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Write a progress report of the topic Design Strategy of Air conditioning for a residential building
This study is based on defining a good design plan for heating ventilation and air conditioning for domestic building. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems perform cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air from outside to dilute the interior contaminants like volatile organic compounds and odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings (Anson, 2017).
Air is cooled and dehumidified by the conditioner as it passes over the cold coil’s surface. The coil inside the houses in heat exchanger of air to liquid with the tube rows where the liquid passes Fined connected surfaces to the tubes increases the coil surface‘s area hence increasing the characteristics of heat transfer the air passing over the coil and also liquid passing through the coil and the type of liquid used to depend on the selected system (Attia, 2015).
Through the innovative evaluation of new efficiency of energy for construction packages in Texas, BSC seek to get more evidence about the performance of technologies of energy efficient designed for the production builder in the climate of hot humid.
This research addresses many barriers and gaps. The technology package proposed for this project is appropriate for the production of family detached houses. From the perspective of the science building, the Houston package is good for other products in the environments of humid hot. The information gotten through the research about the technology package implementation at the scale of the productive community at low-performance data from the houses of the community will support the deployment of the package in new housing across the climatic zones of hot humid (B.mazumdar, 2011).
The immediate impact of the research will be to inform the work of David Weekley homes. Lessons gotten in economic variation in contractability and design can be applied to businesses mode; in the future production of buildings. The adoption of stringent international codes of energy conservation is reducing the performance gap between code built home and ones constructed to meet the standard of energy efficiency. The component of IECC is the mandatory inclusion of the system of heating ventilation and air conditioning and this mandate is making constructors to establish strategies of cost-effective for the ductwork movement to the thermal enclosure (Bauer, 2016). The project also can impact BA measures on improving the designs' replicability and cost-effectiveness that meet both the current code of energy and also in future improvement of the proposed building codes. This gives an opportunity for considering the importance of the method of duct location inside the conditioned space for production home builders to remain competitive in their markets. The paper gives the constructions and design data for production builder in the climate of hot humid (Beavers, 2014).
The study is based on the identification of the best strategies of design for implementation of air conditioning to suit the needs of cooling of the residential building. The passive strategies of cooling gains control over dissipation of heat are taken as good for the consistent climatic area while in modern houses, temperature changing is the major problem faced by the occupants. The unsuitable design cause heat to be trapped that increases temperature inside the room. The area of the roof that surrounds the building walls is known as a critical part because it is exposed to heat caused by high radiation of solar. The determination of this design strategies will reduce consumption of energy and provides comfort to the tenants of the building. This research has been undertaken to determine the best strategy design for conditioning air in the building so the requirement of the occupants in terms of comfort is fulfilled with respect to climate change (Beavers, 2014).
The occupants of houses are facing problems caused by changes in temperature, the unsuitable design cause heat to trapped by an increase in temperatures inside the rooms.to prevent all the problems it suitable to design a heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in the conditioned rooms (Beerepoot, 2014).
The developing countries majorly that are located in dry climate regions experience the problem of heat retention by the building if ventilation is not enough for cooling at night. The residential building is designed without considering factors that are responsible for the thermal comfort and efficient use of energy, hence the dependence on the artificial lighting and ventilation is prevalent every residential building. Frequent power disruption and load shedding during summer make the life occupants more troublesome more so in hot summers between mid-marches and May (Binggeli, 2014).
The aim of the research is to study the air conditioning design strategy for the residential building to reduce the challenges faced by residents in the changing climatic zones. Some of the research questions that are prepared to perfume this study in details follow:
The implementation of the proper strategy of design for air conditioning in residential building is the essential element to fulfil the requirement of the occupants. The building strategy is continuously situated in changing the climate that needs proper strategy for installation of air conditioning (Bodart, 2015). The objectives prepared for performing the research include:
The strategies that exist for duct location in the conditioned space. The figure below shows the design 1 strategy where the air handling unit is located in the mechanical closet in the living space and the ductwork is located in the series of dropped ceiling placed strategically. The benefit of the design is to remain roof space becomes the traditional insulation and the typical vented can be installed. The barrier of air bec0ke the two-dimensional plane with the penetration of duct which is the simplified geometry of air barrier and it's economical. Negative impacts of the strategy are: conditioned area of the floor lost because of mechanical cost, lower ceiling level that reduced the architectural aesthetics, and potential noise from the mechanical closet (Bom, 2012).
Risks of air handling unit closet noise can be prevented by implementing measures like: installing the speed variable of air handling unit with motor commutated electronically as the motors are quieter than permanent traditional split motor capacitors; installing at the mechanical closet a weather-stripped door; designing the duct system to perfume low velocities in return and supply plenums recommended by Building Science Corporation (Bradshaw, 2013).
Another strategy is where the air handler is in mechanical closet and the ductwork is in the attic close to ceiling plane. Traditional insulation is installed and the ductwork is covered in insulation. Its advantage is that it doesn't require the dropped ceiling through its disadvantages are conditioned area of floor lost because of mechanical close and penetration of duct exist through the barrier of air which needs more air sealing (Brinkman, 2016)
The third strategy is where the air handling unit is placed in an air sealed coffered insulated closet in the attic and the ductwork is in dropped ceiling placed strategically. Its advantages are: no penetration of duct through the barrier of air and also the removal of air handling unit from the conditioned space is possible. Its disadvantages are: more complexity is added for air barrier and extraction is three dimensional and access to space coffer is the need and may not be easy with complicated attic design (C, 2013)
The fourth design is where the air handling unit and all work duct are located in air coffered insulated closet in the attic. Importance of the of the strategy is the removal of the air handling unit from the living space conditioned and elimination of duct penetration through the air barrier and also dropped ceiling elimination (Clarkin, 2016). The last strategy is where the air handling unit and ductwork is placed in the attic and thermal and air barrier is moved to sheathing of underside roof. The main benefit of the strategy is the removal of air handling unit and elimination of duct penetration through air barrier. Its disadvantages are the increased cost because of additional f insulated surface area and requirement of permeable insulation. A builder can install; spray foam for the reminder of insulation of the roof o tot install, the traditional insulation of cavities in the rafter joints (Commerce, 2017).
Builder's science corporations discussed the cons and pros of these duct strategy designs. It was agreed that the strategies 1 and 5 are ideal but these strategies are implemented frequently in residential homes. The strategy two is nor bit good because of the added penetrations and condensation on the buried duct in a hot climate. Strategy 2 and 4 would address for addressing how to locate the duct in the space conditioned in replicable and economical methods. The hybrid design represents the method of the design that is worthwhile of research effort because of lack of work with specific strategy. Because this complex varies, the best strategies for the designing the heating ventilation and air conditioning system in the residential buildings is strategy 3 and 4 (Cooper, 2012).
Air conditioning systems accomplish cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air outside the house to weaken the contaminants airborne inside the house like organic compounds which are volatile and the ones producing odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings. Air is cooled and dehumidified by the air conditioner as it passes over the surface of the cold coil (Stamper, 2013). The coil inside the house is the heat exchanger of air to liquid with the tube rows where the liquid is passed via coil. Fined connected surfaces to the tubes increases the cold surface area hence increasing the characteristics the air and heat passing over the coil and also liquid through the coil and the type of liquid used to depend on the selected system.
In the situation where the system expands directly, air is passed over the coil in the refrigerant heat inside the house and the boiling point transform it to warm gas from cold liquid. warm vapour is pushed from the cooling coil through the tube of copper to compressor where the compression of warm gas occurs. Sometimes, the accumulator is put between the compressor and the coil of cooling to capture liquid refrigerant is not used and make sure that only vapour enters the compressor (Siegenthaler, 2012). The pressure of the vapour refrigerants is increased by the process of compression and increases the vapour temperatures. Vapor is compressed by the compressor through the heat exchanger called outdoor condenser where hot gas is compressed to a warm liquid of high pressure and heat is rejected. Warm liquid of high pressure is pumped through the small copper tube to a filter and to the device of expansion where the liquid of high pressure is reduced to liquid of low pressure, the cold liquids enter the coil of cooling inside the room and the process starts again (Santamouris, 2017).
As this liquid passes through cooling coil inside the house on the heat exchanger, two occurrences are noted over the surface of the coil on the outside of the heat exchanger. The temperature of air dropped and the air's moisture is removed if the dew point of the indoor air is more than the surface of the coil’s temperature. The cooling of the air conditioning systems is the addition of the latent and sensible cooling. Many aspects affect the cooling capacity of DX conditioner and is inversely proportional to the temperature of outdoors. Indoor temperature and the humidity affects the total capacity of the system of AC. As indoor temperature roses, the capacity of latent of air conditioning system increase. Those manufacturing air conditioning systems normally give the map of the performance of scientific equipment to give hoe sensible and latent capacity changes with the changing outdoor and indoor humidity and temperature (Santamouris, 2011).
Air conditioning systems provide humidly control and cooling in the whole building. The buildings with air conditioners have windows that are sealed because open windows work against the intended system to maintain indoor conditions to be constants. Air conditioning and refrigeration are given through the removal of heat through convection, radiation and conduction. Plants of air conditioning system should improve to reduce the energy use. Before any modification is commenced, the record of maintenance should be checked and ascertain the replacement of Filters, cooling and heating coil cleaning, and control damper maintenance has been regularly attended. The existing of the ducting systems should be examined to ensure that there is no leaks and gaskets should be replaced where needed. Insulation is also very important since heat loss or coldness through the ducts steel is expensive, therefore, all ducting should be examined for the breakdown insulation and new components can be fitted to the ducting (Shah, 2013)
Systems of cooling
This system function when the indoor air handling unit and unit of outdoor condensing are combined. The indoor handling units have the fan that supply air and air to the refrigerant coil of cooling, and the device of expansion. The outdoor unit of condensation has a condenser coil and a compressor. The split systems are gotten in small commercial buildings or the residential buildings and have the greater rating of energy proficiency or of the available air conditioning systems. Manufactures are needed to take the rating of energy efficiency. Further, step and gives the seasonal rating of the efficient energy for use by the consumers. The rating of the seasonal energy efficiency rating vary range and vary from 10 to 20. The greater the SEER rating, the better the operation of the AC systems. If the heating is needed, another method of heating the inside the building must be used in form of gas heating or the electric (Economy, 2011).
This system is a unit that combines the components described in the systems of split and it is positioned outside the house and the indoor air is ducted from the house to the system and back through the system of air spreading. These units normally have SEER rating from 10 to 18. If the heating is needed, an alternatives methods like gas heating and electric heating shows (Elsevier, 2014).
Heat pump: are similar to the cooling only system. A distinct valve is the piping of refrigeration allows the sequence of refrigeration to be done in opposite. The pump of heat can cool the air inside the house but when reversed the valve, the air inside the door is heated. The heater of supplementary resistance of electric may be used to assist the resist the heat pump at the low temperature of the outdoors. In colder climates, heat pumps need defrost period, and during this time the electric heater is the means of heating the interior of the building and manufactured as package or split systems (Engineering Publications, 2017).
Chilled water system: In a chilled system of water, water liquid is pumped through the building to the chilled coil of water. Because the liquid water requires being at low temperature, a cooling company is needed. the plant is known as chiller plant and vapours compressor in it cools water to the cold temperature and pump it to air to water heat exchanger where required.
Window air conditioner: As the name implies, a window air conditioner is normally installed in the window or the custom opening the wall. The window air conditioner can cool small areas and cannot provide cooling to many zones or rooms. They are manufactured as cool to provide heating and cooling and optional dumper in the unit can provide fresh air outside the building is important (Enteria, 2013).
Packaged terminal heat pump: Packaged terminal heat pump are same with conditions mounted on the window. These units are installed in the sleeves passing through the walls of outdoor of the apartment, classroom or hotel. Packaged terminal heat pumps are self-contained and need electrical connection and opening the shell of the building. They use the outdoor air as the source of heat in winter and summer. They also give ventilation air and its advantage is the flexibility and lower cost for installation. Disadvantages include in-room maintenance, short life, the high cost of operation, temperature control, and can be noisy (Hall, 2013).
Comfort application of the air conditioning systems provides a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant despite the conditions of the environment. They make deep building plans feasible, and allow the building to be taller since wind males the natural ventilation. Comfort applications are grouped as commercial buildings, residential buildings, institutional building, and low rise residential building (Hall, 2013).
Three plans of different floor types were chosen for the research studies, spanning the range of house complexities and sizes. Every plan of the floor was selected for grouping in terms of systems of air conditioning. they include:
The architects drafted the duct design for every plan of the floor, based off of the discussion with builders Science Corporation on three homes added in the site tour. The architects shared their preference for location of the ceiling that is dropped with builders Science Corporation and this guided the development of duct design for every floor plans. Below are the preferred dropped ceilings in directives. (Harris, 2016).
In places where the ceiling dropped are not favored, the constructors encouraged the duct coffers in attic space construction. The duct coffers would be created of board duct and would be installed by the heating ventilation and air conditioning installer instead of framer as a measure pod saving cost. Otherwise more visit would be needed of surrounding crews after the installation of ductwork to construct the coffers that coffers would be made worth expensive material of a wood. The contractors of heating ventilation and air conditioning can be instructed to tape all seems and foam spray between ceiling plane and coffers (Heating, 2016). Plans on how to design better residential houses with suitable air conditioning air explained in detail below:
Plan A represent the small single story floor plan of 1757ft2 thus David's weekly show the desire to avoid placing the mechanical closet in the space conditioned. The mechanical coffer can be located above a part of closet utility, 3 bedrooms, and the closet of the master walk in. in the utility closet is where the attic hatch can be located. It was determined that the du t strategy of plan A would be located in the dropped ceiling system and single duct coffer for study and dining. The coffer utilization in the zone was needed to evade the dropping ceiling in the study and dining rooms, which are known as dangerous areas. The diagram 1 below illustrates the layout of duct for plan A. The shaded area that is diagonal describes the mechanical closet in the space of attic. The parts that are shaded designates the ceiling dropped for the location of ductwork in the space conditioned (Inc, 2017). The black triangle icon shows the wall supply location registered for serving the attached rooms. The square in red signifies the furnace place in the mechanical closet. Rooms having dropped ceilings have grilles of ceiling supply.
During the process of design, all coffers need insulation level for consistent values through the ceiling plane. Plywood is used in the ceiling plane to prevent the dropping of ceilings.
Layout for plan A
Plan B is a medium sized of 2179fr2 for two-story floor plan with single heating ventilation and air condition system. The David Weekley home utilized the space of knee wall on the on the second floor as the mechanical closet, efficiently transforming the knee wall space to the small cathedralized unvented attic. The red squares in figure shore the furnace place in the space of kneel wall and the red thick line shows the major return line truck that dismisses the grille at the landing stairs. the mechanical closet is reachable by door in the opposite of adjacent bedroom the David Weekley homes determined the system duct would be located in the dropped ceilings series in both first and second floor (J, 2014).
The option of the open web trusses is noted in both existing homes and initial tour and in better designs phases of the research home. It was agreed that joists web would not be the duct layout. The simplicity of the systems of surrounding floor is many flush beams for eliminating the option of the ductwork routine in the floor system in main sites, but upgrading the floor system of framing from lumber dimension to floor of the open web was not justifiable (Jagadish, 2014).
Plan C is large of 4167fr2 two-story building plan of a floor. There are two systems of air conditioning in the house, one is in downstairs and another one in upstairs. The David Weekley homes utilized a bonus room closet as a mechanical closet for the second-floor unit. The square in red shows the position of the furnace. The ceiling is dropped for many trunk supplies to be installed for routing ducts to the guest suite. The red solid shapes are coffers and were implemented to avoid ceiling dropping in the hallways (Keeler, 2013).
Coffers were created for the furnace of the upstairs to allow more space to rout the ductwork to coffer for the bedroom five and four (Kelly, 2015).
The researcher through the builders' science corporation visited and performed tests of their research homes. The objective of the testing was to make sure that every house is commissioned fully and includes the following performances tests:
Testing the infiltration: the test of the blower door produced1082.0CFM 50.0 and is goal of under the 1469 goal of CFM. The infiltration rate targeted is equal to leak ratio of 0.250.. This rate of infiltration id normally most builders’ science corporation projects that are BA part.
Testing duct: the total leakage of duct 189CFM 25 constitutes the 24 percent of 800 CFM of the flow of minimal cooling and is greater than what is usually gotten at David Weekley home houses and greater than the 155 of total duct leakage recommended. Total duct leakage is less critical characteristics of operation when the whole system in situated in the space conditioned, because the leakage is inside the building. In some case, then leakage duct can impact negatively on the comfort level even when the duct is placed in the conditioned space (Kutz, 2016). The builders and the constrictors of heating, ventilation and air conditioning are aware of the results and are struggling to advance in the future home. This rise in the leakage duct may be because of different strategies of ducting used in their homes but a full analysis. Consequent identification of the locations of leaks was not able to be performed because of the many ductworks concealed in dropping ceilings and beneath insulations. The metric for assessing the tightness of the duct for the system located in the spaced conditioned in the leaking duct to the outside test. The builders’ science corporation requires, for projects of BA that leakage of duct to outside be restricted to 5%of the flow of total cooling. Plan A passes have 4% leakage duct to outside, the air flow to the outside was measured with the barometer flow hood at the termination of exterior walls (Liu, 2014).
The hood flow was used to measure inflow at every register of the supply. all flow was measured with the systems of air conditioning in the 2nd stage of cooling, in this way, unit will be functioning in to meet point set during the event of the cooling load. A manometer was used to measure ESPs in the return and supply plenum of air conditioning system. The manufactures of the air conditioning systems mention that air handling unit should not work more than 0.5 WIC as this restrictive airflow. The system of duct at plan A is flexible according to the static measurement of pressure. This was made on the dry cooling coil of cooling.
The blower door produces 1189CMF 50, and is good under the 1432 CMF goal, causing in the ratio of the leak of 0.21 CMF.
The duct testing: the total leakage of the duct of 189 CMF 25 constitute 14% of the total 1200 CMF of the flow of minimal cooling. This meet the builders’ science corporation suggested the maximum of 15% total leakage of the duct. The outside duct leakage was confirmed at 3% of the flow of insignificant cooling and meet five percent of builders’ science corporation requirement for the leakage of outside duct (Madsen, 2017).
The test of blower door produced 288CMF5o, and is good for the CMF goal of 2208, causing in ratio leakage of 0.33 CMF. Builders Science Corporation worked with rater locally to identify the locations of air leakages. The major air leakage source that was gotten was not related to the strategy of location of duct related to the work of research. The pathways with air leakage were realized in first knee way of story attic at the house front. These air leakages pathways were closed by the person building and then retested by the local organization. The rate of infiltration was gotten to 0.26 leak ratio (Magrini, 2014).
There were two systems of air conditioning in this house, downstairs and upstairs unit. The total leakage duct for both upstairs and downstairs units are 25and 95CFM112 constitutes 123% of 800 CMF of the flow of nominal cooling for every unit. This meet the builders' science corporation recommended 15% total leakage duct. The duct leak to outside be measured at 4 and 3 % of minimal flow and meets 5% leak duck requirement to outside, duct of outside air was fitted on the furnace downstairs so no flow of air of outside size was present on units upstairs (Measurements, 2013).
The systems of air conditioning are capable to give adequate flow of air despite the leakage of the duct. This can be recognized because most fitted air conditioning systems are large when compared to J CFM manual flow calculated. The air conditioning equipment especially the systems of cooling are of restricted size and two-stage SEE 16 systems of cooling installed at home shave more sizing options. Available in one tonne increment than a half ton that mostly in most condensers. The best cooling systems’ sizes is typically slightly large compared to the load of actual houses peaks (Merz, 2016).
Leakage of duct to outside testing is a test of performance that moves the border from ductwork to the houses’ air barrier. This investigation suggest how good ducts are sealed and confirmed in the space conditioned. The duct leakage measured to outside is not the sign that is directly leaked to the outside by the ducts since the duct will leak into space conditioned that they are located in. depending on the air exchange rate of the conditioned space to the outside, some op air can leak outside but usually after the conditioning of the interior space condition (Office, 2010).
The cost for moving the systems of air conditioning into the space conditioned can be damaged into the additional mechanical cost an additional enclosure cost. The air conditioner in these homes was advanced from stage 15 SEER systems to improve the performance of energy of the homes to meet the BA targets. This advancement is irrelevant to the goal of research on the ductwork location in the space conditioned through the economical method. The costs of the air conditioning systems for this section assume no change in air in the efficient conditioner (Owens, 2017).
The duct analysis of cost design will display that the strategy is cost-effective in existing plans of floor against the approach of building cathedralized unvented attic. It is expensive because the moving cost the ducts to the space conditioned by emerging new plans for scratch to allow the constructor elasticity in creating more rooms to escape the expensive coffers up into the attic space.
The costs projected resemble the costs estimated in future and comprise the enhancements on the application of the measures. A decrease in air conditioner tonnage was promising because of the rearrangement of the whole systems of air conditioning into the conditioned space. The contractors of the air conditioning systems are expecting reduction of 43% in savings and should be applied in future plans. The total projected cost for both mechanical and enclosure measures of this plan is $3911. BEopt predicts the savings of 92% in yearly utility cost when relocating the ductwork to the space conditioned (Press, 2014).
Only one additional beam
Costs of initial framing includes corrective various measures
Thin sheathing profile
OSB would be installed for mechanical closet
Mechanical coffer foam spray
Low density of spray foam of spray cell
It is not expensive according to designers
Canned spray foam
Methods of installation are expected to improve
Mechanical closet is attic hence no drywall is needed for this research
Additional days of construction
20 day of additional construction expected to be reduced to 7
Insulation, coffer materials, dropped air barrier ceiling, trough
Savings of 41% is projected
Table 1 above show plan An enclosure costs
Table 2 below shoes plan A mechanical cost
Downsizing of air conditioning materials
Saving for downsizing system from 3 to 2 ton
Ductwork cost of materials
Ductwork reduction because use of more centralized layout and tonnage saving
Ductwork labour cost
Methods of installation will make it improves
Savings of 43% projected
The additional mechanical cost of this plan is 4128. The projected savings for the plan B is 63% that is higher than in plan A and this is because plan B is having single air conditioning systems that serve both second and first floor. The complexities of ducting al floors to the single furnace resulted in higher initials costs than other houses (Publishers, 2013).
Savings of 45% is projected
Table 3 above shows plan B enclosure cost
Savings of 63% projected
Table 4 above show mechanical cost of plan B
The most important thing is that the extra drywall was needed for the second closet mechanical because of the alteration from one to two air conditioning systems. The extra mechanical costs for the plan 4069. Included in the cost is the air conditioning system that shifted from one zone to another system. The saving projected of plan C IS 42% which is very same to plan A 43%. The air conditioning systems at plan C creates a two-story floor or plans with isolated systems fixed to another (Qi, 2012).
Needed for constriction of raceway
Thicker sheet is recommended for work in future
Systems designers will install drywall crew for mechanical closet
Savings of 61% is projected
Table 5 above show enclosure costs for Plan C
Downsizing of air conditioning systems
Saving of downsizing the air conditioning systems from 5 to 4 ton
Zoned single to two furnaces
Cost of furnace added minus control zoning
Methods of installation will cause improvements
Ductwork material cost
Reduction in the ductwork because of tonnage saving
Projected savings of 42%
Table 6 above show plan C mechanical cost
The mechanical coffer consists of a major portion of the cost for air conditioning system moving in the spaced conditioned but the builder believes that a person who owns the home values the living space that is saved by lack of furnace in a closet in the space of main living. The paybacks for these homes are higher but ducts in the spaced conditioned produce important predicted improvements in efficiency through metrics. BEopt predicts the yearly improvement of the energy source of 5to 6% when the ductwork is moved in the conditioned space. The rate predicts the decrease of around 4 to 5 HERS index point for similar measures (summaries, 2015).
There are important improvements in performance predicted as most upgrades usually impact HERS index on the range of 1to 3 points. Energy codes like IECC and good programs like DOE challenge program home need duct in the space conditioned regardless the economics. The moving ducts in the conditioned rooms are not the upgrade for the builders since it's affected by rating programs and stringent codes (Yao, 2013).
David weekely homes stated the desire to good understanding the effects of2015 IECC codes changes according to the performance of energy. It was speculated by the builders’ science corporation that the performance of energy threshold for the 2015IECC will be 50% of the IECC of 2006 mandate provided. The compliance of IECC is calculated presently for cooling, heating and only hot water. This analyses, therefore, shoe how the DWH plan of the floor can save around 50% in cooling, heating and energy of using hot water compared to the 2006IECC. The index of HER is involved in the analysis as the additional metric as it is good to builders and raters (Wilson, 2013).
Plan 1 was taken for the research since its floor was the smallest among other plan of the research houses and hence is conservative. REM/rate version 14.0 was used for the work. The architectural corporation energy produced the software and is one of the best residential modelling software package in the industry being recognized. The HERS organization rating for the DWH hence the methodology and work are easily transferable to the contractors of DWH (Whitman, 2012).
The considered upgrade in this research was chosen in the effort of collaboration with BSC and DWH, as the DWH best understand what then upgrades are integrated easily into the environment of creation hence. Other options of upgrade were removed by corporation directly with the constructors so that the results represent the upgrade package which is economical for the DWH and it’s very easy to integrate into the current production (Whitcomb, 2016).
The starting point for the analysis to begin plan I with DWH characteristics include:
Plan A with the characteristic of the buildings saved 39% versus the IECC of 2006and score 66 on the index of HERS. The plan meet 50% energy saving using the methodologies of the current of evaluating heating and cooling and every run is increasing. The largest provider to the saving energy is run 1: moving the ductwork and furnace inside the space conditioned results to the savings of energy of 44% verse the IECC of 2006 and HERS index of 62. Run 2 to 8 apply upgrades that are preferred by DWH to reflect about achieving 50%of the saving versus 2006 IECC. Run 8: is not important step for getting50% saving energy verses IECC OF 2006 (Wayne C. Turner, 2016)
The work of the DWH answered the following questions of the research
What is the most effective, method and best performing method of dust location in the spaced conditioned for hot humid homes
DWH believe that this strategy developed for the ductwork location in the space conditioned are prospective as the economic method of improving the energy efficiency for the existing home production. However, the builders do not trust that plans of developing new floors from the scratch will enable more economic incorporation of ductwork in the conditioned space. This approach of engineering system can prevent the mechanical requirement for the coffers in the attic space and could enable the use of dropped ceilings for the location of ductwork (Traister, 2015).
The DWH has delivered constructive response on the design of the dust that was implemented at the research home. The development of dust coffers in the attic enables the DWH to embrace the location strategy of the ductwork in the conditioned space in present stock of the house without relying on the dropped ceiling. Without any coffers would be the best strategy that is economical for the ducts location. However, this design is perceived by the builder as having the negative effect of aesthetics and cannot attract customers. And it's the most development in the work of research. The main objective of the research was to give the working alternative for the builders who want to move the air conditioning systems in the conditioned space without dropped prolonged ceilings and a mechanical closet or converting to cathedralized of the unvented attic (Traister, 2015).
DWH is sure about the cost for moving ducts into spaced conditioned can be reduced in the homes in future. The methodology is known as the retrofit in that the existing plans of the floor have to be changed to aloe the implementation of the strategies. The ADWH has expressed interest in developing new plans for the floor that more seemingly to integrate the air conditioning systems as part of the spaced conditioned. This work will need collaboration between air conditioning systems contractors and architect and can design the design of cost-effective. The estimators of cost are available for the approach of integrative. It is significant to note that the change in the requirement of codes and criteria for their programs of energy efficiency is forcing the DWH to integrate ducts to the conditioned space in the portfolio of the existing plans of the floor (T, 2014).
This work of the research identifies the most strategy that is economical to move the ductwork into space conditioned for the plans of the existing floor. DWH lack resources to develop new plans for the floor although the design represents the approach that is effective in terms of cost of moving the air conditioning systems within the space conditioned. Every house was appointed by the Builders science corporation and was found to conform the specification of BA. The rate of infiltration for these plans was lesser than the ones constructed by DWN and it is maintained that it can be improved in the future homes. Degradation was not noted in the performance of mechanical for systems of enclosure during contracting. The ductwork correctly fixed and appropriate airflow is provided to all rooms through mechanical systems, duck leaks outside the measurements have improved (Technology, 2010).
It was speculated by builders Sciences Corporation that the IECC of 2015 will command the efficiency of the energy threshold equals to 50% energy saving versus IECC of 2006. The analysis was done REM/ rate to find the best upgrades to attain 50%. Moving the air conditioning systems to the conditioned space was the major upgrading for the fact analysis in the constituted large increase in efficiency compared to other upgrades. Moving system of air conditioning to the space conditioned, the builder identify the economical upgrade to implement its production to the environment. These include the upgrade ceiling insulations and walls and also increase in air conditioner and efficiencies of the water heated
The estimated initial cost for moving the air conditioning systems to the conditioned space were to post constructions confirmed. DWH does estimates that it saves 40 to 50% of the mounted cost of the enclosure and mechanical components strategy of the duct design. This interprets to 2000 to 4000 in the savings in every house when the builder and the air conditioning system contractor improve this approach. The projected costs estimates for other enclosure and mechanical upgrades not related to duct design strategies are close to the costs confirmed as the production builder has the widespread experience in costing more options for the products (States, 2011).
This research paper is about the systems of air conditioning in the resident’s building, air conditioning systems accomplish cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air outside the house to weaken the contaminants airborne inside the house like organic compounds which are volatile and the ones producing odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings. Air is cooled and dehumidified by the air conditioner as it passes over the surface of the cold coil (Stamper, 2013). The coil inside the house is the heat exchanger of air to liquid with the tube rows where the liquid is passed via coil. Fined connected surfaces to the tubes increases the cold surface area hence increasing the characteristics the air and heat passing over the coil and also liquid through the coil and the type of liquid used to depend on the selected system.
Air conditioning systems provide humidly control and cooling in the whole building. The buildings with air conditioners have windows that are sealed because open windows work against the intended system to maintain indoor conditions to be constants. Air conditioning and refrigeration are given through the removal of heat through convection, radiation and conduction. Plants of air conditioning system should improve to reduce the energy use. Before any modification is commenced, the record of maintenance should be checked and ascertain the replacement of Filters, cooling and heating coil cleaning, and control damper maintenance has been regularly attended. The existing of the ducting systems should be examined to ensure that there is no leaks and gaskets should be replaced where needed. Insulation is also very important since heat loss or coldness through the ducts steel is expensive, therefore, all ducting should be examined for the breakdown insulation and new components can be fitted to the ducting (Shah, 2013).
Plants of HVAC system should improve to reduce the energy use. Before any modification is commenced, the record of maintenance should be checked and ascertain the replacement of Filters, cooling and heating coil cleaning, and control damper maintenance has been regularly attended. The existing of the ducting systems should be examined to ensure that there is no leaks and gaskets should be replaced where needed. Insulation is also very important since heat loss or coldness through the ducts steel is expensive, therefore, all ducting should be examined for the breakdown insulation and new components can be fitted to the ducting. The modern duct can be bought pre-insulated with the high insulation efficiency should be considered in the upgrade (Madsen, 2017).
the designer of HVAC systems are known for being heavy-handed when calculating ventilation and heating requirements of the building. The following components can be upgraded:
Electric motors: fans of air circulation driven by the electric motors are examples of overrating. The first thing to check is rating plate against the requirements of the design in the original specification. Good motor allows the speed of the fan to be altered during changing conditions.
Air filters: air filters should be replaced with filters that are efficient and can make the saving in the energy of driving motor fan and reusable filters are always used because they are cheaper to maintain and buy. The permanent filter is costly and require regular cleaning and stripping (Shen, 2014).
Fabrication of ducting: the fabrication of ducting of the air conditioning system should use measures of energy efficient like turn vanes at 90 degrees bend and smooth transitions between the component and ducting of different sections and sizes. Galvanic corrosion between stainless steel and galvanized steel should be prevented by isolating them and will save costs of replacements.
Grillers and diffusers: the supply and extraction of the air to the rooms can be made suitable by using the modern grillers and filters to improve also control of inflow. These make sure that optimum air amount is admitted and extracted from the rooms and promoted equal room temperatures (States, 2016).
The hot and cold air is supplied by the fans to the buildings that draw the air in the handling unit through the coil. Large buildings use hot water supplied by the furnace to circulate through the coil giving out cold water and hot air from the chillers used for air conditioning. The use of heat pumps can save energy in heating and cooling. In the mode of hot air, the refrigerant gas is circulated to the coil as the pump of condense ids in the AHU. When the draw the air in the coil, the refrigerant condense to liquid to produce air and heat and fans produce hot air to the building. In the mode of air conditioning, the system is reversed by the valve of reversing. The coil in AHU functions like evaporator with their liquid refrigerant being the circulated to the coil. The air is drawn by fans, evaporates and converts it to gas this remove heat from the air before it is supplied to the building by fans (Santamouris, 2012).
The system can be made suitable by using geothermal energy in form of the geothermal heat pumps, which is good for big building provided there is space for locating the buried pipes loops. It can be used in the building during winter and summer, during winter, heat pumps use underground heat to evaporate the refrigerant. Heat from the refrigerant gas is transferred to air used to heat the building. In the summers, the heat pump is used to cool air by dissipating heat from the building back to the ground through geothermal loops. Refrigerant is becoming more friendly to environment that reduce the efficiency
Modern air and conditioning systems management can improve the systems' efficiency. The control systems monitors the pressure and temperatures of the air at a strategic point through the systems of air conditioning. they include; electrostatic programming thermostat; check on the condition of sir for filtration and humidity; ducting static pressure controlling and monitoring through adjusting the fans circulating and zones sensors.
This research paper is about the systems of air conditioning in the resident’s building, air conditioning systems accomplish cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air outside the house to weaken the contaminants airborne inside the house like organic compounds which are volatile and the ones producing odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings. Air is cooled and dehumidified by the air conditioner as it passes over the surface of the cold coil. Air conditioning systems provide humidly control and cooling in the whole building. The buildings with air conditioners have windows that are sealed because open windows work against the intended system to maintain indoor conditions to be constants. Air conditioning and refrigeration are given through the removal of heat through convection, radiation and conduction. Plants of air conditioning system should improve to reduce the energy use.
This study is based on defining a good design plan for heating ventilation and air conditioning for domestic building. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems perform cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air from outside to dilute the interior contaminants like volatile organic compounds and odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings. Air conditioning systems accomplish cooling and heating for the residents, commercial and industrial building. They may be responsible for the giving the fresh air outside the house to weaken the contaminants airborne inside the house like organic compounds which are volatile and the ones producing odours emitted from the furnishing and chemicals used for the cleanings.
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