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Write a design their own research report, experiment, project proposal, fundingproposal, observing proposal, or similar, however,  restricted to the STEM. This will take the form of a written document using official templates and LaTeX styles used in class.

Introduction to Friction Stir Processing

The use of the technique of Friction Stir Processing (FSP) could be defined as an efficient technique that would be used for the fabrication of surface metal matrix composite (SMMC) (Azarsa & Mostafapour, 2013). The FSP was primarily designed based on the principles of friction stir welding (FSW). One of the primary methods of producing SMMC with the help of FSP would be based on the making of a groove based on required depth. These would be compacted with ceramic particles, plungi

ng of the tool and traversing them along the groove (Bahrami, Dehghani & Givi, 2014). The heat produced by friction of the grooves would thus soften the matrix alloy and the ceramic particles. These would be distributed all over the plasticized matrix alloy based on the stirring of the tool. Hence the technique followed by FSP could be effectively used for the performing of different kinds of investigations. These kinds of investigators would be required for fabricating SMMC based on magnesium, aluminium, titanium alloys and steel (Sun et al., 2013).

The statement of the problem is based on the following areas of research based on friction stir processing. One of the statement of the problem would be based on the regulation of liquid metallurgy as it would be in a process of solid-state.

Based on the kind of research that would be proceeded in the field of friction stir processing, the primary aim of the research would be based on the study of the influences based on volume percentages, rotation of tool and speeds of welds.

The primary objectives of the research would be as follows:

  • The identification of reinforcements and process parameters that have effect on the mechanical properties on the composites of copper surface based on the use of FSP
  • The different kinds of impact based on process parameters that would include speed of the rotation tool, volume percentage and traverse speed that would play a major role.  

How would the study and evaluation of microstructures based on the co-relation of mechanical properties of the composites of copper surface would be beneficial for the research?

The Copper based ceramic particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (CMMCs) are one of the primary topic of attention. This has been mainly been possible due to the good form of thermal, mechanical and tribological properties (Sathiskumar et al., 2013). The use of CMMCs could be applied in the places where good form of wear resistance without the loss of electrical and thermal conductivity of the particular matrix would be needed. The life of the different components would mainly depend on the properties of surface of the various kinds of applications (Sathiskumar et al., 2014). Hence, it would be appropriate for the modification of the component surface based on reinforcing of the ceramic particles. The modified form of surface dispersion has the capability of strengthening the composite layer. They are thus known as surface metal matrix composite (SMMC). The FSP is one of the technique that could be used for the fabrication of SMMC. This technique would be able to perform several forms of investigation based on different alloys of aluminium, steel, titanium and magnesium (Thankachan, Prakash & Kavimani, 2018).

Fabricating Surface Metal Matrix Composites with FSP

Barmouz et al. (2011) have applied the techniques of FSP based on the fabrication of Cu/SiC SMMC in the present times. They have studies different forms of aspects based on the processes of FSP on the formation of Cu/SiC SMMC. It could thus be reported that the speed of processing would thus be significantly increased due to the distribution of SiC particles. Based on the techniques applied by Barmouz et al (2011), they have prepared the composite of Cu/SiC surface. They had observed some kinds of factors based on the FSP technique based within the production of the Cu/SiC composite. Based on the discussion, it could be concluded that the rotation of tools and speeds of traversing would be able to play a major role based within the dispersion of SiC particles (Besharati-Givi & Asadi, 2014). The port form of dispersion of the SiC particles would mainly take place based on the increasing speed of processing. The rate of dispersion of the SiC particles would be further increased based on the time of processing and motion of hard stirring within the heat affected zone.  

The fabrication of Cu/8vol.% B4C surface dispersion could be able to strengthen the composites and hence would be successfully strengthen the accomplishment with the use of FSP. The composite layer would be bonded to the substrate of copper. There would not be any form of macroscopic defects that includes pinhole, worm hole, tunnel and many others based on the combination of different forms of chosen parameters. During the techniques of FSP, the heat generated by friction would be able to plasticize the copper and the particles of B4C would be distributed and thus embedded within the Cu matrix (Jeon et al., 2014). This could be achieved due to the stirring action based on the performance of the rotating tool.

The FSP could be defined as an extreme successful process based on the production of Metal Matrix Composites. The selection of the parameters of FSP is a major form of challenge in the recent times. These forms of challenges could be based on the production of sound composite zone. This would be based on the uniform form of distribution of the reinforced particles within the matrix. The different forms of fine particles that would be used for the purpose of reinforcement would be able to improve the structure of the grain (Gibson et al., 2014). The processes of FSP also have the capability of improving the inclusive properties of the material within the increased young’s modulus, tensile strength and microhardness. The large form of plastic strain that would be produced with the aid of FSP have the capability of shearing the metal powders and thus be able to break the oxide film that would surround the reinforcement particles. They would be able to cause contact between the reinforcement particles and matrix that would be able to promote the reaction. The tendency of the agglomeration of the particles could be reduced based on the proper form of selection of the diameter of the FSP tool shoulder. This would thus be responsible for generating of the shear forces and frictional forces (Devaraju, Kumar & Kotiveerachari, 2013).

Challenges and Benefits of Using FSP

Pre-treatment of the different kinds of reinforcements based on the improvement of the wettability along with multi pass FSP would be able to provide a different form of alternative way based on the uniform form of distribution of the various kinds of reinforcement particles in the zone of FSP (Aruri et al., 2013).

The research would be conducted based on the works of different other authors who have performed an extensive research on the area of the concerned topic. The research would be further proceeded based on the use of secondary data such as the collection of articles from different sources such as various journals, books, publication of other authors, books and many other kinds of sources. With the help of this form of research, the following research proposal would further be proceeded in the particular direction.

                                                  

                                                                                (Fig 1:  Description of the Proposed Project)

Task ID

Task Description

resource Name

Cost

1

Topic Selection

Superviser

 $       8.00

2

Gather information from secondary sources

Researcher

 $       7.00

3

Finalize the layout

Researcher

 $    10.00

4

Review Literature

Researcher

 $    12.00

5

Develop Plan for Research

Researcher

 $    13.00

6

Select the correct technique

Researcher

 $       6.00

7

Collect secondary data

Researcher

 $       7.00

8

Data analysis and Interpretation

Researcher

 $       9.00

9

Draw Conclusion

Researcher

 $       5.00

10

Prepare Rough Draft

Researcher

 $       9.00

11

Completion of Final Work

Researcher

 $    15.00

Total cost

 $  101.00

                                                       

                                                                          (Fig 2: Proposed Budget of the Concerned Project)

                                                              

                                                                                              (Fig 3: Proposed Project Timeline)

Conclusion

Based on the discussion from the above topic, the different prospects based on the fabrication of the B4C surface composition based on a copper plate with the help of friction could be understood. The proper form of application based on the technique of FSP within the generating surface and bulk composites could be able to firmly establish within the field of Composite manufacturing. Further form of research within the particular area and better form of understanding of the characteristics of the process and parameters would be able to provide general insights on the ways of the success of the technology of FSP.

References

Aruri, D., Adepu, K., Adepu, K., & Bazavada, K. (2013). Wear and mechanical properties of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy surface hybrid composites [(SiC+ Gr) and (SiC+ Al2O3)] fabricated by friction stir processing. Journal of Materials research and technology, 2(4), 362-369.

Azarsa, E., & Mostafapour, A. (2013). On the feasibility of producing polymer–metal composites via novel variant of friction stir processing. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 15(4), 682-688.

Bahrami, M., Dehghani, K., & Givi, M. K. B. (2014). A novel approach to develop aluminum matrix nano-composite employing friction stir welding technique. Materials & Design, 53, 217-225.

Barmouz, M., Asadi, P., Givi, M. B., & Taherishargh, M. (2011). Investigation of mechanical properties of Cu/SiC composite fabricated by FSP: Effect of SiC particles’ size and volume fraction. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528(3), 1740-1749.

Besharati-Givi, M. K., & Asadi, P. (2014). Advances in friction-stir welding and processing. Elsevier.

Devaraju, A., Kumar, A., & Kotiveerachari, B. (2013). Influence of addition of Grp/Al2O3p with SiCp on wear properties of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 hybrid composites via friction stir processing. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 23(5), 1275-1280.

Gibson, B. T., Lammlein, D. H., Prater, T. J., Longhurst, W. R., Cox, C. D., Ballun, M. C., ... & Strauss, A. M. (2014). Friction stir welding: process, automation, and control. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 16(1), 56-73.

Jeon, C. H., Jeong, Y. H., Seo, J. J., Tien, H. N., Hong, S. T., Yum, Y. J., ... & Lee, K. J. (2014). Material properties of graphene/aluminum metal matrix composites fabricated by friction stir processing. International journal of precision engineering and manufacturing, 15(6), 1235-1239.

Sathiskumar, R., Murugan, N., Dinaharan, I., & Vijay, S. J. (2013). Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing. Materials characterization, 84, 16-27.

Sathiskumar, R., Murugan, N., Dinaharan, I., & Vijay, S. J. (2014). Fabrication and characterization of Cu/B4C surface dispersion strengthened composite using friction stir processing. Archives of metallurgy and materials, 59(1), 83-87.

Sun, Y. F., Fujii, H., Takaki, N., & Okitsu, Y. (2013). Microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar Al alloy/steel joints prepared by a flat spot friction stir welding technique. Materials & Design, 47, 350-357.

Thankachan, T., Prakash, K. S., & Kavimani, V. (2018). Investigations on the effect of friction stir processing on Cu-BN surface composites. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 33(3), 299-307.

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