Internet of Things is an interconnection of huge number of physical objects, involving digital and mechanical machines, computing devices, people or animals, objects with unique identification, transferring the data through a network with no need of human to computer or human to human interaction.
The objects of IoT enable to recognizable self and get intelligence through enabling or making the decisions related to context (Arlitt et al, 2015).
So, IoT can be categorized into three types.
- People to things or machines
- People to people
- Machine or things to machine or things, interconnecting through internet
VISION OF IOT
IoT has been developing with the vision of communication and exchange of information in different objects or things’ environment, enabling to interact among them with the intervention of objects or things and no intervention of human, for creating new services or applications.
IOT POTENTIAL BENEFITS
- Smart Recognition
- Administrative Services
- Intelligent Environmental Modelling towards Fuel Savings
- Improved controls of safety for people in hazardous condition environment
IOT AND SMART CITIES
IoT, a huge network of physical objects enable to track and communicate the objects, using actuators and sensors and can control remotely through the internet (Zanella et al, 2014). Iot has got numerous applications, in almost all the industries existing in the world and majorly in health, energy management, transportation, agriculture, etc.
Almost half of the population lives in urban area in the world and it is expected to drastically increase in the future and it will result in difficulty in energy and waste management, scarcity of resources, traffic congestion from increased vehicles, lack of providing vital facilities like healthcare and lack of parking facilities, within the infrastructures of the cities. ICT connecting to the IoT platform is considered as a solution by many governments to provide quality and hassle free life for the citizens and manage public affairs, bringing smart city concept. Hence, implementation of IoT in the smart cities will offer potential benefits in the management services of public, like parking facilities, waste collection, school, lighting, transport, managing and monitoring public areas and heritage building preservation (Chourabi et al, 2018).
Since Internet of Things is an emerging technology, the research topic is selected as ‘Challenges in implementing Internet of Things – Enabled Smart cities in Australia’. There has been an extensive research, in almost all of the developed countries and several frameworks are published to overcome the severe and intense issues and challenges associated with the Internet of Things and also enhance the benefits and efficiency of technology in multiple aspects. Some important frameworks developed are cloud integrated system, cognitive management and distributed stream processing platforms.
To explore and study the basic fundamental characteristics and frameworks associated with the Internet of Things, through extensive literature review, followed by an online survey. Having explored and reviewed the frameworks developed so far, an advanced framework can be provided and proposed for improving and enhancing the performance and efficiency of the technology, in terms of communication, processing units and storage in between the privacy issues, object.
The aim of the project is to explore ideal framework to overcome IoT challenges that are discovered so far for a longer period of time in IoT implantation in the Smart enabled cities in Australia.
The basic expected outcome, by the completion of the project is to propose a viable and potential solution, theoretically, presented in an enhanced form compared to the existing frameworks. The concepts of the ‘Smart city’ and ‘Internet of Things’, become the basis for clear understanding of the project core content. The requirements demanded from the concept of enabling the smart cities and the respective requirements demanded from the technology of the Internet of Things is the key to success of the project. Eventually, the challenges with respect to the implementation of the Internet of Things concept and technology for Smart city show the path to the solutions existing and the final outcome has to be proposal of a viable solution for enabling the smart cities, using the Internet of Things technology.
FUTURE RESEARCH SCOPE
Potential research has to be done on the sensors, which are going to be employed in the IoT technology and concept, in a very large scale, as much as the objects are going to get interconnected through the network. The sensors need to be self powered and the hardware devices used for the networking capabilities have to be ultra low power with autonomous circuits. Apart from that, an extensive research is demanded in the development in 5G, communication technology, protocol for gateway convergence and interoperability and network technology. In addition to the research in the respective technologies, security and privacy have to be primarily focused, towards construction of the potential society, rather than destruction of the society, and the strong and protective policies have to be defined and implemented by the respective governments.
The million dollar term, ‘smart city’ is defined in two dimensions. The first dimension is technical feasibility through employing the Internet of Things technology. The other dimension is the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies with environments and function of the urban area (Sterbenz, 2017) and integrating the urban functions and ICT. In a wider sense, it is a convergence of energy technologies, ecological environment, support facilities and ICT with the residential environments of urban (Alba et al, 2017)
(Meijer & Bolívar, 2016).
The smart city concept is emerged because numerous new jobs are found, accelerating expansion of urban areas. Rural regions keep moving to urban areas also because of educational opportunities for the children. Such population influx demands expansion of the facilities and infrastructure, because of influx of population, while urban areas preparing for challenging transportation and environmental issues (Barrow, 2014). To build basic smart city infrastructure, background elements, support technologies and nemeours sensors are demanded and IoT is one fo the most significant aspects for smart city implementation.
Internet of Thing is known as a combination of several technologies to access data collection from numerous devices, both through wired Internet and wireless networks (Gubbi et al, 2013), all towards providing beneficial and valuable information to the end user. IoT stands as one of the significant infrastructure in smart cities, as it enables to share and store user-customized services, the data gathered from various electronic home appliances, like television, refrigerators in an environment of smart home.
Similarly smart city environment is a market emerging and stands as a significant part of future infrastructure. The IoT technologies significance is magnified, as the aim of the smart city, in general, is to utilize the electricity and energy efficiently, to provide infrastructure that is sound economically and conventionally, for society well being, by offering pleasant and sustainable living environment with sustainable urban environment to the citizens.
About 1.6 billion devices and components were used by 2017 and it is increased to more than 3 billion, by 2018, in smart cities (Gartner, 2015).
IoT Alliance Australia stands as the industry of Internet of Things of Australia, with 500 participating individuals and 250 member organization, across seven streams of work. The organization is built based on the vision to empower industry to grow competitive advantage of Australia through IoT with the purpose of accelerating innovation and adoption of IoT.
Smart city is a dream of almost every developed and developing country in the world. Smart city transition is made easily possible and technically feasible, when IoT technology is enabled to interconnect and establish the communication and integrate various sub-systems and entities in the city.
Smart City is an advanced urban area making use of electronic data collected from numerous sensors for supply of information, towards managing the resources and assets efficiently (Khorov et al, 2015).
INTERNET OF THINGS
IoT is virtually a largest network of home appliances, vehicles and almost every physical device and many other items embedded with actuators, sensors, software, electronics and connectivity enabling these objects to exchange data by interconnecting (Chin-Lung & Lin 2016). Each thing of IoT has unique identification and can operate within the existing infrastructure of internet.
The number of devices that capable to be online is increased to 31%, reaching 8.4 billion, by 2017, from 2016 (Amy, 2016). The estimation of experts to reach the number to 30 billion objects, by the year 2020. The estimation of IoT value in global market by 2020, is to reach $7.1 trillion.
IoT technology enables the objects to be controlled remotely by sensing its physical location, across existing infrastructure of the network. It creates the opportunity to reduce the intervention of human and enable more direct physical world direct integration into the computer based systems, thereby improving accuracy, efficiency and economic benefit (HBR. 2014). (Gérald, 2016). When Internet of Things gets augmented with actuators and sensors, the technology will be more cyber0physcial systems’ general class, encompassing various technologies such as smart homes, smart grids, intelligent transportation, virtual power plants and smart cities.
Though autonomous control and ambient intelligence are not part of Internet of Things original concept, as they don’t need internet structures necessarily, they have become autonomous IoT driving force, during the research. Most of its work in relation with the intelligent Internet of Things exploit the cloud computing capabilities for analytics performance and return the IoT devices outcome, when needed. But attempts are in course to bring certain machine learning and intelligence level at the fog and edge computing nodes and resource constrained devices (Mehdi & 2018).
The IoT, in the future may be open network or non-deterministic, in which intelligent entities or organized entities and virtual objects become interoperable and enable to act independently, according to the environments, circumstances or context. Modern solutions and products of IoT in the marketplace make use of various and diversified technologies to support this kind of context-aware automation, however, intelligence in more sophisticated forms are requested to permit the units of sensor for real time environments deployment.
The IoT system is likely a bottom up made, event drive architecture examples and will consider any level of subsidy. Hence, functional approaches and model driven approaches will coexist with different ones having ability to treat unusual evolution and treat exceptions of processes.
The event meaning, in the IoT is based on the event context itself and is also referred as a semantic web (David, 2010). Eventually, common standards are not needed for addressing use or context and some actors, accordingly, will be self-referenced and in case needed adaptive to the common standards that are existing.
The web of things, building on IoT top, is architecture of IoT application layer, looking at the data convergence from the devices of IoT, into the website applications for creation of the use cases that are innovative. For control and program of information flow in the IoT, BPM Everywhere and similar predicted architectural direction becomes a traditional process management blending with special capabilities and process mining to automate the large numbers control of coordinated devices.
The architecture of the Internet of Things technology is cascaded as layers.
Architecture of Internet of Things Technology
IoT demands large size scalability in terms of network space to manage the surge of devices (Arpan, 2015). The network layer scalability and its management will demand IPv6, as billions of new objects and devices keep adding to the space of internet.
The large data flow burst through internet can be prevented with a viable alternative called fog computing. The computation power of edge devices is used for processing and analysis of data, so that easy and real time scalability can be provided (Arkian & Hamid, 2017).
Any object almost can be interconnected with the communication infrastructure and global information.
In closed loops or semi open loops, IoT usually is studied and considered as a complex system, because of various links in huge number, interactions among autonomous actors and respective capacity for new actor integration. In full open loop or overall stage, is seen likely as a chaotic environments. Usually, not all IoT elements run in a public or global space. The control, privacy, reliability risks can be mitigated by implementing subsystems.
The interconnecting devices are at least more than the devices connected to the internet presently and enormous number is a critical factor. Data management is even more critical for the purpose of application and interpretation. It relates to efficient data handling and semantics of data.
The devices’ state changes dynamically, like waking up, sleeping, disconnecting, connecting and context of devices, including speed and location. And the number of total devices also keeps changing.
IoT runs with the key feature, connecting compatibility and network accessibility. Compatibility gives the regular ability to produce and consume data and accessibility is to access on network (Vermesan et al, 2011).
Safety should not be forgotten, apart from getting the benefits from the IoT. It includes the physical well being safety and personal data safety (Serrano, 2015). Secure of data moving across, networks and endpoints should be enabled by creating a new paradigm of security that has to scale up.
Things Related Services
The Internet of Things is able to provide the services related to things, within the things’ constraints, like semantic consistency and privacy protection, in between physical things and associated virtual things of them. For providing services relating to things, within the things’ constraints, both the information world and physical world related technologies will change.
Considerations of Size
In the future, IoT will need to encode the objects ranging from 50 trillion to 100 trillion and enable to follow those objects’ movements. In surveyed urban environments, each human being will be surrounded by trackable objects ranging from 1000 to 5000 (Waldner, 2007).
Considerations of Space
The precise geographical dimensions and locations of a thing, in IoT will be critical (Roy et al, 2015). So, any facts related to a thing, like space and are tracked less critically, as the human processing the information is able to take decision whether the information is worth taking action or not and if so the missing information is to be added. The challenges continue to remain are variable spatial scales constraints, need for handling data in massive amounts and fast search indexing and neighbour operations. The danger is the elimination of the role of human centric mediation, in case the things are enabled to take initiatives on own and take actions. Hence, the context of time-space must be assigned a central role, which is now taken for grant by human, in this ecosystem of the information. So, geospatial standards will have to play a significant role in the IoT, just like the standards play vital role in the web and internet.
Basket of Remotes
Most of the objects or devices of IoT have complete potential to access and control, through internet. Consequently, a problem of basket of remotes will be arising, where there will be hundreds of interfacing applications with devices in thousands that will not share protocols to speak with each other.
The problem can be solved, theoretically, with the approach called the ‘predictive interaction’ and here decision makers based on fog or cloud predict the next action of the user and trigger reaction accordingly ((Roy et al, 2015).
The concept of Internet of Things refers to the interconnection and communication of things that are identifiable uniquely with their virtual representation in a structure like internet and the solutions of IoT comprise of various components as the following (Samuel, 2016)..
The module is meant for interaction with the IoT devices locally. The module acquires the data after observations followed by forwarding the information for permanent storage and analysis, after forwarding to remote servers.
The module is responsible for processing of observations collected from the devices of the IoT and for local analysis.
The module is responsible for interacting with the devices of IoT placed remotely and directly on the internet. it acquires the details from the observations and forwarding to the permanent storage and analysis, after forwarding the observations to the remote servers.
The module is for data processing and analysis and application specific. The module serves all the clients as it runs on the application servers. It takes the observations as inputs and executes algorithms of appropriate data processing and generates the final output to the user, in terms fo knowledge.
Module 5 for User Interface
The module is visual measurements representation in a context given and based on the interaction done with the end user, such as defining the queries of the users.
APPLICATIONS OF IOT
The applications of the Internet of Things are diverse and numerous, as it can be adopted and implemented literally to any and almost every field in the world. IoT can influence the lifestyle of human beings practically implementing into all the areas of society, enterprises, and individuals as a whole. The applications of the Internet of Things covers smart spaces or environments in various domains, like building, transportation, lifestyle, retail, factory, city, emergency, user interaction, healthcare, agriculture, tourism, energy, environment and culture (Dr. Vermesan & Friess, 2014).
Internet of smart Living (IOsL)
Remote Control Appliances
The primary objective of the IoT technology development is enhancing the living standards of the human being. So, primarily the technology can be applied and adopted for controlling the remote control appliances (Principi et al, 2012). So, the user is able to switch on and off the appliances that are remotely placed, in order to save energy and avoid accidents.
Smart Home Appliances
For instance, refrigerators along having the LCD screens let us know what is within and about the food, which is gain, various ingredients that are out of stock to buy and every piece of such information is accessible through Smartphone App. And washing machines shows the laundry details remotely and allow opening remotely (Zanella et al, 2014). Kitchen appliances allow interfacing through Smartphone and adjust temperature control remotely and allow operating even the self cleaning feature of the oven.
During the day to day life of individual, home alarm systems, cameras, etc., allow the people to stay safe.
Outdoor weather conditions, like wind speed, pressure, rain levels and temperature are shown enabling the individuals to transmit data to longer distances.
Intrusion Detection System
Door and window openings keep detecting and any violations block the intruders and prevent to get in.
Energy and Water Use
Consumption of water and energy supply monitoring is enabled for obtaining the advice in terms of saving the resources, cost, etc.
Internet of smart Cities (IOsC)
Fire control management, digital video monitoring and public announcement system help the individuals to stay safe and get connected and monitored by the family members (Padoin et al, 2012).
Rubbish levels detection in containers for optimizing the routes of trash collection become possible and recycle bins and garbage cans, identifying with the RFID tags enable the staff of sanitation to know after garbage is added.
Parking space availability can be monitored in real time, in the city to enable the resident to reserve and identify the available spaces, closerby.
Weather adaptive and intelligent lighting can be implemented in the streets.
Intelligent high-ways and smart roads are enabled with the diversion and warning messages, based on the unexpected events, such as traffic jams, accidents etc., and conditions of the climate.
Material conditions and vibration monitoring in bridges, buildings and historical monuments become possible to a great extent.
Internet of smart Environment
Water level variations monitoring in the dams, rivers and reservoirs, during the rainy days is made possible.
Eligibility of drinkable use of water can be explored through the study related to water sustainability, in the seas and rivers.
Caller tracking by using the modules of GPS or GSM for tracking wild animals and locating the people and communicating the coordinates of them, through SMS will be possible.
Air Pollution Monitoring
CO2 emissions from vehicles, factories and toxic gas generated and emitted from the farms can be in well control, as the sources and intensity can be well known immediately (Top et al, 2011).
Monitoring of weather conditions, like pressure, temperature, wind speed, early detection earthquake, rain and humidity can be monitored.
Forest Fire Detection
Pre-emptive fire conditions and combustion gases monitoring becomes easier and help to define the alert zones accordingly.
Internet of smart Industry (IOsI)
Repair and Maintenance
Scheduling of early service maintenance will be possible with early prediction on the malfunctions of the equipment is made possible, before the actual part failure, using sensors installation to monitor inside equipment and send the reports.
Hazardous and Explosive Gases
Gas leakage and levels in the industrial environments, inside mines and chemical factories surroundings detection will be possible. Oxygen level monitoring and toxic gas monitoring inside the chemical plants to ensure safety work conditions and safety works, gas, oil and water levels monitoring in the Cisterns and storage tanks are now easier.
Internet of smart Health (IOsH)
Disabled and elderly people and disabled people can be well assisted enabling them to live independently.
Physical activity Monitoring
When wireless sensors placed for sensing small motions across the mattress, like large motions, heart rate and breathing caused from turning and tossing during sleep, data is made available through the Smartphone app.
Conditions control inside the freezers, where organic elements, medicines, organic elements and vaccines is now possible.
The uses of brushes can be analyzed, by connecting Bluetooth to the Smartphones to indicate the statistics to the dentist and also for the private information.
Patients’ conditions monitoring within the hospital and condition of the old people with the home is made possible.
Internet of smart Energy
Power House / Wind Turbine
Energy flow monitoring and analysis from the power house and wind turbines and communication with the smart meters of customers for consumption pattern analysis will be possible.
Monitoring and management of the energy consumption is enabled.
Performance monitoring and optimization of the energy in solar energy plants is now possible.
Power Supply Controllers
AC and DC power supplies controllers for improvement of the energy efficiency and determination of the required energy, with minimized waste of energy for power supplies in relation to the consumer electronics, telecommunications and computers applications.
Internet of smart Agriculture
Tracking or Farming of Animals
Animals grazing location and identification in location in big stables and open pastures, ventilation and air quality study in the farms and harmful gas detection from excrements will become possible and easier.
Temperature and humidity levels control in straw, hay, alfalfa, etc., help to prevent fungus and contaminants of microbes.
Crop waste and spoilage reduction is possible with accurate ongoing data collection with better monitoring and agricultural fields management that includes better electricity, fertilizing and watering control (Mitton et al, 2012).
Offspring growing conditions control in the farms of animals help to ensure the health and survival of the same.
Vegetables and fruits production and the respective quality can be obtained with the control of micro climate conditions.
Challenges Of Iot In Implementing For Smart Cities
However, there are considerable social, technological issues inherent to the smart city materialized with Internet of Things (Kortuem et al, 2013). The principal agents and issues for smart city, by Internet of Things technologies are as the following (Balasubramaniam & Kangasharju, 2013).
Industries and Sectors
IoT Core Issues
Energy and Electricity
Transmission and distribution automation and energy reduction, management and optimization
· Several standards of communication
· Essential smart grid systems part
· In IoT technologies, one of the biggest potential markets
Building and Architecture
Home automation, building automation and building management
Varied preferences of building, such as telecommunication service providers or IT solution with newly built building, where IoT with wired infrastructure and construction company with existing building to use IoT technologies with wireless infrastructure (Lazarescu, 2013)
Transportation and Automation
Vehicle telematics, business fleet management and remote parking management
Rapid increase of demand of remote control or autonomous services that utilize IoT sensing devices or technologies, wirelessly
Management systems generalization for transportation vehicles using IoT technologies
Utilization of distributing connected automobiles and individual mobile devices with IoT technologies
Protection of elderly and children, home security
Utilization of several IoT devices and technologies, supporting models of voice and video telecommunication
Healthcare and Monitoring
Smart hospital and smart healthcare
Rapid markets expanding with IoT technologies of healthcare in advanced countries
Need of medical facilities and team tracking within hospitals
Demanding convergence services of healthcare-IT, based on the order communication systems and electronic medical records (Cedeño et al, 2018)
Having understood the list of challenges, let us see the challenges of applying the Internet of Things to transform cities into smart cities in details.
Security and Privacy
The first and foremost challenges of implementation of the IoT and literally stops its implementation though it is ready to implement technologically, right away are the security and privacy issues.
When huge amount of data and information is evaluated followed by gathering, in the same platform of IoT, numeric issues are ready to attack, like side channels and cross-site scripting. In addition to that, the system is subjected to the vulnerabilities, significantly. Hence, serious measures have to be defined, to ensure the security and privacy of the city citizens, in terms of their personal data (Feki et al, 2013). Citizens are not ready to trust the government, without guarantee and hence, it would be difficult to collect the information. Eventually, every system must be resistant and reluctant against all kinds of cyber attacks, especially, like smart meters and many other critical infrastructures. Eventually, cities must place both the elements of privacy and security to stand in the top priority, for successful IoT implementation.
Some vital security aspects in Internet of Things include data confidentiality, trust and privacy.
IoT Security Aspects for Smart Cities
Systems based on IoT because several problems related to reliability. For instance, due to the mobility of the cars, interconnecting them among does not stand enough reliable. In addition, smart technologies when participated in huge numbers result to lead in certain challenges of reliability, especially, related to the failure of the system (He et al, 2014).
When more than 50,000,000,000 devices are considered, it demands to pay attention essentially, to transfer, recall and store the data as well as the analysis of the huge information and data generated by them (Botta et al, 2016). The substructures of IoT hence become some of such significant big data sources and it is clear for the same. The three major specifications that need emphasis in terms of problems related to big data are variance, number and speed. So, according to these specifications, information of smart meters is also received.
Usually, IoT systems are developed with notable and specific solutions, where each of its elements gets joined to the context of special context. Accordingly, the respective scenarios of goals must be examined and define the software or hardware needed and aggregate afterward these subsystems of heterogeneity (Carbone et al, 2015). It is indeed to provide such proper cooperation scheme procurement and substructures among them, as IoT system’s major challenging mission.
Social and Legal Aspects
Most likely IoT system is like a service, in terms of data provided by the user. Hence, the service providers need to be based on rules and regulations from local to international levels. Similarly, sufficient incentives are experienced by the applicants to attend data gathering and specified scenario. If the opportunity were given to participate and choose, by the participants, in the information of registration, indicating the event, it would be more comfortable (Atkins et al, 2013).
Network of sensors is considered to take as a remarkable technology for the IoT enablement (Zaslavsky et al, 2012). When it is provided with the capabilities to infer, understand and measure environmental indexes, they eventually can become and form the world (Gubbi et al, 2013). Current technology’s improvement and development have provided cheaper devices and efficient devices to apply to remote sensing utilizations in larger scale (Akyildiz et al, 2007). In addition to that, since the smartphones have different types of sensors, they would empower various types of usages of mobile in varied IoT areas. Hence, the major challenging action will be the way of processing the sensors’ large scale information in terms of network and energy constraints and various kinds of uncertainty (Zhao, 2010).
Huge number of scenarios demands interactions among huge number of distributed devices that get embedded in the environment of a wide area. A proper platform is provided by the IoT system and enables to aggregate and analyze information extracted from all these devices (Petrolo et al, 2017).But, when huge data in large scale is involved, it demands appropriate computational ability and proper storage, as the data is gathered in higher rates leading to the regular and inherent challenges to be very challenging to cope with (Castro et al, 2017). Moreover, the IoT devices distribution influences the actions of monitoring, as these devices need to deal with the delays, in relation with the connectivity and dynamics.
The Internet of Things has the ability to assist the responsive demand contribution in the system. However, still many different barriers restrict DR programs participation (Darby, 2018). Broadly, these barriers are classified into framework barrier, providers’ barrier and customer’s barriers and demand comprehensive study of the same.
Smart Home Control Platform
Smart home related IoT challenges in smart city can be encountered with smart home control platform (Stojkoska & Trivodalie, 2017). The platform can be built with cloud server technology that serves as background server technology for cloud computing services and smart home environment integration (Biem et al, 2010). And energy load management technology is employed for smart home environment towards load control, energy supply, and energy usage monitoring and optimization technology.
Platform for Smart Home User Interaction
The platform makes use of user emotion recognition technology integrating biometric information recognizing technology, user interface technology for support of communication among systems, objects, humans and machines, user natural language recognition from user, to provide sentences or words through image and speech recognition.
Framework for Open Architecture Home Service
The framework can be built with the smart home service framework to provide demographic information and user preferences and also support and accept service providers’ solutions. Compatible technology is employed in smart home environment to control devices on multiple devices in a single platform.
Framework for Home Context Awareness
The framework is built to provide services on the basis of demographic information and user preferences through service operation technology customized according to the user. The frame work also provides real time station based on the data collected from user interaction, machines, sensors in an environment of smart phones.
HOME INTERWORKING TECHNOLOGY, BOTH WIRED AND WIRELESS
The technology makes use of multiple other technologies. Market vitalization technology makes use of SDK of home network device, on the basis of multiple sensors for universal services to support multiple services and sensors by single platform integration (Jain & Rajankar, 2017). Home network service DIY tools development is done to provide several scenario oriented services, through home network resources utilization through cloud servers of smart home. Other technology is cloud technology of home network service that connects cloud and gateway supporting technology to provide interworking in between cloud servers and smart home gateway for services of smart home through cloud servers. The technology enables cloud server construction for home network service to provide enhanced security for smart home services.
The technology is built with the components of home network connection connecting gateway both wireless and wired, to provide interface services between smart home cloud server and different network environments. It uses technology of home network device for different domains of server to provide different services through gateway interface of smart home.
INTELLIGENT INFORMATION HOME APPLIANCE
The framework makes use of appliance technology of smart care enabling customized technology for user interface to exchange of information in between objects and users through gesture or speech recognition, screen touch, etc., forms (Roozeboom et al, 2015). It also uses users’ unconsciousness information collection to determine user life patterns on the basis of collection and investigation of several kinds of sensing information. The technology integrates emotion recognition to recognize the emotions of the user on the basis of biometric data, like facial expression, skin electrical resistance, EEG, EMG, voice or behaviour.
It uses security technology for home appliance, like digital trespassing recognition technology for potential invalidated users’ packet filtering for firewalls and home network and to provide security services on the devices’ crowding (Kamalinejad et al, 2015).The technology of home-sensor network is enabled with home environment wireless sensing technology to monitor environment of home with wireless networks with measure device and sensing technology (Sezer et al,. N.Y.) It also enables the technology to provide devices collaboration on the services basis, to support the devices collaboration for diverse services through different functions of device.
HOME SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
The framework enables sensor communication technology for wireless network to provide pairing and interworking among the sensors and servers both wireless and wired. Complementary sensor management technology is also integrated to provide recognizing context awareness and user-customized services.
The technology includes element development technology for the low power sensors function to optimize technology for sensor power consumption reduction (Cai et al, 2014). Other technology added is SoC sensor control module technology to control and operate sensors with SoC.
Other technology included is the converging and senor fusion technology with optimized design technology of sensor to collect personal and environmental information. Technology for manufacturing and design multi-functional sensors is used to converge functions of multiple sensors.
SMART HOME AND BUILDING SECURITY TECHNOLOGY
The technology enables the devices of intelligent IP imaging with intelligent human tracing, intelligent human recognition and object detection technologies to trace the user’s subjects, to recognize and detect the objects and users using deep learning process and image analysis algorithms and to trace the users’ subject (Smirek et al, 2016). The framework uses analytical technology with detection and sensing of movement to analyze and prevention of risk by categorization of unnatural and natural situation, on the basis of object and metadata records (Ghayvat et al, 2015). Other technology is information security with IoT for multimedia, information security management to manage the information through avoiding of the IoT actuators false operation on the basis of analysis of data patter.
SMART SYSTEM FOR BUILDING AUTOMATION
The framework makes use of technology of smart management of building energy for smart management and analysis of building energy based on BIM for real time management, control and monitoring on the basis of BIM(Chen et al, 2018). Other technology is smart building efficiency and energy consumption prediction to predict the efficiency and energy consumption according to the profiles of the smart building (Endler et al, 2017).Monitoring technology of smart building energy is used as a monitoring solution technology of complex energy of the consumption, inflow and generation of different resources of energy utilized in the smart buildings.
Smart building automation technology is added as development and scenarios for automated services for service and device of smart building automation on the user needs scenarios (Hui et al, 2017).. It makes use of the cloud based management and control towards the solution of the remote control management, for cloud servers and smart buildings.
Important technology added in the frame for control and management of smart building optimization technology is the analytical technology on the basis of cloud servers data collected for the modelling, prediction, performance, improvement and prediction of smart building, on the basis of big data (Ejaz, & 2017).
Other technology is the analytical technology is the cloud based energy management and smart building optimization control management technology for the smart buildings energy optimization, on the basis of cloud solutions and servers.
Smart Parking System
One of the current challenges of infrastructure, faced by the Smart city is the traffic and transportation management. The challenge is majorly because of increased private car users, resulting in congestion of the traffic and difficulty to find the specific spot of the parking.
The efficiency of the parking system along with the parking resources can be definitely modernized and ease the complex system to a great extent and time of searching for specific parking spot can be reduced to a great time with overall transport transportation ease, by employing Internet of Things technology. Parking process can be simplified by informing the drivers regarding the facilities of parking and congestion of traffic, in advance, in and around their geographical area, with the help of low powered embedded system implementation, by employing the sensors all around the city. The sensors help to provide the data in real time, from different resources and transfer through the cloud to update the traffic details. The availability of the parking lot can be checked by the end user from the cloud and the parking place can be booked, in advance, through mobile application. This system is already employed in some of the smart cities and the same can be implemented in smart cities in Australia.
The important characteristics of the smart cities parking system are computational power, storage capacity, scalability, interoperability, availability and communication resources and arrangement and scaling according to the requirements are the major challenge of the smart parking system.
IoT Enabled Parking Communication System
The challenge of collection of huge data and communication, integration to transform into the right form of real time data can be solved with the cloud systems. E huge data can be collected, accessed and processed through cloud, which enabled to store literally unlimited storage capacity with lost cost and it enables to access the data at anytime, from anywhere. Other characteristics and challenges can also be solved with the cloud computing integration with the Internet of Things technology.
Initially parking sensors are employed for sensing the slot of parking to check whether it is free or occupied. The sensors are passive infrared, infrared and ultra sonic sensor. Sensors are connected with the processing unit to coordinate and operate the sensors, timely. The mobile application is coded to connect and interact with the server. The parking slot availability information is provided by the mobile application and spot can be booked to the end user.
After parking slot is booked, occupancy is confirmed by the driver and the parking attended the same and parking charges are charged accordingly.
Eventually, the overall efficiency of the smart city is improved through hassle free and daily life with the cloud integrated technologies with the significant growth in the Internet of Things, for smart citizens.
Healthcare Monitoring System
Healthcare is a major concern, when thought of actual service needed for the human beings, in need. For example, old people, who suffer from chronic diseases and unable to perform their day to day personal tasks and physically challenged people, who usually depend on the other people, for their personal activities, the technology has to support to ensure that they perform their personal activities, without the help of other human beings. In addition to that it is important to make the emergency services available when there is need and urgency. There are numerous healthcare applications available in the same field. The data about the patients can be stored in clouds and transferred to the respective healthcare institutions, when needed so that the doctors can access the data to check the status, to ensure that the emergency is prevented for the patient.
When IoT is considered to implement and enable the smart cities, healthcare and monitoring applications stand in the first row of priority. Smart city is enabled only by ensuring the healthcare and emergency services are provided at the right time, in the right way.
Having explored various frameworks and technologies, in terms of integrated and adopted other technologies for the respective benefits, let us explore better framework for potential, viable and efficient Internet of Things technology.
Cognitive Management Framework
Research conducted on cognitive management has its major focus on the architectural efficiency and resource usage in future networks. It introduces self-x and cognitive principles for optimization of the radio resources and spectrum usage in future internet. It helps to achieve higher resources utilization, reduction in the ownership cost and lower energy consumption, in the future internet. It helps to design unified management framework to overcome the complexity of management through self management and federation.
High Level View of Cognitive Management Framework
The cognitive management framework is designed adn developed to address the major issues, as the following.
- Total number of objects considered to fall within the IoT application scope and their heterogeneity
- The unreliable inherent nature of these Io objects and end-to-end resilience guarantee
- The associated complexity with the huge usable objects’ quantities in the context of smart city
So, the framework is developed after identifying the need to support both the application providers and end users, using the technique that is selected by relevance, automatically (Dohler, 2011).
The framework makes use of the concept called, Virtual Object, which is a virtual representation of the RWO (Real World Objects) making the object, ‘always on’. VOs are dynamic objects as they are created and destroyed simply and dynamically, as they represent RWOs as dynamically changing objects.
Towards further enhancement of the capability of resilience along with an automatic ability for VOs aggravation for meeting the requirements of the application, concept of Composite VO (CVO) is introduced. The CVO is a semantically interoperable VOs cognitive mashup, rendering services according to the requirements of the applications (Naphade, 2011).
Initially the project starts with the literature review for detailed study by an extensive research on the available literature about the internet technology, smart cities concept and the combination of the two. The study and research is conducted by search and reviewing various articles, books, e-Books, conference papers and journals starting form basic and own knowledge and understanding of the technology. Each of the research questions is considered and the research is conducted by analysing the articles, journals and books related to it. Once the information is collected and studied the frameworks existing, the challenges of each of the framework are understood associated to IoT technologies. Answers to the research questions are explored and formed after processing the information. Then a new form is proposed after exploring the same. An online survey will be conducted to explore and reveal the difficulties and challenges experienced by the framework researchers and developers in implementation of the IoT in the Smart cities, through social media. Survey questionnaire will be made with the feedback with multiple options. The survey result will be useful and support for further analysis for finding out the research question answers
The project timeline is as the following schedule.
Chart: Timeline for Project
The major resources required for the research and study of the project is basically literature material available from the physical and digital books and papers. The resources are accessed through the libraries and internet. Other important resource is valuable guidance by the guide and professors. Since it is the first research paper attempting, basic guidance from them becomes potential resource. And the guidance, especially when get stuck at some points is potentially a great resource to move ahead.
Internet of Things is a very complex technology used to interconnect the object virtually, to manage, control and administer them. The important aspect of the report is to apply the IoT technology in building, transforming and enabling the normal cities into the smart cities. Smart cities concept is an advanced and sophisticated concept of automating the management and administrative functions of infrastructure, by the administration of the city. IoT has important characteristics, like connectivity, architectures, network architectures and smart cities have applications to offer easily manageable traffic, parking system, safety and security of the city citizens, providing healthcare facilities and many more.
The reason, though the technology is readily available, IoT is not readily applied and adopted for the smart cities, is because there are numerous challenges associated with the Internet of Things technology. Hence, the challenges are discovered and explored in implementing the technology to enable smart cities. The challenges are numerous and many more are yet to be discovered in the future. So far the discovered challenges are explored and the solutions are discussed. There are various solutions developed as frameworks with the combination of various technologies adopted and integrated. And based on the frameworks and technologies discussed a potential technology with additional development potential has been proposed and presented.
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