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3HL005 Health And Health Behaviour

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  • Course Code: 3HL005
  • University: University Of Wolverhampton
  • Country: United Kingdom


With reference to your wellness plan and relevant theory, discuss how psychological factors influence health behaviour.

This assignment has 2 main sections.

  1. Health Behaviour

    a. What is meant by the term health behaviour?
    b. Select a specific health behaviour and discuss the evidence concerning its harmful/enhancing impact on health.
  1. Psychological influences on health behaviour

    a. How does psychology explain why people engage in your chosen health behaviour (or not, as the case may be)? You should refer to concepts discussed in lectures such as the Health Beliefs Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Stress, Motivation, and Personality.

    b. Refer to your wellness plan. To what extent have you made progress in achieving the goals set out in the plan? From a psychological perspective what has helped and what has hindered your progress?



Health behaviour is defined as an activity undertaken by an individual to improve the health status of an individual by promoting and protecting the behaviours related to their health. In this report, the first section focuses on the term health behaviour and the specific behaviour on health and various reasons why it has impacted the health.  The second section focuses on some psychology factors which engage an individual in health behaviour. A brief explanation of concepts such as the Health Beliefs Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Stress, Motivation, and Personality are related to the wellness plan. In this report we would be focusing on the health issue of anxiety that leads to frequent panic attacks due to depression or stress.  

Health behaviour

Health behaviour is generally defined as an action that is taken to detect and prevent the disease for improving the health status of wellbeing. It can be also be defined as a change in a behavioural pattern of an individual that relates to improvement of health by restoring it to normal condition (Hollands, et. al, 2016). In terms of this assignment when a person is suffering from anxiety disorder has some mental stress which changes the normal way of living in an individual. In this way, if appropriate care designs are composed, this could assist a person with recovering from the typical condition. Wellbeing conduct consolidates the physical and additionally social prosperity of an individual ensuring that there is no ailment. Wellbeing conduct can likewise be characterized as an individual wellbeing status which is conveyed by each person and endeavours are been made for ensuring and looking after it. Health behaviour can also be defined as an individual health status which is carried by every individual and efforts are been made for protecting and maintaining it. Health behaviour can be improved by an individual by motivating themselves to stay healthy. In this report, the issue of anxiety disorder is discussed as it has adverse effect on their health. Thus proper steps need to be taken to maintain good health this could be done by undertaken ways that will relieve stress among an individual (Giles, et. al, 2014).


Health Behaviour for Anxiety

Anxiety is seen among youngsters these days and it has harmful effect on their health. The reason why people are suffering from this disorder is due to stressful environment or some mental health problems like depression, shortness of breath or feeling of dizziness (Head and Noar, 2014). But it has an adverse effect on the health condition of an individual as it leads to negative affect on a person’s body. Instead of relieving the stress they tend to increase more problems in the body. Anxiety disorder also causes psychological dependence as it has direct effect on the nerve system. Anxiety have various stages, if it is at its peak it leads to various problems like severe headaches, imbalance of blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, lungs disease or diabetes (Andrew, Tiggemann and Clark, 2016).

Harmful impact on health

Anxiety has adverse effect on human health as it affects the brain cells which may lead to memory loss and also increases the risk of other disease like dementia (Chavira, 2017). When a person suffers from this disorder he/she indulge themselves in negative talks about themselves. This deadly condition weakens the heart muscles and can also cause blood clots that can cause issue in the heart chamber. Thus wide range of mechanisms is available for coping with this disorder.  The impact can be reduced by using medication drugs or cognitive-Behaviour therapy which highly recommended for long term treatment. 


Psychological influences on health behaviour

Psychological factors influences the health behaviour in various ways like it helps in removing the inequalities among the population.  Psychosocial factors deals with the social context with respect to parents, schools and the peer in the surrounding (Green and Murphy, 2014). Thus psychosocial hardships have increased the risk of disease which is majorly associated with anxiety or fear. The psychosocial hypothesis states that the reason associated with social disadvantage and physical health is a key to improve the adverse effects on health (Scruggs, et. al, 2018). There are various psychological factors that affect the health status directly or indirectly. Therefore it is necessary to keep track of the entire psychological factor so that they cope up with health issues. There are various theories linked with this health behaviour. Some of the theories used are operant conditioning strategy, the health belief model, trans-theoretical model and various social practice theories (Macinko, et. al, 2015).

Some of the models and strategies used for psychological influences

  • Operant conditioning strategy- It is the process through which behaviour is analysed and by modifying and reinforcing the outcome for betterment. In this steps are undertaken for an individual to control the root causes of anxiety by using the ways by which an individual can adapt to correct behaviour (Prestwich, et. al, 2014). This convention helps in changing the human conduct by defining the reasonable objectives and observing the conduct of an individual so legitimate move could be made to evacuate the unwanted conduct.
  • Health belief model- It is a model used to identify the threats of an individual by perceiving the severity and suspecting the issues so that barriers could be removed to attaining maximizing benefits by undertaking proper actions (Glanz, 2015). This model helps in predicating the health behaviour among students and understanding their concerns so that proper actions could be taken. It is just a kind of fear that a person experience.
  • Trans-theoretical model- Anxiety has several stages and affects the health behaviour of an individual in variety of ways. This method includes designing changes at various stages, then processing the change to maintain a balance of health behaviour. Like in this case, individual can be at initial stage in which they are not aware about the disorder (Otto, et. al,  2016). Thus, preparation is done regarding the symptoms and action is taken at an appropriate time. Once the action plan is decided it keeps track of maintenance policy.

Wellness plan

According to the, designed wellness plan for removing anxiety would help an individual to control the decision making power. Also the wellness plan includes the eating habits that suggest eating sufficient amount of protein that will improve the digestive system of human (Breda, et. al, 2014). Apart from the original plan a backup plan is designed so that it could be used if an original plan doesn’t work. The plan has helped in overcoming the health issue of anxiety apart from that there are various treatment programs that focuses on prevention by identifying the root cause of anxiety and help in coping with the issues (Sheeran, et. al, 2016). There are various psychological factors due to anxiety which is seen among children’s as well as adults. Some of the reason is abuse or felling of isolation or family conflicts. Such psychological consequences lead to stress and have adverse effect on proactive behaviours of an individual. Anxiety can somewhere lead to poor performance among children’s and cause depression in their life. Lack of social connections is also one of the psychological reasons of anxiety. In the research it was addressed that some psychological factors leads to intense exposure to crime. This exposure can lead affect the neurobiological system as well as can cause aggressive problems (De et. al, 2015). This disorder leads to excessive difficult condition, the problem starts with a simple trigger and later on it grows day by day as worries keep on increasing. The wellness plan is defined for those people who worry a lot, the result of this disorder leads to metal disorder. To control the mental illness plan includes suggestion to sleep for good amount of time. The wellness plan is helpful as it keeps the individual busy in some or other thing so that there is no time to worry (Hall, 2015).



It can be concluded that from this assignment that health behaviour is an important accepts in everyone’s life. In this report we have discussed about various methods and strategies that would help an individual to overcome anxiety by avoiding various things. These strategies focus on improving the psychological factors by enlightening the positive aspects and improving the behaviour. In this report we have focused that health is an essential part and have to be taken into priority. In this report we have researched that how anxiety have affected the life span of an individual, what are the adverse effects on human health and what steps need to be undertaken to avoid future consequences.



Andrew, R., Tiggemann, M. and Clark, L., (2016). Positive body image and young women’s health: Implications for sun protection, cancer screening, weight loss and alcohol consumption behaviours. Journal of health psychology, 21(1), pp.28-39.

Breda, J.J., Whiting, S.H., Encarnação, R., Norberg, S., Jones, R., Reinap, M. and Jewell, J., (2014). Energy drink consumption in Europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond. Frontiers in public health, 2, p.134.

Chavira, V.T., (2017). Insider Threats and the Effects of Operant Conditioning (Doctoral dissertation, Utica College), p.45-78.

De Goeij, M.C., Suhrcke, M., Toffolutti, V., van de Mheen, D., Schoenmakers, T.M. and Kunst, A.E., (2015). How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 131, pp.131-146.

Giles, E. L., Robalino, S., McColl, E., Sniehotta, F. F., & Adams, J. (2014). The effectiveness of financial incentives for health behaviour change: systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(3).

Glanz, K., (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Green, E.C. and Murphy, E., (2014). Health belief model. The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of health, illness, behavior, and society, p. 130-180.

Hall, W., (2015). What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use?. Addiction, 110(1), pp.19-35.

Head, K.J. and Noar, S.M., (2014). Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: The reasoned action approach as a case study. Health Psychology Review, 8(1), pp.34-52.

Hollands, G.J., French, D.P., Griffin, S.J., Prevost, A.T., Sutton, S., King, S. and Marteau, T.M., (2016). The impact of communicating genetic risks of disease on risk-reducing health behaviour: systematic review with meta-analysis. 352(3), pp. 76-90.

Macinko, J., Mullachery, P., Silver, D., Jimenez, G. and Neto, O.L.M., (2015). Patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013). PLoS one, 10(7), p.e0134153.

Otto, M.W., Eastman, A., Lo, S., Hearon, B.A., Bickel, W.K., Zvolensky, M., Smits, J.A. and Doan, S.N., (2016). Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion. Clinical psychology review, 49, pp.67-78.

Prestwich, A., Sniehotta, F.F., Whittington, C., Dombrowski, S.U., Rogers, L. and Michie, S., 2014. Does theory influence the effectiveness of health behavior interventions? Meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 33(5), p.465.

Scruggs, S., Mama, S.K., Carmack, C.L., Douglas, T., Diamond, P. and Basen-Engquist, K., (2018). Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Physical Activity Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Transtheoretical Model Variables. Health promotion practice, 19(1), pp.134-144.

Sheeran, P., Maki, A., Montanaro, E., Avishai-Yitshak, A., Bryan, A., Klein, W.M., Miles, E. and Rothman, A.J., (2016). The impact of changing attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy on health-related intentions and behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 35(11), p.1178.

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