Health Advancement and Health Promotion
Depression is normally connected with high death rates, along with elevated levels of suicide rates and negative implications to mind and substantial functioning, especially at an older age. However, the domain of physical movement (PA) demonstrates promising confirmation that PA can treat depression which could maintain a strategic distance from the physiologic reactions and expenses related with endorsed antidepressants (Anglin et al., 2013). With the high rates of depression prevalent everywhere and its weight on well-being and the human services framework, naturally, it would be sensible from a wellbeing point of view to move focus toward keeping the beginning of depression. For imminent investigations that include substantial associates and measure levels of PA and depression at least two periods are required (Sagna, Gallo & Pontone, 2014). Therefore this paper highlights the study of the relationship between physical activity and prevention of depression using a systematic review. The paper further elaborates the method of the study along with the evidences that were collected. The paper also makes suggestions for future research.
Data sources- the data sources that were searched for to collect evidence for the study included a comprehensive search of the following databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database. All the abive databases were searched for between the year 2013 and 2017. The articles which were chosen to conduct the systematic review had a relation between physical activity and depression prevailing in older adults. However additional articles were searched for using the Google scholar. All the articles were related articles and had a detailed use of the outlines of the terms that were used in the comprehensive search.
Search terms or key words- The key terms that were searched for to retrieve the articles involved physical activity, depression, older adults, prevention of depression, interventions for agedcare.
Inclusion/ exclusion criteria
The inclusion criteria were:
The articles were only selected for the systematic review only if the studies involved the following inclusion criteria which were: (1) the study successfully implemented a prospective-based and a longitudinal design; (2) there was an examined and established relationships between physical activity and depression; (3) it has been identified that physical activity is considered as the exposure variable whereas depression as the outcome variable; (4) the study has referred to depression using the depression threshold scores especially on self-report scales or it has used the direct measures of depression mainly like a physician’s assessment or records of hospital discharge (Wayne et al., 2014).
The exclusion criteria were:
The studies were left out from the review if they were cross-sectional or experimental in nature, the articles were not exactly specified to depression; failed to assign the criteria of cut-off to assess category depression; or if it considered individuals at baseline.
Summary of the evidence
The evidences that were included in the study showed that out of 30 of the articles which were finally selected for conduction of the systematic review, eleven of the papers were able to provide information that regarding the change in the levels of physical activity and that how is it related with the occurrence of depression (Stubbs et al., 2014). Out of these 30 studies, only two of the studies were of low quality and two were of high quality which shows no such significant relationship between the levels of the changes in physical activity and that of depression. There were four high quality studies from which it could be deduced that with the reduction of physical activity over a long time, there are chances of increase of the risk of depression that is associated with the increase in the levels of activity (Mammen & Faulkner, 2013). Out of these 30 studies, only one study was of modest methodologic quality, which reported an elevated effect, for those individuals who showed reduced physical activity over time were more than ten times more prone to develop depression. On the other hand three of the high-quality studies rout of the 30 articles revealed that the subjects who underwent increased amount of physical activity over a long time were at a decreased risk of depression which occurred subsequently (Silveira et al., 2013). Finally two of the high-quality studies were able to show that the subjects who were able to maintain their levels of physical activity had a reduced risk of depression which was relative to those who were mostly inactive throughout their period of later ages (Michiels et al., 2013).
Conclusion from evidence
From the above discussion of the evidence it could be concluded that the evidence is enough to deduce that physical activity may prevent depression. Out of the 30 articles, there were twenty-five studies which demonstrated that benchmark PA is conversely identified with follow-up dejection, and the high share of these examinations were of elevated methodologic quality. The imminent confirmation adds weightage to a causal connection amongst PA and decreases in depression. There is an existence of a significant evidence that any level of PA, which includes low levels, and can anticipate future depression. At any rate, current rules for PA, set up for physical medical advantages, show up similarly suitable for averting depression. A few investigations in this review recommended that to gain security against future depression, people who are at presently active should manage their PA and the individuals who have a background marked by inactiveness should start a physically active way of life. From a wellbeing advancement point of view, this survey recommends that advancing any level of PA could be an imperative methodology for the avoidance of future discouragement, which could reduce the weight of malady and treatment. In that context, the population level advancement of PA ought to be viewed as a procedure for advancing populace emotional wellness notwithstanding physical wellbeing.
Study objectives from evidence
The study objectives acquired from the evidence involves:
- Creating awareness about the strong indication that physical activity can reduce the risk of depression development.
- Need to understand the biochemical and mechanisms of psychosocial that most likely operate in connection to the phenomenon with the precise combination.
- The examination of significant psychosocial factors that might be involved in mediating the relationship between participation in a physical activity and depression
- Encouraging the use of measures of self-report which are inconsistent in nature for PA between studies limits that have the ability to examine the relationship of dose–response that exists between PA and depression.
- Finally, the use of various measures of subjective as well as the direct measures of depression that limits the comparison between the studies (Gallo et al., 2013).
The future research in this field would involve carrying out of all the above mentioned study objectives in addition to identification and addressing of the study limitations in order to increase the rigidity of the study. In spite of consistency in the literature in regards to a defensive capacity of PA, some alert is required given that there might be various covariates that anticipate both PA and depression and might not have been completely represented in the checked on thinks about. Another methodological shortcoming of the surveyed contemplates was simply the utilization of different report measures for PA and depression (Bartels & Naslund, 2013). This predisposition may overstate or hide the genuine relationship amongst PA and dejection. Furthermore, the utilization of conflicting self-report proportions of PA between contemplates limits the capacity to look at dose– reaction connections amongst PA and depression. To help examination, future investigations should catch different segments of PA (e.g., recurrence, term, force) to look at and make interferences reflecting national PA rules (Jimenez et al., 2013). Similarly the researchers could investigate the connections between types and domains of PA and the anticipation of depression.
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