The report is developed with an aim to understand the work of social workers in development of the community. In this regard, a research proposal is developed with objectives which define the role of social workers in the development of community. Research questions are also developed in the report and a literature review is done for addressing these questions. In addition to this, the report contains research design, theoretical perspective, approach, and research methodology used for conducting the research. Moreover, the report also explains the methods of data collection used for collection of relevant information for the research topic. The sampling and data analysis technique along with ethical consideration is also discussed in the report. Further, a sample of participation information sheet and consent for is also attached with the report.
- To analyze the role of social workers in the development of community
- To determine the components of community development through social working activities
- To determine the ways of establishing sustainable community development
- What is the role played by social workers in the development of community?
- What are the components of social working activities to develop the community in an effective manner?
- What are the ways of developing the community in sustainable manner?
Social work is a phenomenon related to our day to day lives. Role of social worker is related to our primary activities that are performed by us on daily basis. Primary activities are participation within community, group and individuals. Secondary methods can be participatory or non- participatory and it can help society at a large level. Social worker plays an important role for better life for individual, community and society as whole. Social workers perform different roles in their life span and in different context. There are different roles of social workers. According to Rice (2013), social workers play the role of caseworkers who redresses of grievance is done by them on individual basis. They solve the problems of individuals in holistic way. Their work is to address the individual issues who want help and redress them in a vocational manner. Cormer and Barlow, (2014) opined that social workers acts as group workers who take cares of the treatment and redressing of psychiatric needs of the abnormal group of the society. They make group, invites deputy or spokesman to solve the problems of psychiatric needs of people. They inculcate leadership qualities among individuals, teach them sustainable development and increase knowledge on various issues. In the opinion of Austin et al, (2012) the first and predominant work of social worker is to provide knowledge on various social issues. Firstly, it is about providing knowledge about how to manage needs of individuals with limited available resources. It develops a sense of harmony in individual and co-operative efforts to achieve goals. Then their work is to inculcate political awareness among individuals and development of their skills. By doing this the society will be strengthen and will work for community development. Bolton et al, (2013) mentioned that social worker also acts as a need analyzed to understand the social needs and scientific study is necessary to understand priorities of individuals. Various government and private workers and NGOs have helped in analyzing the needs of people to prioritize them in accordance with their needs. Then ideas of individuals which are useful will be adopted and used for their betterment. According to Lewis and Brown, (2012) professionalism is required for every work to be performed accurately, so work allotted is governed by professional worker. Social worker plays an important role in managing and implementation of project. As they are professional and trained accordingly so they know every loopholes of individual, group of people. They entertain participation of every individual in their work. Social workers are provided with benefits from NGOs, international agencies like UNICEF, WHO etc. they transfer these benefits to depressed, disempowered, disowned from society. They act as intermediaries between organization which is helping and individuals who are helped by it. Parkinson, (2013) mentioned that social workers play a role of middle worker as they are the interlocutor between government and individual who require help. They do general insurance, health insurance and general service required by individual. He acts as a mediator between employer and employee in bargaining and helping them in order to get various benefits from different departments of labor welfare. According to Savery, (2015) every individual has a diversified character and traits which require a holistic mind to understand and solve problem. Scientific temperament is required to know individuals mind and solve problem they are facing. Counseling requires a complete scientific knowledge, also behavior of individual who is creating problem is to be studied deeply for grievance redressal. These efforts create social harmony and imbibe traits of tolerance in society.
Community development accumulates large number of activities and schemes. They are different for different communities and are dependent on problems, solution, needs of different communities. Components of community development are as follows:
- Women development programs
- Family education
- Agriculture education
- Welfare for senior citizens
- Health and family development programs
- Child development programs
- Youth development programs
- Adolescent development programs
Women development programs
According to Duflo, (2012) women play a key role in development of society even if they are housewives they work to contribute in developing country in different manner. They contribute through different activities which can be domestic or non-domestic. It becomes a duty then of every individual living in society care and nurture women needs and aspirations including their mental and physical wellbeing.
In the opinion of Bickerton wt al, (2015) it is an area which needs much attention then given before because with changing society traditional system needs new conventions to get accommodated within the new framework of society which is youth dominant. Traditional system has laid the foundation of better society but they need new innovations to accommodate with changing world and not become stagnant. This needs family education and planning.
It is most important part of society as it fulfills the basic need of hunger. Vidgen and Galegos, (2014) opined that community should understand how to produce essential food items so that they can eat and live healthy. Knowledge of nutritious food is provided to them so it can be helpful to prioritize their food choice which can help save them from malnutrition. Organic and pesticide free farming can be taught to stay free from various life threatening and chronic disease. Use of organic manure to maintain fertility of soil and promote use of cow dung is taught to community.
Welfare of senior citizens
Bott and Young, (2012) mentioned that experience of senior citizens can be used for the development process of society. In turn for this favor and generally also it must the duty of every individual to give protection to their seniors and social security and should take their responsibility. Caring and protecting the old generation should be the duty of youth living in society.
Health and family development programs
It involves mental, physical, societal wellbeing of people living in society. Health of children, aged people and contemporaries all will be amalgamate in this program. Mental and physical wellbeing of people will lead to a prosperous nation building that’s why it is important to study health programs.
Child development programs
In the opinion of Piketty, (2015) future generation needs much attention because at the end of the day, they are the one who are going to govern any nation in future. Investment in their development is fruitful for future societal goals. These child development programs can be provided until child turns adolescent or juvenile. Foster homes should be equipped with student enhancement services from which children without parents can achieve their goals without any discrimination from society.
Youth development programs
Youth can be considered as a gift for development of any society because they play a major role in development of any country. They can contribute to fullest of their capacity if groomed accordingly in their early years. Investing in youth is important for both economy and societal harmony of the nation that’ why investing in them bring no losses.
Adolescent development program
It can be seen as evolution from children to youth, major knowledge gained during this period remains lifetime with the individual. According to Olaosebikan and Olusakin, (2014) during this period individual experiences different capabilities that he can imbibe in himself to live life accordingly. Learning, education, capacity building, skill development all taught to individual to make them progress in life. If meaningful things are not taught to adolescent individuals the can develop negative attitude which is harmful for their future aspirations.
For development of any society, nation education plays a key role. Chowdary et al, (2013) opined that economic and administrative traits are developed among individuals by giving them complete education. Education can be formal, informal, non-formal. Formal can be taught in classrooms and schools, colleges by trained teachers. Non-formal education is given through society and environment we are living around. Informal education is that which is provided from parents and grandparents which teaches us without being our teacher. All the three type of learning is necessary for overall development of an individual.
In relevance with the topic communication doesn’t means verbal communication only but it involves people being able communicate physically and mentally and ideologically to each other. Gubbi et al, (2013) believed that communication helps create opportunities and development of the society. Communication development helps by creating awareness among different individuals of society to grow as a unit and create a prosperous world to live in.
Establishing sustainable community development
In order to establish development of community a number of steps shall be followed. In the opinion of Provan and Lemaire, (2012) it is important set a goal first while initiating the development of the community. While setting the goals, the economic, social, cultural, and demographic factors shall be taken into consideration. It is also significant to consider the availability of the resources such as planners, manpower, and implementers. It is also significant to understand the people of the community. Ezeah et al, (2013) opined that it can be done by analyzing their needs, religious and cultural composition, level of education and requirement, issues and problems faced by them, societal attitude, life quality, socio-economic situation, opportunities of employment, and co-operative sectors available to them. Hargreaves et al, (2013) mentioned that identification of issues, problems, and opportunities is another step for community development. Listing them is of utter importance before planning and implementing activities of development. Once the issues and problems are identified, it is significant to prioritize them. This will aid in fixing the issues which are required to be treated urgently. After this, it is important to map resources for particular plans of development. This is beneficial in analyzing the quantity and quality of the available resources and how they can be used in addressing the needs of community development. According to Lovell and Taylor, (2013) the development of community requires planning and preparing the activities as well as preparation of the design for implementation. This step shall be supported by focusing on the creation of environment, and ensuring support from the people and resources which are the part of the design. Once the design is prepared, cost estimates and time constraints can be set. Kopulla et al, (2013) opined that a reasonable timeframe shall be set for each sub-activity. The estimation of cost shall be done carefully by seeking help from experts. The support from the community and other resources can aid in reducing the cost of implementation to the maximum. After this, the programs and activities of the community development shall be implemented. The purpose of this step is to tackle the issues and problems of priority which was identified earlier. Preparation and coordination is required for implementation of important activities. The implementation process shall be scientific, systematic, and time bound. In the opinion of Florentini, (2013) documentation of the activities which are involved in the process of community development shall be done. It shall be circulated to the team for opinion and feedback. This will be beneficial in supporting the member of community development and developing a positive attitude among the members of the community. It is also significant to track and monitor the activity involved in the community development for ensuring that the things are running are planned in the beginning.
In order to develop an effective research thesis, it is essential for a researcher to develop a systematic research design. Different approaches will be used for the research thesis in terms of various research methodologies. Use of different research methodologies and systematic process will determine the different outcomes or results associated with the problems or issues for the research. The approach for the research methodology is mainly used to analyse all the problems which are associated with the research topics and accordingly specific design criteria has been developed in order to conduct the research in the most effective manner (Yilmaz, 2013).
In a research design, both epistemology and theoretical perspectives have immense role. Epistemology demonstrates different kinds of research methodologies that can be used in a research to attain the research objectives in reliable manner. In this section of the research methodology, different approaches are used for conducting the research. This mainly includes research philosophy, research design, and research approach, different collections methods and type of data as well as population size with the sampling methods that can be used in the research project. In this concern, it is analyzed that epistemology and theoretical perspectives enable the researcher to accomplish the research study in more professional manner (Alston and Bowles, 2018). The brief description of epistemology and theoretical perspectives are determined in the below diagram:
Research philosophy/theoretical perspective:
The research philosophy is considered as a significant and one of the important aspects of the research methodology which is used to obtain relevant information about the research issues or research study in more effective manner. The different perspectives like assumptions, shared views, concepts, ideas or practices have been considered and chosen for the philosophy in order to conduct the research methodology in the most significant as well as effective manner. Mainly, there are two types of research philosophies i.e. positivism research philosophy and interpretivism research philosophy. In positivism research philosophy, different analytical approaches and quantitative data are used to accomplish the research objectives and resolve the research issue in reliable manner. In addition, different hypotheses and assumptions are considered in positivism research philosophy that helps the researcher to develop more exploratory and reliable approach for conducting the research study (Stanley, 2013). The different relations or universal laws or rules have been used for conducting the research in significant manner by considering all the research problems or issues associated with the research study. On the other hand, interpretivism research philosophy leads to qualitative data such as different views, experiences, emotions or statements of different respondents who have participated in the surveys or questionnaires which is used for conducting the research project in the most significant as well as effective manner. Different materials or resources are used to collect the relevant information about the research issue to enhance the in-depth knowledge or understanding about the research issue. In addition, interpretivism research philosophy also provides various facts or perspectives in more detailed manner that enables to coordinate or effectively integrate with the environmental situations associated with the research study.
In this research study, interpretivism research philosophy will be used to accomplish the research objectives in effective manner. Interpretivism research philosophy is the most suitable philosophy as it enables the researcher to understand the different perceptions or experiences of the social workers that certainly helps to evaluate the role of social organizations in developing the communities. The interaction and communication with the social workers is critical in order to evaluate the role of different efforts of social works and development programs for them that also enable to provide subjective solutions for the problems or issues associated with the research study. On the other hand the, positivism research philosophy will not be used in this research study due to lack of qualitative data and unable in understanding the subjective data.
In a research study, it is essential for a researcher to select an appropriate research approach to analyze the different perspectives or views associated with the topic which has been selected for conducting the research project and identify key aspects that can affect the overall research. There are several key areas or factors that are associated with the research objectives and discussed with using the research approaches that certainly made the research more scientific as well as realistic in terms of future perspectives for the present research studies. There are various approaches which can be used for conducting the research in effective manner but mainly includes two key approaches i.e. inductive research approach and deductive research approach which are used during the research study. The selection of adequate approach for the research studies has some specific reasons that enable the researchers to choose the best possible research approach for the project. The deductive research approach commonly focuses on development of assumptions and hypothesis to conduct the research study in more professional manner. The hypotheses and assumptions are made on basis of different theories or laws, which have already been designed by the researchers. The different strategies or methods are also used for testing the proposed hypothesis that certainly defines the significance of different hypothesis in conducting the research in effective (Brannen, 2017). On the other hand, inductive research approach is mainly focuses on collection of information from different sources in order to make detailed observations for information and using that detailed information and abstractions about the research issue. The detailed observation can be used for conducting the overall research in more exploratory manner. Therefore, adequate outcomes or results can be obtained for the research project which can also be used in other future works.
Based on the above analysis, it is observed that inductive research study is appropriate for this research study in obtaining reliable and viable research outcomes. Therefore, inductive research approach will be used in this research study to obtain the relevant information from the research participants about the social services to develop the community in effective manner. This approach is more effective and significant as compared to the deductive research approach as it can be used for to analyze the effectiveness of social activities and development programs for the community development. On the other hand, the deductive research approach will not be used in this research study as the hypothesis and assumptions cannot be made in this research study to accomplish the research objectives in effective manner. In addition, the existed theories or laws are also not suitable for this research study.
Research methodology is an essential part of a research study under which the researcher makes a plan to collect relevant information from different sources. Research methodology is generally used to develop or design an adequate plan to collect the data. There are different research methodologies such as experiment, survey, case study, grounded theory and heuristic inquiry through the plan of data collection can be made in effective manner. In this research study ethnography and grounded theory methodology will be used to collect relevant information about the research issue as these research methodologies are appropriate with inductive approaches to collect the relevant data (Burrell and Morgan, 2017).
It is also essential for a researcher to have an appropriate time frame to collect the information from a specific period of time. It enables the researcher to collect the data in more effective manner. There are two types of timeframe i.e. longitudinal and cross-sectional timeframe through which the researcher can collect data from a specific period of time. Under the longitudinal timeframe the researchers can obtain data from any time data. It is a long process and useful for quantitative data. On the other hand, the cross-sectional timeframe facilitates a fixed timeframe from which the researcher collected relevant data. In this research study, cross-sectional timeframe will be used as it provides a specific time frame in from which the researchers can data (Duffy and Jonassen, 2013). In addition, it is less expensive and less time consuming timeframe. Due to time and cost constraints, cross-sectional timeframe will be used in this research study to collect the data.
Data collection methods:
Data collection method is an essential part of a research study on which research outcomes depend in big manner. Without selection of an appropriate the researcher cannot collect relevant information. There are mainly two types of data collection methods which are primary data collection methods and secondary data collection methods. Under the primary data collection method, the researchers directly collect data from the research participants. These data are called primary data. The primary data are collected directly from the research participants so that these data improves the reliability of the research outcomes. The methods of primary data collection are interview, survey through questionnaire and observation. On the other hand, the secondary data are collected from already published sources such as journals, articles, books, blogs, websites and newspapers.
In this research study, both primary and secondary data collection methods will be used to conclude reliable research outcomes. In order to collect the primary data, a interview will be conducted with the different social workers who are providing their social services in the community. On the other hand, the secondary data will be collected to support the validity of the primary data. The combination of primary and secondary data will improve the reliability of the research outcomes.
Population and sampling methods:
It is essential for a researcher to select a sample size to collect the data in most feasible manner. The sampling method is also depends on number of sample or unit selected for conducting the research studies. There are two types of sampling methods i.e. probability sampling method and non-probability sampling method. The probability sampling method provides equal opportunities for each of the research participants. On the other hand, non-probability sampling method not provides equal opportunities for each of the selected research participants. In addition, the probability sampling method reduces biasness during the data collection process. In this concern, the probable sampling method will be used in this research study.
In this research study, the sample size will be 5 social workers from different social organization of UK. These social workers are providing their social services to develop the community. In addition, the selected social workers will have good experience and knowledge about the social services that can be used to develop the community in effective manner.
There may be several ethics during a social research study. There may be issue of protection regarding the rights of the research participants. As well as, there may be ethical issues in collection of secondary data (Neuman, 2013). In other words, there may be ethical issues in both primary and secondary data collection methods. The issues in primary data collection method will be addressed through providing protection to the research participants to protect their personal identity to others. As well as, the secondary data will be collected from authorized publications and it will be written in own language to avoid the issue of copyright and patent.
In order to analyse the collected data, it is essential for the researcher to have an appropriate data analysis technique. Data analysis technique is helpful in providing a valid conclusion of the research objectives. There are several techniques like mathematical analysis, SPSS analysis, thematic analysis and descriptive analysis to analyse the collected data. In this research study, descriptive analysis will be use to analyse the collected data from interview and secondary data to get valid and reliable research outcomes.
This research study will hand out as a channel for other courses of the university in the field of social studies. The outcomes of the research study will be disseminated on the website of the university, which will hold a unique page devoted to this social research project. Supplementary dissemination will crop up through a specific appearance as different conferences such as social education conferences and teacher education conferences at national and regional level through articles in print in peer-reviewed journals.
Participant information sheet:
Participant information sheet is a document, which is provided to the research participants to introduce them about the necessary information about the research study and procedures of the study. The participant information sheet for this research study is as below:
You are invited to take part in a study on “Role of social worker in community development”.
What is the purpose of the study?
The purpose of this study to make understanding about the role of social workers in developing the communities as well as the factors that are supporting the social workers to develop the communities.
What will my participation in the study involve?
In this research study, I will participate as a researcher or the project manager to accomplish the research study in successful and reliable manner.
What are the possible benefits and risks of this study?
This research will be beneficial for the readers in understanding the role of the social workers and their purpose regarding the development of the community. There may be risks of discovering the authenticity of the social organizations among the individuals.
Who pays for the study?
The participant will not incur any costs. For this research the regional authority will make available appropriate fund.
Who do I contact for more information or if I have concerns?
If you have any questions, concerns or complaints about the study at any stage, you can contact:
Informed consent form:
The informed consent used to ensure that the research participants have read entire information of the research study and know the purpose of the research study in well manner. The consent form for this research study is as below:
I have analyzed that it is planning of research methodology is not a easy task. It is essential for the research to have understanding about the nature of the research study to make an effective and appropriate research methodology. I have analyzed that researchers can obtain relevant data related to the research issue through designing an appropriate research methodology. In addition, the researchers must have proper attention on the ethical issues that can generate during the collection appropriate data. The researcher can improve the reliability of the research outcomes through eliminating the possibility of the ethical issues. I have analyzed that the researchers must introduce the purpose of the research study to the research participants as it will enable the research participants to provide appropriate information and create interest in them to involve in the research study intentionally. In this concern, it is essential for the researcher to have proper concentration while designing research methodology to attain relevant data from different sources.
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