1. identify and formulate insightful responses to contemporary issues impacting their field
2. communicate information clearly and fluently, in high quality formats appropriate for a professional audience
3. critically reflect on personal, social, emotional and practical issues of managing and leading a self-directed project
Course intended learning outcomes (CILOs) This subject also contributes specifically to the following program learning objectives:critically analyse complex theoretical business concepts and apply them in a global context (1.1)
Use relevant information and data from academic and professional sources to critically analyse complex issues in
busines use oral communication appropriately in a professional context to convey information clearly and fluentlyapply broad technical and professional skills effectively within management practice execute a substantial research-based or professionally focused management project.
Related Definitions of Expatriate Failure
As a matter of fact, Harzing (2002) supports the idea by claiming that this effect would be as a result of referencing mistakes which reflecting back to previous researches unlike focusing on a specific observed data. It implies that extensive research has to be conducted in order to evaluate expatriate failure extent. Therefore, more related definitions should be focused on expatriate failure rather that “premature returns” (Forster, 1997).
According to the paper it is suggested that various strategies such as knowledge from the expatriates not by home country, executing international assignments, and repatriation problems should be analyzed in order to come up with the clear definition of expatriate failure (Wilson and Dalton, 1998). The mentioned strategies are essential in determining the fruitfulness of an expatriate program although they are unduly ignored. Below is an illustration international assignment which creates expatriates.
Actually, expatriation is a known observation within the corporations of the western to the southeast countries in Asia. This is because most researchers have proven that there are a great number of expatriate failures of employees because their family members or they are not willing enough to be linked with such events. The huge number of topics on expatriate administration is rather not astonishing due to the significance of the topic among most individuals. According to Adami, (2000).
due to the diversion in the world’s technological levels, all organizations should employ a strategy that should be to curb expatriate failure related problems. Due to this, data and skill sharing employs the use of expatriation that can be embarked on (Pineda, 2010). Because this concept is essential for the success of most organizations, its use has instituted the need of implementing most sure and unique methods which can be used in the process of expatriate supervision.
Conversely, it is thus exhibited that the present models are not in a position of attaining such objectives. This is because the initial expatriate failure literatures specifically was carried out some years back, mainly is centered within Asian countries, and also comprises of insufficient experimental proofs. Perhaps, the important expatriate failure research analysis carried out was by (Worland-Esquith, 2005).
The researches involvement is very essential due to certain queries of the use of various variables centered on both the internal and the external environmental changes late in the nineties. Regardless of such, various expatriate failure literature institute the use of this factors which it employs it as a primary factor in support of such opinions (Wilson and Dalton, 1998). As a result, this deteriorates the validity of the present literatures under study. Therefore its creates more need for research in this discipline since the study of expatriate failure is very toning in evaluating the degree of expatriate failure in most firms.
Strategies for Defining Expatriate Failure
According to Kang and Shen, (2017), they all explain the term expatriate failure centered on ranges of untimely arrivals compared to other literatures which are more simple and false. Therefore, the utilization of such a terms (expatriation) will stand to that point where the global assignment to this question will end. On the other hand, all this is not vindicated since there is no contemplation of some dependent factors which are significant during the process of producing a fruitful reflection and additional factors which might be useful in producing a good global image. Some relevant elements such as, repatriates skills, undervaluing skills, repatriation problems, and attaining performance targets are elements which explain the failure or success of expatriation (A. N. and G., 2014). The factors mentioned are essential in determining expatriate failure of success of employing and will be analyzed in the paper.
- What is expatriate failure?
- What are the major factors influencing expatriate failure of employees in the western and south Asian countries?
- What are the main hindrances of expatriation on global assignments?
- What are the additional factors influencing expatriation failure?
In the data collection process we used secondary data which included the use of books, the internet and online articles available. Vast research was executed in the wide field of expatriate failure of employees in Asian countries. Moreover, in our research project there was need of carrying out a compound literature review which enabled us familiarize with how various expatriates are selected and trained before they go to the Asian countries. Common frameworks and schemes were selected that provided deep explanation about expatriates selection and their training. In addition it was essential in reviewing some past frameworks and models because they provided an open platform for accessing recent theories about the problem.
Various prominent scholars used in our study include Busin (2015), Adami (2000), Andresen, Goldmann and Volodina (2017), Dreyer, (2017). The mentioned scholars are few of those who have carried out research and data analysis in this sector. In the research process we investigated various known training and selection techniques. Earlier while studying on the literature, much attention was focused on analyzing the frameworks and models that comprised of most training and selection process. Logically, there was no framework, theory, or model that was most favorable in the process of analyzing the training and selection approaches. For this reason, on appropriate selection model known as the Ronen’s model and an additional training model (Black and Mendenhall’s model) were included as part of our data collection process.
Findings and Discussions
Busin (2015) evaluated various selection process of expatriates in his research. He carried a practical study on sixty Asian multinational cooperation’s and thus came up with important conclusions that are very important in the current organizational trends. He thus pointed out type of selection methods which are important forecasters of expatriate failure of employees in south East Asian countries. These predictors include:
- Technical knowhow while at work
- Individual characteristics
- Ecological variables and
- Family circumstances
On the other hand, Mendenhall and Oddou designed a structured scheme based on the 60 Asian multinational cooperation which critically investigated employees’ characters which aided them in the choosing of best members who will be part of the expatriation process (meeting international assignments) (Kisslo, 1998). Different dimensions were selected which include:
- Self oriented dimension
- Perceptual dimension
- Others-oriented dimension
- Cultural toughness dimension
The stated four dimensions set off the capability evaluation and initial skills and knowledge of employees. Therefore, assimilation of these dimensions is an essential process in determining the expatriates weaknesses and strengths. However, Oddou and Mendenhall’s might not be appropriate. It also comprises of various restrictions. This is because it does not put into consideration various family circumstances which an important factor is resulting to expatriate failure of employees (Dreyer, 2017).
Also a use model employed in our study is the Ronen’s model which is directly linked to Busin’s findings (Busin, 2015). In his research he explains 5 sections features that determine expatriation success or failure. Additionally, there are other unique fundamentals which are linked to this features which are exhibited in the table below:
- Occupational Factors
- Relational Dimensions
- Motivational State
- Family circumstances
- Language Knowhow
The above mentioned dimensions are useful in aiding expatriates acquire higher perception of global assignment success, unlike other initial selection methods that are only centered on technological competency. Dissimilar from Mendenhall and Oddou technique (Beši?, A. and Ortlieb, R. 2018), Ronen framework does not point out specific techniques which can be employed in determining respective candidate based on each individual selection method.
According to the models presented it is validated that expatriate success can be enhanced by individuals having a positive attitude and perception. This can be shown through various prospects that individual expatriates perceived concerning the related global assignments that have shown to play an important role in their triumph (Mendenhall and Oddou, 1983). Prior to their respective global posting these expatriates were asked about their expectations and thus said that there will be a change in the cultural behavior and the work will be fascinating. The slightest expectations they stated was that they would have higher salaries on the other hand their relationship level will be low (Pimonratanakan et al., 2017).
Ronen’s models shows some factors such as incapability of adjusting, failure of learning new ideas were enough evaluation elements in determining the extent of expatriation failure among employees in western and south East Asian countries (SHAY, 1997). Consequently, each respondent were asked how does their home multinational cooperation’s evaluate their success, they all said it is based on the accomplishment of the tasks objectives. Less number of participants suggested that not satisfying the organizational set objectives was said to be expatriate failure but 4 of the participants did not agree on it.
Findings and Discussions
This is because they said the factors such as the incapacity of adjusting will precisely suite the problem. Therefore, this shows a clear difference of how most expatriate firms substantiate the term expatriate failure as a whole (Mendenhall and Oddou, 1985). The proposal is partly supported since expatriates reported that most home countries analyze the achievement of their related tasks based on the capability of attaining respective aims.
Mendellhall’s method analyzed home firms in and found out that about 9/15 home firms did not negotiate with their expatriates that repatriation process before their departure in meeting their respective international tasks (Mendenhall and Oddou, 1988). Although, 11 expatriates said that if they had the chance of familiarizing with the repatriation process it would have reduced the risk of experiencing cultural fright, and thus would have assisted them in coping with the surrounding environmental conditions (Martinko and Douglas, 1999).
Additionally, half of the employees acknowledged that their attained knowledge and skills were highly cherished in their home firms. Though when questioned if they contemplated that firm’s identification ability of their abilities would help in minimizing repatriate turnover most of the participants responded positively to the question.
Using Ronen’s models technical problems from home countries is the main factor that affects expatriate failure in Asia. On the other hand it is said that expatriates went to Asian countries due to their abilities of exhibiting awesome technical abilities in their home firms which resulted to them being sent in the western and eastern Asian countries to accomplish certain assignments. Yet there was no negative results based on the quality of the global assignments they were assigned to execute (Oddou and Mendenhall, 1991).
Thus there was no sufficient support of this scheme. Additionally, 11 expatriates recorded that they had acquired pre-departure training while the other 4 expatriates claimed that they had not received them yet. Examples of these pre-departure trainings included reconnaissance, business debates, assignment related brochures, CCT, and other documents. Most of the participants replied in a positive manner when questioned about the aiding expatriates while they are adjusting to the new environment in the Asian countries.
Present research on expatriate failure of employees lacks proper and well structured interview questions thus it was appropriate for the designing of new questions on the topic (Zhang, Harzing and Fan, 2018).. Basically, the main aim of the interviews formulated was aimed at determining the 9 propositions mentioned in the paper. The designation of the question were sought to be open-ended rather than being leading in a way. The main objectives of the questions were set out to explaining expatriation and its failure of employees in the west and south east of Asia respectively (Gilmore, 1986). On the contrary the spouses questions designed mainly aimed at acquiring each spouses’ responses and the way every expatriates views or sees expatriate failure in Asia.
First a pilot test was carried which comprised of a spouse and a repatriate, this was to determine if the questions designed and used were easy to comprehend and its usage based on the context on our study. Additionally, after a pilot test was carried out two questions which are questions 7 and 10 were added to the expatriated interview questions which aided in attaining undeviating responses from every respondent. In the research data collection section, expatriates and repatriates responses data was accumulated and assembled. In occasions when expatriates were repatriates then repatriation interviews were employed in order to acquire data of how their respective organizations are handling the problem (Wang and Varma, 2017).
According to the research it was deduced that is the responses will be the same as the data collected in the recent past then it was certain that in the near future the same responses will be achieved. The acquired data was presented and calculated in excel form based on the number of interviewers and whether it was an expatriate or spouse interviewed ((Silbiger et al., 2016). Each respective response was recorded. Any answer that occurred twice was identified and recorded down. Additionally various patterns and trends of the data was carefully recorded and presented. For the unknown expatriates their data was collected and direct quotes were used for their case which is shown in the findings section. The selected quotes were astute and shown clear proof of the sustenance of certain prospects.
The paper used two ways in collecting data which included: the use of emailed response and personal interviews. The interviews were carried out in a form of a semi-structured format which permitted every researcher to increase conversing with respective participant and also gave each prospective participant the chance of providing more data which they assumed to the relevant and accurate based on topic in question (Mann and Stewart, 2000). The interviewing session were agreed upon with the personal interviews taped and consequently transcribed. The use of tape recording mechanism aided the researcher on concentrating more on the quality of the responses rather that the writing which boosted the quality and accuracy of the results.
During the data collection period each respondent was shown a plain language statement and were requested to ask any related question based on the activity. Consequently, every respondent was permitted to have a look on the full transcript of the questions interviewed before the results were gathered by the researchers. There was signing of the consent forms prior the commencement of the interviewing sessions (Echols, 2000).
If there was need of any further assortments additional interview questions were asked while other common interviews just followed the same structure. In the interviews the last and the second questions permitted the expatriates to add any additional data about the topic with the last question targeting the expatriates to provide any finding about the research paper. Each respective interview took about forty minutes respectively.
The second mode of data collection technique was the use of emailed responses which was use in indentifying the interview queries. Every relevant data pertaining to the research topic was emailed to each respective respondent prior the data collection period in order to make sure that every respondent was aware of the topic and questions they were to be asked. About 20 people were emailed and about 15 people were responsive. The expatriates who complied emailed back within a period of 2-3 weeks and validated that they were aware of the content. This method of data collection was selected by the researcher due to various merits it comprised of (Harzing and Pinnnington, 2011). Below are some of its advantages:
- Can obtain a vast sample group – This technique aided in simplifying the findings to more people.
- It was cost effective and time saving – most precisely used when personal interviews was required
- Permitted each respective respondent answer question within their own time frame and pace – this made it easy for acquiring well figured and in depth analysis of the responses
Through the suggestion of the researcher’s guide 3 expatriates were found. Additionally, the acquired expatriates were asked if they were familiar of any spouse, or expatriate who would be fascinated in engaging in the research scheme. Every expatriates assisted by personal contact with their relatives and friends who would be interested in the project. Nonetheless it was rather much difficult identifying individuals who would love engaging themselves in personal interviews. The common problem in the research was the process of finding the participants and specifically in common place where the interview was to take place. Generally, it was sometimes relative easier to achieve a participants willingness there was a chance of conveying the message via a mobile phone.
Research data from the book, ‘Emerging Asian economies and MNCs strategies’ written by Andre?osso-O'Callaghan, B. and Taylor, R. 2016 showed that expatriates agreed they requested a venue where they could be interviewed individually. Gathering of participants for personal interviews was cumbersome compared to the use of emailed responses. This due to the fact that there were no mobility issues with emailed responses compared to personal responses. The expatriate’s associations and institutions were consulted and thus delivered quality help. Every participant thus understood the questions and was much happier to answer the question in a concise manner. In particular, the responses were in depth and of quality validating the relevancy of the use of a qualitative model in this research proposal
I have not forgotten the important event that I experience while at work with expatriation being a major challenge affecting the present organization I worked for. Below is my human story:
I worked as a secretary in my home country organization for about five years. The managerial staffs regarded me as the best of all since I always offered my best while at work. In my sixth year in the organization some investors came and proposed in cooperating with the company. This provided an awesome opportunity for various employees since the investors wished to take the firms employees in the overseas markets. Luckily.
I was selected to be among the employees. I therefore became an expatriate and went in the overseas markets to work. After my contract was over I was back in the country and understood that expatriation is good although it has various challenges such as coping with the tradition/culture, environment which sometimes makes other people come back before end of contract which results to expatriate failure.
According to the research it has clearly portrayed the expatriate failure of employees both in western and south East Asia based on premature boundaries. Therefore various expatriates have discovered that there are certain factors such as devaluation of repatriate’s knowledge levels, insufficient family assimilation methods, not achieving certain objectives, and the problems in adjusting various environmental changes which precisely evidently are proofs that explain expatriate failure of employee.
It is an important component since it provides the need of analyzing other existing researches that explains expatriate failure of employees in Asia. There are certain chances of environmental adjustments expatriates and their family members which should be prioritized.
This factor is thus considered to be one common reason of expatriate failure of employees in western and eastern Asia which should be discussed immediately. Vast range of research encompassing the present problem has exhibited the significance of expatriate family globally and also has stated it accomplishments. It will thus have long term impacts on the organization. Because of various accompanying challenges experienced by various spouses during expatriation in Asia,
therefore firms have restricted basis of not allocating much time and concentration proactively in aiding the correspondent’s spouses and family members with the target of reducing expatriate failure levels. The inadequacy of headquarter aid while in expatriation is the major reason why expatriate failure continues to be a major problem globally centered on both personal and business settings.
The research has presented the fact that there is high demand on the focus of expatriate failure of employees which should be analyzed immediately. Though huge numbers of people comment that expatriate failure is diminishing rapidly due to some unknown reasons. Yet home companies are focusing an essential factor which determines that success of the international assignments while neglecting the training sessions which aids the expatriates in adjusting the environmental surroundings.
Most ambiguous words used are a vital aspect that makes most individuals consider it difficult in comprehending the subject in a concise manner. Unluckily, expatriate failure is now considered as a premature return based on the in depth analysis on the issue. Due to this, expatriate failure will be defined centered on the stated explanation.
Ineffective expatriate management is speculated to have negative reputations to a given company, an individual or group. In consideration to expatriate expenses, the value under consideration can be both psychological and financial. In reference to an organization’s point of view concerning expatriate failures, According to a recent research conducted by the foreign council of research, a cost estimation of staffing choices was thought to be approximately 1.2 million dollars. According to the research, indirect revenue is hard and nearly impossible to retrieve over a short time frame. This is due to the fact that these costs cause negative effects to the company. These effects include diminishing of the market, loss of opportunities and lowering of the company's brand image. In reference to traditional analysis of expatriate, it is recorded that three fundamental areas should be considered.
According to the research’s findings it has been determined that explaining expatriate failure based on one basic factor can be inappropriate, ambiguous, and inadequate. Being reluctant with the present literature which points out the fault will precisely lead in the gathering of data that is narrowed to both the expatriates and the practitioners themselves. Being in a position of determining relevant techniques and strategies of expatriate failure would results in the changes in perception of expatriate failure globally. Since this problem has become dominant with respect to expatriate failure, the main importance of the home company duty has thus promoted the concept of expatriate failure.
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