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401206 Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health

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  • Course Code: 401206
  • University: Western Sydney University
  • Country: Australia


Choose Adam Goodes as a leader as there are more information as he used to be Rugby player.

Aim of the assessment

This assessment aims to develop your critical reflective thinking through the critiquing and reflection over your ownvalues and attitudes in relation to the delivery of culturally safe care.


You are required to carefully consider what you have learnt in relation to social determinants and the impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health outcomes. With this in mind, you are required to write Reflection focusing on a change leader of your choice, who is bringing (or has brought) about positive outcomes by addressing a social determinant which prevents/prevented Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from achieving equal health status as non-Indigenous people.
Note: Choose Adam Goodes as a leader as there are more information as he used to be Rugby player.

You are required to utilise the following Reflection structure (NOT the Gibbs cycle) Reflection structure;

1. Introduction
2. Explain the social determinant (eg Racism) and how this is a barrier for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
3. Explain the role your chosen Change leader (eg Adam Goodes), has played in addressing this social determinant,
and therefore improving health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
4. Discuss three ways you as a Registered Nurse/Midwife plan to provide culturally safe care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients that you care for
5. Conclusion

In this critical reflection you are asked to apply your learning to your own culturally safe nursing and midwifery practice related to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.


  • Make changes only in this assignment copy.
  • All these references are not valid as they are older than 2015. Why did you purposely change the publication year and that made my tutor really upset so she checked individual references.
  • There is reference which are not related and also, it’s not a peer review.

Social determinants determine the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. There are many people who have addressed the issue of social determinants to reduce inequality in health care and improve quality of life. Adam Goodes is among the most influential people in Australia, whose work has positively impacted the reduction of racism. The following reflection will explain how racism can be a challenge to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's wellbeing. It also aims outline the measures taken by Adam Goodes to address the issue and, finally recommends, strategies to deliver culturally safe care.

 Racism is an important social determinant affecting the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people directly and negatively. Racism has adversely affected the health outcomes of Indigenous people because it affects their mental health. It is suggested that social determinants lead to poor health outcomes as inequalities increase, making Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people disadvantaged compared to other people in society (Lorch & Enlow, 2016). Racism also affects the physical health of individuals. Inequality caused by racism makes the Indigenous people not have better access to health facilities due to discrimination, increasing the risks of being affected (Bodkin-Andrews & Carlson, 2016). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher chances of being affected by chronic diseases and cancer. The effects of racism also the cause of ill health (Ferdinand et al, 2015). Racism has also influenced the mental health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to because most of them are associated with drug abuse.  Racism has mainly affected children increasing the risks of emotional, conduct disorders and behavioral effects (Jonason, 2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should also be treated equally, as they are human beings and have rights. As a result, racism leads to adverse health outcomes.


Many prominent individuals have been able to cause fundamental and essential changes in the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. These individuals are referred to as change leaders, and their efforts are recognized for they positively impact how people are treated by minimizing racism. Adam Goodes is a prominent change leader. Nelson (2015) stated that the Goodes has been facing racism challenges in Australia, but he was courageous to stand and fight against cultural racism. Adam’s philosophy towards racism with it is not to continue masking racism; but to dealt with every day. The application of Adam Goodes's methods of fighting racism has played a significant role in improving the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to face racism and address inequality. Adam Goodes believed that reduction of racism improves the mental stability of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. His leadership helps Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to overcome racism to achieve positive health outcomes. Adam Goodes uses his prominence to influence the public to build hope, resilience and awareness to promote emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Hence, Adam Goodes was successful in introducing positive changes to address social determinants and improve health outcomes for Indigenous Australians.

Nurses and midwives need to culturally competent while attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to promote safe care. In order to make it possible for the nurse to provide better care, the following three ways can be implemented, including appreciating each person's beliefs, ethical care and education. Nurses and midwives can appreciate the culture and beliefs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to enable them to feel like part of society. It is suggested that appreciation of one's culture increases power, reduction in inequalities to offer (Markwick, et al, 2019). Nurses will offer their services without discrimination reducing mental distress. Nurses and midwives can ethically provide care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders to advocate their rights to ensure the safety of the patient. Racism increases mental stress, which contributes to poor lifestyles if the nurses are not culturally competent, and increases patient complications (Paradies et al, 2015). To improve the quality of life, nurses have to ethically make the best decision to provide optimal care without discrimination. The involvement of nurses in education will enable them to understand that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders have an equal right (Clement et al, 2015). Cultural competence improves health care and will be achieved through excellent communication and awareness. Therefore, cultural appreciation, ethical care and education have the potential to provide culturally competent safe care to Indigenous Australians.

Cultural determinants have affected the positive health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander individuals. Racism is among the significant social determinants that affect the mental health leading to poor health outcomes. Adam Goodes is among the prominent change leaders who value his beliefs and fights racism which causes discrimination. The change leader has increased awareness to reduce racism. To achieve better health outcomes, negative social determinants must be addressed.



Bodkin-Andrews, G., & Carlson, B. (2016). The legacy of racism and Indigenous Australian identity within education. Race Ethnicity and Education, 19(4), 784-807.

Clement, S., Schauman, O., Graham, T., Maggioni, F., Evans-Lacko, S., Bezborodovs, N., ... & Thornicroft, G. (2015). What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychological medicine, 45(1), 11-27. https:// doi/ 10.1017/S0033291714000129

Ferdinand, A. S., Paradies, Y., & Kelaher, M. (2015). Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 401.

Jonason, P. K. (2015). How “dark” personality traits and perceptions come together to predict racism in Australia. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 47-51.

Lorch, S. A., & Enlow, E. (2016). The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes. Pediatric research, 79(1), 141-147.

doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.199

Markwick, A., Ansari, Z., Clinch, D., & McNeil, J. (2019). Experiences of racism among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults living in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population-based study. BMC public health, 19(1), 309.

Nelson, J. K. (2015). ‘Speaking’racism and anti-racism: perspectives of local anti-racism actors. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38(2), 342-358.

Paradies, Y., Ben, J., Denson, N., Elias, A., Priest, N., Pieterse, A., ... & Gee, G. (2015). Racism as a determinant of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 10(9). ·

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