonnaise for food service applications. A base formulation for cold-hydrated, low-shear mayonnaise composition is supplied where the development team has optimized its formulation in marking rubric.

We have verified consistency in data of food processing between classification and analysis of different samples.  Particle size and viscosity analysis is conducted in sample with two phases (instant and commercial) of Heinz Mayonnaise. Heinz Mayonnaise has qualified for its sensory properties such as appearance, size, shape, taste intricacy and aroma that could be justified as smooth, chalky, powdery, grainy, gritty, lumpy and fibrous. The analysis textures the results of analysis, sensory assessment and advancement of Heinz Mayonnaise.

In the following experimental report, textual properties of Heinz Mayonnaise have observational or semi-empirical sensory assessment that is divided in two parts: analytical measurements (diagnostics test) and portray the product (graphical investigation). The report analysis reveals the rheological properties of the food that includes measuring the response of Heinz mayonnaise. We have analyzed the data of sample E (6) of product Heinz in this report in details. The viscosity measurements were taken two times each for instant and commercial mayonnaise of Heinz. Not only those, the particle properties and volumes were tabulated for four samples of Heinz Mayonnaise.

The objectives of the experimental research are –

  1. To identify appropriate methods and techniques that could be used to characterize the emulsion structure of the instant and the commercial mayonnaise samples of Heinz products.
  2. To use the techniques to determine the distribution of particle size of the instant mayo with varying Tween 80 concentrations.
  3. To use the techniques to determine the particle size distribution of the Heinz Lite mayo.
  4. To determine the influences on the emulsion stability of the instant mayo generation when Tween 80 concentration is reduced.
  5. To determine the interrelationships among shear stress, shear rate and viscosity to determine Viscosity analysis.
  6. To determine the distribution the volumes of particle of two phases of measurements of instant and commercial mayo of Heinz Products.

According to the workshop 3, we prepared the instant Mayo for Heinz product and analyzed the particle size. Then we found the commercial mayo of Heinz. The instant mayo in percentage of weight indicated that Starch (4), Xanthan gum (0.2), citric acid (0.3) and Canola oil (40) has equal percentage of weight in all the factors. However, Tween 80 is absent in second and fourth sample while Egg powder is present in second and third powder. Egg powder has equal weight (0.5) in rest of the sample except fifth sample (5%) but Tween 80 is not carrying equal weight as fifth sample has comparatively lesser weight (0.5 >0.1) than other samples in rest of the samples. We have added water in each sample of six batches of weight 300gm, where water is significantly low at fifth sample (50%).

A proportion of samples prepared would placed in a centrifuge tube (e.g. 30 gm in 50 mL) and centrifuged at 1,000 x g force to visually monitor for their properties and stability against phase separation, oiling off etc. The samples would also be analyzed visually for difference in their properties such as viscosity and textural properties.   

We found six kinds of mayo samples that are grouped in six alphabetical categories. They are respectively-

  1. Pam’s Classic Mayo (Whole). (FCLM)
  2. Best Foods; Real Mayonnaise. (BCM-BEST)
  3. Heinz Original mayonnaise. (CCM-HEINZ)
  4. Eta mayonnaise Original. (ACM)
  5. Heinz Lite Mayonnaise. (ECLM-HEINZ)
  6. Eta Lite and Free Mayonnaise. (DCM-ETA)

All of the mayo samples had two levels. One is instant mayo and other is the commercial mayo of the products.

Data description

Particle Size Analysis:- 

The global market of particle size analysis is expected to grow rapidly from 2001 to 2016. Particle size is introduced for comparing dimensions of flecks, droplets and bubbles. These could be colloidal and granular in nature. Particle size analysis is important in food industry. The knowledge of particle size is crucial in the food industry as it hampers the production and handling of ingredients and the formulation, processing and quality control of food and beverage products.

Size of particle influences reactivity and solubility of ingredients. The processing of food products applied to a wide variety of products including coffee, sugar, salt, flour, milk powder, chocolates and spices. Analytical techniques for measuring particle size range from traditional sieving and sedimentation to use from modern automated imaging and laser-based instrument. Image analysis and light scattering are the two major analysis procedure of particle analysis of Heinz product. The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a food is a list of values or a mathematical function that states the relative amount typically by mass of particles according to the size.

There are various methods for measuring particle size and distribution of particle size. Some of the processes are based on light, ultrasound, electric field, gravity and centrifugation. Particle size was analyzed using “Mastersizer”. Setting chambers, centrifugal collectors, fabric filters, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators and filter press are the collective devices used in analysis of particle size distribution.

Processes of Viscosity Analysis:- 

Particle size analysis is typically achieved by different technologies such as high definition imaging processing, analysis of Brownian motion, gravitational setting of the particles and light scattering of the particles.

  1. Microscopy:It provides the information about sizes and shapes along with statistically suitable description of particle size.
  2. SEM:It is the same advantageous as microscopy with 3D information and gives detailed information about morphology of particles.
  3. Laser Diffraction:It is a robust method for obtaining the overview of particle sizes.
  4. BET:A process for determining the surface area, particle shape. BET helps to distinguish between particle sizes of non-porous particles.
  5. Sieving Analysis:Very cheap equipment is useful for searching single large particles in the mixture. This time consuming method needs a large sample amount.

The viscosity of a fluid or colloid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. The informal concept of viscosity is “thickness” for liquids. A fluid that has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal or inviscid fluid. Zero viscosity is observed only at very low temperatures in superfluids. A liquid is said to be viscous if its viscosity is substantially greater than water.

Viscosity is a property of the fluid that opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving in different velocities. Viscosity was measured using “Rheometer”. All rheometers are manufactured for viscosity analysis. The machines should be sensitive, versatile and reliable. Innovation flow manufacturing methods and a highly-skilled work force of rheometers ensure high quality products with industry leading delivery times. The machines works with many factors such as minimum torque oscillation, maximum torque association, torque resolution, angular velocity range, frequency range, displacement resolution, axial force range, temperature of peltier plate, temperature of test chamber, concentric cylinder and electrically heated plate. 

We observed mainly six variables to interpret the conclusion about particle dynamics driven by the experiment of Heinz Mayonnaise . These are- Shear Stress, Shear rate, Viscosity, time, temperature and normal stress. Note that here, the temperature of all factors are fixed in 20°C. Normal stress is equal for all kinds of food preparation process (0).

Methodology

VARIABLE DESCRIPTION

D(v, 0.1)

The size of particle for which 10% of the sample is below this size.

D(v, 0.5)

The size of particle at which 50% of the sample is smaller and 50% is larger than this size. This value is also known as the Mass median diameter (MMD).

D(v, 0.9)

A size of particle for which 90% of the sample is below this size.

D[3,2]

Surface, volume mean diameter (Surface area mean diameter, also known as the Sauter mean)

D[4,3]

Volume mean diameter (based on number and diameter of particles)

Specific Surface Area (S.S.A)

The total surface area per unit volume of the particle calculated from the distribution.

Residual

The degree to which the scattering light calculated for the size distribution matches the measured light scattering (%).

Span

The measurement of the width of the distribution. The smaller the value the narrower the distribution. The width is calculated as: = D(0.9)-D(0.1) /D(0.5)

Concentration

This is the volume concentration. It is calculated from the Beer-Lambert law and is expressed as a percentage.

Obscuration

The measure of the laser light obscured by the sample (%) (light intensity with sample) (light intensity without sample)

Uniformity

The uniformity is a measure of the absolute deviation from the median.

 Table: A table describes the meaning of variables.

The texture of mayo was depicted using the traits of Shear stress, Shear rate and index of viscosity. Mayo texture estimations were incorporated with 35-mm diameter cylindrical probe. Four texture parameters involving shear stress, shear rate, viscosity index and preparation time were resolved in duplicate. The texture analyzer instrument measures the force required to produce or deform the food sample and the sample to be expelled around a piston disc. Technical Terms in case of methodology are described below as the background of analysis-

  1. pH measurement: The pH of the three instant mayonnaise formulations and the commercial mayonnaise products was measured using a pH meter calibrated with pH 7 buffer. The probe was inserted into each mayonnaise sample until the reading stabilized.
  2. Centrifugation of samples:Triplicates of all the mayonnaise samples were centrifuged using KendroMultifuge-Heraeus at 200C for 10 minutes in normal stress 0 at a speed of 1500 rpm.

The percentage of oil still in emulsion was calculated for each sample after centrifugation using below equation- 

  1. Sample Dilution:Phosphate Buffer (PB) and 0.1% Sodium Doceyl Sulphate (SDS), both with a pH of 2.8 were used as dilution solvents for the instant mayo sample and the Best Foods Lite Mayo product.
  2. Malvern Mastersizer Technique: A mastersizer was used to determine the particle size distribution of mayo sample. The diluted samples use both PB and SDS dilution solvents as Sample Dilution.
  3. Carl Zeiss Microscope Techniques:Each diluted sample as prepared following Sample Dilution was viewed under a Carl Zeiss microscope at 40x and 100x magnification. The microscope uses an Axio cam MRC camera and the microscope is an AxioStar plus florescent and light microscope.
  4. Mechanism of Sodium Docecyl Sulphate (SDS):SDS is an anionic surfactant used as a fat emulsifier in food products by reducing the surface tension. It is used as a wetting agent. The addition of SDS to the samples make the samples have the same pH. Therefore, it is expected that the particle size of the fat globules would be smaller in the mayonnaise samples where SDS is used.

Our chosen product is Heinz Mayonnaise (ECLM-HEINZ) which is actually the sample number E(6). In this experiment, mayonnaise base was formulated and analyzed using light scattering technique in which Mastersizer 2000 instrument was used to calculate the particle size of the mayonnaise sample. Rheometer measured viscosity of food particle. 300g batch for six different instant mayonnaise samples were prepared with different formulation.

A specific product with particular consistency has been given where viscosity and particle size was measured and compared with instant mayonnaise sample. The ingredients used to make mayonnaise samples were Vegetable oil (Canola oil), Ultratex 4 (starch), citric acid, Xanthan gum, Egg yolk powder, Tween 80, water and materials such as Plastic jar container, Top-pan balance, Plastic spoons and beakers were used.

  • Canola Oil                                                         -    Citric Acid                                                            - 1L Beaker
  • Xanthan Gum                                                    -     Water                                                                    -  2 * 500 mL Beakers
  • Egg Yolk Powder                                              -     Top-Plan Balance                                                  -   Beakers
  • Ulratex 4 (starch)                                               -     Ultra Turrax                                                          -  Metal Spoon
  • Tween 80                                                          -     Plastic jar container                                               -  Mixer           
  1. The dry ingredients for 6 different sample were weighed using a top-pan balance where Egg yolk powder, Xanthan gum, Ultratex 4 and Citric acid were mixed together in the 500-ml beaker.
  2. In a large beaker, Vegetable oil and Tween 80 were weighed and mixed together.
  3. All dry ingredients were mixed into the oil mixture to form slurry.
  4. Water was weighed into the beaker and slowly added to the oil mixture.
  5. To make a homogeneous thick emulsion with no visible oil, the oil mixture and dry ingredients were mixed at the same time thoroughly while shaking the sealed container.
  6. 300 g of each sample prepared was then placed in a centrifuge tube and centrifuged at 1000 ´g force to visually monitor for their properties and stability against phase separation, oiling off etc.
  7. All samples were visually analyzed for difference in their properties such as viscosity and texture. 

Table2: Concentration of different ingredients and formulation for making ‘instant mayonnaise’ (for 300 gm) Mayonnaise and sample 6 is HEINZ Lite Mayonnaise.

Sample/Stage

Before Storage                                                    

After Storage

Sample1

creamy, viscoelastic

no separation

Sample2

transparent, waxy, shiny, looks like gel, form lumps while shaking

Difference due to shaking, physically interrupt

Sample3

flowing, white in color, smooth

no phase separation

Sample4

waxy, shiny, smooth, fine

no phase separation

Sample5

oily (oil on surface), clumps, slightly yellow in color

oil on the top (bulk oil), not uniform in structure and texture because of phase separation

Sample6

(HEINZ)

yellow in color, thick, more viscous

 No Separation.

1st measurement

Viscosity data of instant mayonnaise

Measures

shear stress

shear rate

viscosity

time

temperature

normal stress

Pa

1/s

Pa.s

s

°C

Pa

103.4

2.457

42.09

10.036

20

0

120.5

4.947

24.37

20.028

20

0

138.3

7.465

18.53

30.028

20

0

148.9

9.983

14.92

40.036

20

0

151.7

12.49

12.15

50.028

20

0

161.2

14.87

10.84

60.056

20

0

178.3

17.41

10.24

70.028

20

0

189.1

19.94

9.483

80.032

20

0

198

22.4

8.839

90.028

20

0

206.1

24.95

8.258

100.03

20

0

214.2

27.53

7.783

110.03

20

0

220.9

29.89

7.393

120.03

20

0

228

32.39

7.041

130.05

20

0

235.2

34.9

6.74

140.08

20

0

241.4

37.41

6.453

150.03

20

0

248.5

39.98

6.215

160.03

20

0

253.6

42.48

5.97

170.02

20

0

258.8

44.87

5.768

180.02

20

0

264.2

47.4

5.574

190.02

20

0

269.5

49.87

5.405

200.06

20

0

275

52.45

5.242

210.03

20

0

279.5

54.92

5.089

220.02

20

0

282.4

57.45

4.916

230.03

20

0

285.3

59.86

4.767

240.03

20

0

293.2

62.38

4.7

250.03

20

0

299.4

64.88

4.615

260.03

20

0

306.3

67.38

4.546

270.03

20

0

309.6

69.91

4.428

280.05

20

0

314

72.41

4.336

290.02

20

0

318.4

74.85

4.255

300.02

20

0

Mean

233.096667

38.6707333

9.03186667

155.033

20

0

Standard Deviation

61.7535619

21.9859042

7.72582116

88.0322248

0

0

Table: The summary of 1st measurement of instant mayo of Viscosity data of Heinz Product. 

2nd measurement

Viscosity data of instant mayonnaise

Measures

shear stress

shear rate

viscosity

time

temperature

normal stress

Pa

1/s

Pa.s

s

°C

Pa

112

2.407

46.51

10.02

20

0

123.9

4.958

24.98

20.02

20

0

127.7

7.476

17.08

30.02

20

0

146.7

9.977

14.7

40.02

20

0

160

12.39

12.92

50.02

20

0

165.6

14.89

11.12

60.024

20

0

180.8

17.45

10.36

70.028

20

0

191.8

19.97

9.606

80.02

20

0

201

22.46

8.947

90.028

20

0

209.1

24.94

8.384

100.02

20

0

216.1

27.34

7.904

110.02

20

0

222.9

29.86

7.467

120.02

20

0

229.6

32.38

7.092

130.03

20

0

235.3

34.95

6.732

140.04

20

0

241.5

37.44

6.45

150.03

20

0

247.2

39.94

6.19

160.02

20

0

255.5

42.47

6.015

170.02

20

0

261.8

44.86

5.836

180.02

20

0

263.8

47.37

5.568

190.02

20

0

269.6

49.89

5.405

200.03

20

0

272.8

52.4

5.206

210.06

20

0

278.4

54.93

5.068

220.02

20

0

282

57.29

4.922

230.02

20

0

287.3

59.83

4.802

240.02

20

0

293.1

62.37

4.699

250.02

20

0

301

64.88

4.64

260.02

20

0

305.1

67.41

4.527

270.02

20

0

309.1

69.92

4.421

280.02

20

0

314.8

72.42

4.347

290.03

20

0

318.5

74.8

4.258

300.03

20

0

Mean

234.133333

38.6556

9.2052

155.024333

20

0

Standard Deviation

60.8713643

21.9835957

8.38393382

88.0353656

0

0

 Table: The summary of 2nd measurement of instant mayo of Viscosity data of Heinz Product.

1st measurements

Viscosity data of Heinz

Measures

shear stress

shear rate

viscosity

time

temperature

normal stress

Pa

1/s

Pa.s

s

°C

Pa

167.7

2.47

67.92

10.024

20

0

176.1

4.991

35.28

20.024

20

0

174.4

7.511

23.22

30.048

20

0

178.1

9.897

18

40.028

20

0

186.2

12.42

14.99

50.02

20

0

196.1

14.94

13.13

60.02

20

0

206.3

17.5

11.79

70.028

20

0

209

19.99

10.45

80.02

20

0

210.8

22.47

9.38

90.024

20

0

208.6

24.93

8.365

100.02

20

0

211.1

27.41

7.702

110.05

20

0

210.5

29.89

7.041

120.02

20

0

215.2

32.43

6.635

130.04

20

0

217.5

34.98

6.219

140.02

20

0

219.6

37.47

5.861

150.02

20

0

221.9

39.87

5.565

160.02

20

0

225

42.38

5.309

170.04

20

0

228.2

44.9

5.082

180.06

20

0

230.3

47.42

4.857

190.02

20

0

233

49.98

4.662

200.02

20

0

236.1

52.43

4.502

210.02

20

0

239.1

54.85

4.36

220.02

20

0

241.8

57.35

4.217

230.02

20

0

244

59.88

4.074

240.02

20

0

246.8

62.36

3.958

250.03

20

0

248.9

64.92

3.834

260.02

20

0

251.9

67.44

3.735

270.02

20

0

254.3

69.8

3.643

280.02

20

0

256.5

72.36

3.545

290.02

20

0

258.9

74.88

3.457

300.02

20

0

Mean

220.13

38.6706333

10.3594333

155.025867

20

0

Standard Deviation

25.9787864

21.9745531

12.8877311

88.0317034

0

0

 Table: The summary of 1st measurement of commercial mayo of Viscosity data of Heinz Product.

2nd measurements

Viscosity data of Heinz

Measures

shear stress

shear rate

viscosity

time

temperature

normal stress

Pa

1/s

Pa.s

s

°C

Pa

96.62

2.498

38.68

10.04

20

0

106

5.013

21.14

20.036

20

0

111.5

7.408

15.05

30.036

20

0

111.3

9.92

11.22

40.04

20

0

111.3

12.41

8.962

50.04

20

0

121.9

14.95

8.156

60.032

20

0

128.2

17.51

7.321

70.032

20

0

132.3

19.97

6.625

80.032

20

0

136.2

22.41

6.078

90.032

20

0

139.3

24.9

5.596

100.03

20

0

142.3

27.44

5.185

110.04

20

0

144.7

29.97

4.829

120.04

20

0

147.1

32.48

4.529

130.05

20

0

149.6

34.99

4.276

140.04

20

0

151.9

37.32

4.069

150.04

20

0

154

39.9

3.861

160.04

20

0

156

42.41

3.678

170.04

20

0

157.9

44.93

3.516

180.03

20

0

159.7

47.43

3.368

190.07

20

0

161.6

50

3.232

200.06

20

0

163.2

52.37

3.117

210.04

20

0

164.9

54.83

3.007

220.04

20

0

166.6

57.39

2.902

230.03

20

0

168.2

59.9

2.808

240.04

20

0

169.9

62.39

2.723

250.03

20

0

171.4

64.96

2.639

260.04

20

0

172.9

67.33

2.568

270.04

20

0

174.5

69.86

2.498

280.03

20

0

175.9

72.34

2.432

290.04

20

0

177.5

74.84

2.371

300.03

20

0

Mean

147.480667

38.6689667

6.54786667

155.038667

20

0

Standard Deviation

23.3467661

21.9748774

7.34315494

88.0345548

0

0

Table: The summary of 2nd measurement of commercial mayo of Viscosity data of Heinz Product.

Conclusion:- 

We assumed that in case of Heinz Mayonnaise, the particles are spherical; the volume of each of the larger particles is 1000 times the volume of each of the smaller particles. A sample consists of only 2 sizes of particles, 50% by number having diameter of 10 microns in the sample E.

In case of viscosity analysis, the measures (mean, standard deviation and range) of Shear stress have increased in most of the cases than decrement. These measures of Shear rate have decreased and increased with competition. These measures of Viscosity has generally increased rather than decreased. All of these measures are compared that changed from before stage (Instant Mayo) to after stage (Commercial Mayo). The mean of shear stress and viscosity has increased whereas shear stress has decreased from 1st measurement to 2nd measurement of instant mayo. The standard deviations of shear rate and shear stress have decreased and viscosity has increased from 1st measurement to 2nd measurement of instant mayo. The mean of shear stress, viscosity and shear stress has decreased from 1st measurement to 2nd measurement of commercial mayo. The standard deviations of viscosity and shear stress have decreased and shear rate has increased from 1st measurement to 2nd measurement of commercial mayo.

From observation between instant and commercial Mayo of Heinz, the overall comparison of the formulated and commercial mayonnaise sample6 indicates “no separation” between two stages. The oil content and thickener agent has an important effect on the Heinz mayonnaise texture that subsequently influences the firmness and consistence of the product sample.

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