Slide 1: Introduction
The Cialdini’s principles have proved critical in defining and influencing a individual’s behavior (Cialdini, 2009). Without a doubt, they are triangulated on social factors thus viewed as common forces. These forces act on human behaviors to influence human thinking (Duncan, Miller, Wampold, & Hubble, 2010). Power and influence are the defining factors in these principles (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). These factors are focusing on social independence, control, and identity. The sense of control ensures an individual adopts a model or belief that can help them in their work. Social independence is evident where people learn everything via experience. This is evident through patients who have to pay visit to therapists to seek solace. This shows the level of power they wield but depend on the professional therapists or counselors to support them. For a professional therapist, it is important to develop a self-belief and sense of identity.
Slide 2: Authority
When an individual has authority, he or she can dictate the activities and behaviors expected in the society. Such people tend to give orders to be followed and not questioned (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). The people in the lower societal echelon should take the orders from those wielding power. With individuals at the top, it becomes possible to control the situation. Nevertheless, authority is achievable where there is social dependence, social conformance, and trust. In reality, the specialization concept experienced today is a demonstration of authority. It implies that an individual has a unique knowledge to perform a specific task. Such a person would serve others who rarely qualify to handle cases in such a field (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). The society also promotes authority because of the creation of hierarchical control. This ensures the chain of command becomes clear.
Slide 3: Authority in Counselling Process
In therapy, the relationship created depends on the type of power. Both client and therapist wield role power. This is based on the authority where the counselor is allowed to define the problem of the client. The therapist is also having power in the society or organization that has entrusted such a professional to handle therapy (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). Without a doubt, the inequality power is evident between client and therapist. Historical and societal power is also evident in therapy. The societal power emerges from the structural positions based on age or gender. On the other hand, historical power results from the personal histories or experiences. For instance, the client would have an experience of powerlessness. It is thus important to increase awareness and structural identifies to assistant clients.
Slide 4: Disempowering Patients
The authority concept gives the therapists an opportunity to disempower client so that such a person can provide every information. Through personal-centered view, the counselor would wear the client’s shoes thus try to understand and interpret. Most importantly, the diction used is essential in unearthing and getting relevant information (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). In this situation, the counselor seems to disempower the client to enable him or her unleash all the requirements. Indeed, it is all about language and power thus allow them to interrogate the situation. According to Rogers and Rogers (2012), the language used mused bear cultural-specific values to reinforce the client’s individualized construction.
Slide 5: Evaluation of Authority
Ethics without power is unimaginable. The power differential is a platform that has helped many people to influence the followers or clients. In counseling, the aspects of power differential are indisputable. For instance, the therapist can use the power differential to influence the clients. Rogers and Rogers (2012) held that, institutions have established ethical behaviors that are meant to check the power differentials. However, the power differentials have created negative and positive impacts. Patients would seek therapy from people with extreme and professional skills to handle their situation. However, the counselors can take the opportunity to exploit them.
Slide 6: Power Inequality
Ordinarily, power is important in controlling the situation. It has proved nearly impossible for an individual without power to influence others. Therapist should have control over the client because such a professional is required to set the environment and help in developing the situation. The power differential roles are that of a counselor, mediator, therapists, or social worker (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). Based on the power differentials, the therapist or counselor appears to wield more power thus can control or influence the client. The client would always agree to the demands of the counselor even if such demands were unpalatable. It thus implies that the authority lies with the counselor rather than the client leading to power inequality during counseling.
Slide 7: Impact of Authority
Therapists are professionals who wield personal power (Rogers & Rogers, 2012). They can use the power professionally or abuse. Since their work is self-directed, they can use the humanistic approach to influence the counseling. Professionally, the person-centered counseling rarely requires specific techniques. This leaves everything at the counselor’s discretion. As a result, the therapist would respond in any situation depending on his or her decision. Since counselor wields more power than client does, it is possible for such a person to influence the opinion of the client. For instance, when a client seeks a solution regarding depression, the counselor would apply the theories and practical experience to convince the client. As such, the counselor shall have used his or her authority to change the psychological orientation of the patient.
Slide 8: Therapuetic Alliance Outcome
The therapeutic relationship or alliance indicates the existing alliance between a client and therapist. The success of a counseling process depends on the relationship created by the stakeholders. Under such an alliance, the counselor and client define their relationship perspective (Green, 2010). Without a doubt, the therapeutic alliance is founded on the feeling and attitudes that both client and counselor express (Norcross, 2010). The therapeutic alliance works upon the establishment of a strong bond between client and counselor. Nothing fruitful can come out of a counseling process without partnership. The humanistic approach requires the input of both the patient and therapists. With the input of client, the therapist would determine the best approach to handle the situation. Therefore, a positive therapeutic alliance leads to a positive outcome.
Slide 9: Conti
Therapeutic alliance has proved critical in establishing acceptable media of engagement. Given the power he wields, the counselor has powers to influence the client on the modalities of engagement (Norcross, 2010). In the therapeutic pyramid, the therapist is at the center of activities. Notwithstanding, the therapeutic alliance defines the relationship between the client and counselor. It is thus important in the counseling process as they find an amicable position to solve the problem. Client motivation and therapeutic alliance have transformed the counseling process. Without a doubt, the therapeutic model shows how factor interact to produce change or wellbeing. The hierarchical relationship evident in the pyramid shows that the therapist should have relevant skills and techniques to improve the counseling outcome.
Slide 10: Importance of positive clinical
The therapeutic alliance is important in the clinical process. Since counselors are involved in solving the issues affecting individuals, the therapists must be ready to address the concerns of clients. In most cases, the client can request for an emotionally focused therapy. However, the counselor has the authority and influence over the strategy to handle the case. With proper alliances build between clients and therapists, it is possible for the affected parties to benefit from the systematic and humanistic experiential to solve chronic diseases, such as anxiety, depression, and stress (Norcross, 2010). The impact of psychotherapy and counseling are inevitable and can rarely be compared to other medications. For example, people experiencing psychological problems can only benefit from the psychological therapies. Therefore, the accessibility of the therapies program will positively influence the patients.
Slide 11: Abuse of power in counselling relationship
The clients have proved to be vulnerable and powerless when they attend therapy. The counselors depend on the transference to exploit and influence clients into accepting their views. Some counselors use the transference to misuse their powers while attending to clients in the counseling room (Sarkar, 2009). For instance, the counselor can use the transference and countertransference to exploit the client. This is dangerous and compromises the ethical practices. Power is the ability of an individual to influence a situation or others. Unfortunately, when an individual abuses power, it can harm. Nonetheless, the therapist should use the power to facilitate self-actualization and growth.
Slide 12: Conti
Erotic transference and countertransference are some unethical practices evident in the counseling room. The therapist may seek affection and love from a client. Since the counselor has influence over the client, the possibility of hoodwinking such a client into accepting the sexual advances is high. However, this unethical practice is unacceptable in the field. The problem of affection affects the clients as it instills anxiety, fear, bereavement, abandonment, and neglect (Nuland, n.d). Apart from therapist abusing power, some clients are physically stronger than the counselor is thus threatening the therapists. Such clients are sociopathetic, psychopathetic, litigious, or mafia-related. For instance, the borderline personality disorder patients have exhibited coercive power thus stalking the counselors.
Slide 13: Eroticism
Eroticism is past of human fantasy life this is because everyone has sexual feelings directed towards the counselor. Given the nature of this transference, the client can demand for sexual intercourse. Under such circumstances, the client or therapist would use the opportunity to satisfy crave real happiness (Prochaska, Norcross, & DiClemente, 2013). There is nothing sinister when the patient or therapist engages in love affairs. However, the circumstance could compromise the situation. The worst side of this erotic transference could exhibit hatred. Erotic transference rarely occurs, but if it happens, the patient’s diagnosis must have been considered. Inappropriate touching of the client would discredit therapy. In most cases, the therapeutic process presents difficulties to counselor and client.
Slide 14: Confidentiality
The professional ethics guiding the stakeholders is based on confidentiality. The only binding agreement or contract between them is the aspects of privacy. This compels the counselor to avoid disclosing any information to a third party without the consent of clients. In fact, everything shared should remain confidential (Wampold, 2010). However, the therapist can use this situation to influence or exploit the client. The counselor can thus exploit the vulnerable client and exploit beyond the reproach. Counselor has a unique responsibility to maintain confidential information of clients. In psychotherapy and counseling, the therapist is required to stick to codes of ethics regarding confidentiality. Therefore, the mental health counselors should stick to this ethical conducts in creating, maintaining, storing, transferring, and disposing the records of patients. The counselor should thus protect the client’s confidentiality based on the applicable regulations. It implies clients have the right to confidentiality especially when seeking the mental health counseling services.
Slide 15: Conclusion
Authority and power are influential in the counseling process. As demonstrated in this presentation, client and therapist should create a therapeutic alliance to facilitate positive outcomes. This implies that each stakeholder has to stick to his/her power without interfering with others. Any misuse of power would create disquiet among the stakeholders.
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