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This report is consisted of several facts and issues on live animal exports from Australia. It is evaluated that throughout the time with the increasing ramification of economic changes humans are more inclined towards using cloths and other products prepared from the animal shell. This report provides how Australian government are fighting with the problems and issues of live animal exports from Australia to other countries. Live exports are the commercial activity of live cattle and sheep across the national boundaries with the number of countries. Australian live export industry is the largest and critical component of the trade and largest exporter of world. This live animal exports plays a very important role in GDP rate of country. Approximately 1.80 billion amount of revenue of Australia is generated from the live stock industry and its business functioning. This level of business of live stock in Australia may result into destruction of animal lives and could impact social welfare in high manner. However, in order to mitigate this sort of problems, Australian government has planned several government policies and curb these kinds of issues by strengthen its import and export policies.
Live stock export in Australia is always being in highlight because of the high numbers of animals exported to the extreme distance. Over and around 3 million live animals every year exported from the country which includes cattle, sheep and goats shipped long distances in very inadequate and worst conditions. Trading of animals to be slaughtered overseas has very long history in Australia. It all started in 1845, sheep being exported from Australia. The hit began with the high demand from Middle East. Sheep export boomed in 1987 with almost half of export to Saudi Arabia (Caulfield Cambridge, Foster and McGreevy, 2014). Similarly, the demand goes up from South East Asia which transformed the nation’s livestock industry. There has always been great criticism about the live stock trading industry on animal rights ground. Indonesia was the great importer of the Australian cattle but there was a great fall or reduction in export by Australia in 2012 due to newly imposed ESCAS (export supply chain assurance scheme) and other due Indonesia’s shift to beef production (Bell, Moore and Kirkegaard, 2014).
Australian live stock is transported to multiple destinations around the globe which are to be slaughtered in various countries. It is evaluated that when animals are sent overseas around the globe, they are troubled by several problems such as food and water deprivation, travelling long hours which can result in dehydration or bruising. It is considered that suffering of animals at sea level are vey tremendous. In order to mitigate such sort of problems, Australian governments are making several changes in its import and export policies for live stocks trade.
After collecting data from primary and secondary sources, it is evaluated that various businessmen and entrepreneurs shipped live stocks from Australia keeping animals restrained on vessels for up to 400 or 500 hours (Miranda et al. 2014). Poor ventilation facilities and high in temperatures may cause heat stroke to those animals specially those breeds that are not habitual of hot climates. In addition to this, these transportation activities on board result into accumulation of animal waste create ammonia gas on board which may trouble the animals in respiratory tracts which results in coughing and crying (Knowles Warriss and Vogel, 2014). The trauma which animals face at the time of voyage is at worst level throughout all these stages starting from the stage of assemblage of stock to the stage of slaughter in the country of destination. Travelling on the board may prone to illness, injuries and death. Animals are confined in boat or ships up to 2 to 3 weeks causing torture to their lives. Live stock export industry in Australia under goes significant scrutiny by animal welfare group which reflects that Australian government. It is considered that maximum no. of live stocks are transported to Indonesia from Australia. It is evaluated that around 700000 or more animals are transported Indonesia annually. Australian investigators collected footage in which Australian animals are being slaughtered. These data recordings have been made on different slaughters on different locations. This analysis has been prepared on the basis of data collected and investigation report prepared by chief scientist of RSCPA Australia on government level (Jonsson Bock and Jorgensen, 2008). They have presented that cruel and painful handling ways by using physical forces such as hitting or twisting tail to move or gather animals. In addition to this, they have also used different cruel techniques were used, which may cause physical injuries (kicking, eye gouging and tail twisting) when found difficulty to handle animals. Cattles were brutally treated and killed by the slaughters. However, results to these actions, in 2011 the federal government of Australia suspended the trade to Indonesia (Abbas, et al. 2014).
It is analyzed that since very long time, so many issues and problem aroused due to live stock exports but government never ignored the welfare of the animals and always taken action regarding it. In order to strengthen animal welfare practices, Australian government makes the best effective and suitable efforts to mitigate livestock exports problems. Australian government always looked out on animal welfare standards and does not take into consideration any unethical or cruel behaviour towards animal.
The livestock export industry and government are working cooperatively with each other for the betterment of transportation and slaughter practices overseas. Government practices not only improve the working of trade industry but also remind the other traders to act according welfare standards. They not only funding the numerous projects but also providing proper infrastructure and training programs for better techniques of tackling animals and slaughter practices. This involvement of government and cooperative behaviour of export industries will help to influence the other importing countries. Government took a step by creating a law which may providea better regulation on livestock exports. This law ensures the arrangements and well treatment of animals while travelling through sea or roads. This type of improvement in travelling is the most important step of the standards. In this livestock travelling improvement program would result into taking consideration for ships ventilation facilities, adequate water and food supply and drainage facilities. Each and every animal must be provided with its own space to lie down and make a comfortable movement at the available space (Doran and Laffan, 2009). Australia has also made memorandum of understanding with almost 10 countries with Africa and Middle East stating that the trading partners will improve the condition of post arrivals and look towards the welfare practices during and after the arrival of livestock. These types of activities have been taken into consideration with a view to make better treatment towards the animal and behaviour of slaughters towards the animal. However, suggestions were also given to replace the livestock trading with refrigerate meat and stock. These alternatives might reduce the animal welfare risks from sea voyages and create job opportunities and economic benefits from domestic meat processing. But due to lack of proper facilities of freezing and refrigeration and high demands of slaughtered meat, it forbids Australia to trade with processed meat (Guyomard, Manceron and Peyraud, 2013).Nonetheless, despite of several actions and programs conducted by the government, it was noted that welfare practices were going down more than the marked standards especially in Indonesia and here by Australian animal were ill-treated and cruelly behaved with them.
Livestock trading in Australia has been under gone to many phases throughout the time. There have been several factors and issues which are used justify whether export of live stock in Australia should be continue or not. The cruel and mistreatment to animals have been a big concerning issue. It is observed that keeping animals for weeks and month into vessels while transporting from one place to another creates injuries to animals and results into several damages to their internal and body functioning. The livestock export reached a critical point because live export will be considered unsuitable in long run. Australian government might look over the live exports and build domestic meat processing. However, Australian green have ascertained following issues which should be taken into consideration by Australian government.
Thus, these points must be taken into account for the welfare of the cattle and sheep. Now in the end it would be inferred that government should take action to control the unethical and cruel behaviour made towards the Australian animal overseas.
Abbas, R.Z., Zaman, M.A., Colwell, D.D., Gilleard, J. and Iqbal, Z., 2014. Acaricide resistance in cattle ticks and approaches to its management: the state of play. Veterinary parasitology, 203(1), pp.6-20.
Bell, L.W., Moore, A.D. and Kirkegaard, J.A., 2014. Evolution in crop–livestock integration systems that improve farm productivity and environmental performance in Australia. European Journal of Agronomy, 57, pp.10-20.
Caulfield, M.P., Cambridge, H., Foster, S.F. and McGreevy, P.D., 2014. Heat stress: A major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages. The Veterinary Journal, 199(2), pp.223-228.
Doran, R.J. and Laffan, S.W., 2005. Simulating the spatial dynamics of foot and mouth disease outbreaks in feral pigs and livestock in Queensland, Australia, using a susceptible-infected-recovered cellular automata model. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 70(1), pp.133-152.
Guyomard, H., Manceron, S. and Peyraud, J.L., 2013. Trade in feed grains, animals, and animal products: Current trends, future prospects, and main issues. Animal Frontiers, 3(1), pp.14-18.
Jonsson, N.N., Bock, R.E. and Jorgensen, W.K., 2008. Productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on Bos indicus cattle and their crosses, and the effects of differing intensity of tick control in Australia. Veterinary parasitology, 155(1), pp.1-9.
Knowles, T.G., Warriss, P.D. and Vogel, K., 2014. 21 Stress Physiology of Animals During Transport. Livestock Handling and Transport: Theories and Applications, p.399.
Miranda-De La Lama, G.C., Villarroel, M. and María, G.A., 2014. Livestock transport from the perspective of the pre-slaughter logistic chain: a review. Meat Science, 98(1), pp.9-20.
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