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Australian economy is considered to be one of the most developed economies in the world. It has a mixed market system in their economy where all types of market system are present. It is also known as one of the wealthiest economy in the world with most of people living above normal standard. It is also the 12th largest economy of the world according to its GDP and 19th largest economy of the world measured by PPP. It is also known for exporting maximum amount of goods to other countries. The major industry of the economy is the service sector comprising about 71 percent of the total GDP. The currency in which exchange takes place in Australia is Australian Dollars. However, this immensely developed country has gone through a number of changes over the years in its GDP rate, employment rate, inflation and other major economic variables. It has trade relations with Chile, China, Korea, and Malaysia and may other countries.
The report will analyze the current performance of the Australian economy based on various economic variables. It analyses the effect of these variables on the economy by visualizing its trends over the years. Further, it will discuss about some the effect of the present situation of the Australian economy on its future growth. The future forecast will be done on the next six months.
Australian economy has been growing over the years on each ground such as GDP, employment, export, import and other factors. It is a free market economy and as not been effected by recession over the last 25 years. The country is also fully opened to foreign industries which is giving rise to foreign competition. It is also assumed as one of the most attractive country for investment for big investors. The country is well advanced and the people are very open to changes and growth. Government of the country sets the tax rates, which is presently standing at 45 percent for income tax and 30 percent for corporate tax. Government of Australia plays a good role in investing good amount in the Australian industry. Presently the government contributes 37 percent of the tote GDP of the country.
The GDP of the country was at $ 1204.62 billion in 2016, which shows that the GDP has decreased from the past year. The country experienced a GDP of $ 1345.38 billion in 2015, which is again less than the previous years. The GDP of the country was maximum in 2012 at a rate of $ 1567.18 billion. Since then the GDP is seemed to be decreasing continuously. The country has experienced a fluctuating GDP rate over the years.
It can be seen that the GDP of the country has increased initially from 2010 till 2013 and since then the country is experiencing a fall in its GDP rate. It has a fluctuating pattern in its GDP growth rate.
The next economic variable that affects an economy is its inflation rate. While analyzing the inflation rate it is seen that presently Australia’s inflation rate has increased to 1.9 in 2017. Preset inflation rate of Australia is much more than the 2016 when the inflation rate just grew by 1.5 percent. The economy is experiencing the greatest inflation rate in 2017 compared to other years.
From the above figure, it can be seen that Australia has been experiencing a continuous rise in its inflation rate from 2015. This shows that the people of the country have a lot of money to spend. The purchasing power of the people in Australia has been increasing over the years. The rising inflation in Australia has direct effect on the interest rate. With an increase in the inflation rate the interest rate of the country is also increasing. The real interest rate of the country is 6.2677 percent in 2015 and it has increased compared to previous years. This shows that the lenders and savers of the country expect to receive after deducting inflation from the nominal interest rate. However, the increase is not much because the country is also experiencing an increase in inflation rate.
The next economic variable that affects the economy of Australia is the unemployment rate. This is because the level of unemployment describes the inability of the country to take part in productivity work and increase the GDP of the country. Australia has seen an increase in its unemployment rate and standing at 5.9 percent in 2017. On the other hand, it can be seen that the underemployment in the economy is marked at 8.7 percent in 2017. Underemployment consists of people those are employed and however wants to work even for more hours (Clogg 2016).
Thus, from the above figure it can be seen that unemployment is rising on a faster rate in Australia as compared to the previous years. This is not a good implication for the economy as there is lack of job generation to support the increasing labor force. Thus, huge amour of labor is being wasted.
Lastly, it is seen that population also has a lot of impact on the well being of the economy. Australia experiences an increase in population at a faster rate, which put a lot of pressure in the economy.
Australia is experiencing an increase in its population which is not a good sign for the company as it increase pressure on everything and does not allows the policy makers of the economy to take necessary steps for the betterment for the country.
Australia has experience a BOP in first quarter of 2017 of -2220 AUD million. However, it seem to increase to 3606 million. The BOP, import and export are of the Australia.
The level of Australian reserves available currently is sufficient for the RBA to formulate banking policy. Foreign exchange rate are expected to grow at 78797.46 AUD million. The reate differs from quarter to quarter in one year.
From the above analysis it is seen that the country even though is one of the most developed economy in the world has been suffering from various problems. These problems if not checked now will create many future issues. As from the above findings it is seen that the country’s GDP is, reducing slowly compared to previous years. This can affect the future growth if not check now (Oecd 2017). However, for increasing the GDP the government of the country can increase their spending on the economy in order to raise the total domestic productivity of the country. Increase in the spending of the government on the crucial sectors of the economy will help in faster growth. This forecast the GDP of the economy to grow at 3 percent by 2018. However, it should be noticed that the economy is also facing an increase in its inflation rate. This means that an increase in government spending might further increase the rate of inflation. Thus, along with increase government sending in crucial sectors the CBA also needs to implement contractionary monetary policy to curb the extra amount of money from the hands of the people (Bekaert, Hoerova and Duca 2013). These two policies will help the county to control its GDP and Inflation rate. With a rising GDP rate and a controlled inflation rate will help the economy to maintain its growth and avoid a decline in its performance. The country can also opt for a tight fiscal policy by which it can increase the tax rate and curb the money from the hands of the people to curb inflation (Hansen 2013).
The next issue faced by the country is its increasing unemployment rate, which might put them back compared to other countries. Unemployment is caused due to lack of jobs compared to the population. This in turn affects the total productivity and lack of skilled labor in the economy. Thus, for proper growth Australia should construct policy to increase the job opportunities for the people and stop them to move to another country in search of job. The economy is also suffering from the issue of inequality, which is not a good sign for the economy. Inequality means that the income of the country is concentrated in the hands of some people, while the others are deprived of it. Thus, to grow at a faster rate the nation needs to make policy to reduce inequality behavior. This will allow the disadvantage people to get better job opportunity and contribute their part in the future (Alshahrani and Alsadiq 2014). Lastly, the major problem that the nation needs to control is its increasing population. Population rise puts a lot of pressure on the economy in the form of increasing demand, pressure on jobs and excessive domestic competition. Thus, the government should take some policy towards reducing population. Theyr should limit the number of family size in order to put a control on the population. Other than controlling population growth, the country should also maintain good health for the existing population so that more labor that is skilled is available to increase the productivity. The cash rate of the central bank will reduce because of contractionary monetary policy that the Central Bank is taking to reduce the increasing trend of the inflation rate and to reduce the flow of cash coming from increased expenditure of the government (Shintani, Terada-Hagiwara and Yabu 2013).
From the above analysis of the condition of the Australian economy and suggestion for future growth, it can be deduced that Australia has been a growing economy over the years compared to other developed countries. However, it is noticed that the country is presently suffering many loopholes that might lead to their downfall. The GDP of the country is falling from the past few years and on the other hand, it is experiencing an increase in inflation rate. This is not a good sign for a country like Australia that has been growing from years. Moreover, it is also facing a strong pressure from the rising number of population, which in turn effects the employment of the country. The number of jobs is becoming less compared to the rising population. This is because population is increasing and numbers of jobs are remaining constant. This is also leading to an increase in inequality between different sections of the society as some of them are getting good opportunities while the others are lagging behind. Thus, some policies and ways have been suggested for the country to help them grow in the next six months. Some of the policies are increased government spending, contractionary monetary policy, tight fiscal policy and population control policy.
ABC News. 2017. Inflation eases, Reserve Bank 'sidelined', Australian dollar falls. [online] Available at: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-07-26/inflation-consumer-price-index-cpi-abs-june-quarter/8744750 [Accessed 6 Sep. 2017].
Abs.gov.au. 2017. Population clock. [online] Available at: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs%40.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/1647509ef7e25faaca2568a900154b63?OpenDocument [Accessed 6 Sep. 2017].
Alshahrani, M.S.A. and Alsadiq, M.A.J., 2014. Economic growth and government spending in Saudi Arabia: An empirical investigation. International Monetary Fund.
Bekaert, G., Hoerova, M. and Duca, M.L., 2013. Risk, uncertainty and monetary policy. Journal of Monetary Economics, 60(7), pp.771-788.
Clogg, C.C., 2016. Measuring underemployment: Demographic indicators for the United States. Academic Press.
Hansen, A.H., 2013. Fiscal policy & business cycles. Routledge.
Oecd.org. (2017). Australia - Economic forecast summary (June 2017) - OECD. [online] Available at: https://www.oecd.org/eco/outlook/australia-economic-forecast-summary.htm [Accessed 6 Sep. 2017].
Perthnow.com.au. 2017. Unemployment rate up in WA. [online] Available at: https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/australian-bureau-of-statistics-says-unemployment-rate-up/news-story/b9e09b158f64e2f419cfa01898741543 [Accessed 6 Sep. 2017].
Shintani, M., Terada-Hagiwara, A. and Yabu, T., 2013. Exchange rate pass-through and inflation: A nonlinear time series analysis. Journal of International Money and Finance, 32, pp.512-527.
Tradingeconomics.com. 2017. Australia GDP | 1960-2017 | Data | Chart | Calendar | Forecast | News. [online] Available at: https://tradingeconomics.com/australia/gdp [Accessed 6 Sep. 2017].
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