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1. Identify the key objectives (not more than four) of your field trip to Hanoi, Vietnam. What do you and your team want to achieve through this visit? Please explain why you think that those are suitable and achievable objectives for your team?

2. Consider the size and composition of the team. Who will be included and why? Your objectives should guide your team formation. Please be clear and detail about the skill sets of the team members. Please note that you don’t need to identify real people.

3. Describe all the activities/preparations that are needed to be made before you and your team leave Australia. Also, you would need to detail what needs to be done in terms of ensuring access to the field sites, when you are in Hanoi, Vietnam. These are all about in preparation of your (your team's) visit to the Hanoi, Vietnam and accessing the field sites there. 

  • Objectives
  1. To find out the vaccination coverage in dogs in Hanoi province, Vietnam
  2. To ascertain the level of public awareness on the causes and preventive measures of rabies
  • To find out the extent of access to rabies immune globulin (RIG) and vaccine by the people of Hanoi
Project Description

The objectives will enable the research team to have an in-depth understanding of the actual matter on the ground and the economic burden already incurred by agencies. This will enable the team to make achievable recommendations.

  • What is the problem?
    • Rabies infection and deaths
  • When is the problem?
    • Rabies infection and deaths has been dominant for the past five years from 2011 to 2015
  • How urgent is the problem?
    • The problem is an emergency.
  • Where is the problem?

The northern provinces of Vietnam are the most affected ones with over 84% of reported cases of deaths as a result of rabies infection (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development & Ministry of Health, 2016).

  • Why is the problem a concern?

Over 400, 000 people have been bitten by dogs infected with rabies and approximately 90 people succumb to death each year from 2011 to 2015 (Lee et al., 2018). A huge economic burden have been incurred by the government in the effort to eradicate rabies (Nguyen, Hoang, & Nguyen, 2013).

  • Terms of reference (TOR) for rabies elimination program in Hanoi, Vietnam

Project title:

Rabies Elimination Programme in Hanoi, Vietnam

Project Aim:

Eliminating the deaths and economic burden caused by rabies infection

Project participants:

Health practitioners at the Hanoi vaccination department of the Ministry of Health at Hanoi

Residents of Hanoi City (those that have been affected by the impacts of rabies infection directly or indirectly)

Project Duration:

January to December 2018

Location:

Hanoi city, Vietnam

Partner organizations: 

Hanoi Vaccination centre, Vietnam Ministry of Health

Time period to cover:

1st to 31st August 2018

Evaluation budget: 

Maximum BDT 500,000 (Inclusive of VAT and TAX)

Local level relevant stakeholders: 

Department of Education, Department of healthcare

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, City Administration

  • The composition of the team
    • Number of team members: 5
    • Team members and their roles
  1. Team leader/coordinator: leading and coordinating all activities that pertain to the field trip research
  2. An epidemiologist: the epidemiologist is to be responsible for the definition of the case study, conduct a descriptive analysis and analytic research, and compile and present the findings in an epidemiological report
  • A virologist: a virologist expert is to monitor rabies infection and spread
  1. An administrative officer: is to be in charge of communication and formalities of the local administration
  2. A local field assistant: this officer is to assist in the preparation of the field and gathering of data
  • Recruitment of team members

The team members will be recruited through invitation of the professionals from relevant stakeholders, advertisements, and through endorsements from the organizations involved in the study.

  • Collaboration and communication in the team

For the purposes of coherence and flow of activities in the team the team coordinator will distribute tasks to each member on the basis of expertise and coordinate all the daily activities.

There will be reports made on a daily basis to the team leader.

Any potential risks will be communicated in advance or later on with the relevant authorities, media, and the community

  • Geography and Environment
  1. Geographical location and features

Hanoi is the capital city of Vietnam and the nation’s second largest city by population. Hanoi is located on the right bank of the Red River, approximately 90 km from the coastal region. The City features three types of terrain: the delta area, the midland area, and mountainous zone. The northern and western regions of the city are mountainous and hilly (Mol, 2009).

  1. Neighbouring areas and countries

Vietnam is found on the Indochinese Peninsula and shares borders with Cambodia (southwest), Laos (northwest), and China (north). Hanoi is found in the Red River Delta in the centre of North Vietnam.

  • Aerial levels

Hano is the capital city of Vietnam and has three administrative divisions: 12 urban districts, one town (Son Tay), and 17 rural districts. The ethnic groups of Hanoi include Viet, Hoa, Muong, Tay among others (Jenum et al., 2012).

  1. Climatic conditions
  • Seasons
    • Summer: May to August with hot and humid weather and a lot of rainfall (Nam et al., 2015)
    • Fall: September to October with a decrease in temperature and rainfall
    • Winter: November to January with dry and cool weather based on the national standards (Nam et al., 2015)
    • Winter: February to March with cloudy and foggy weather with approximately 1.5 hours of sunshine each day
    • High temperatures in Hanoi : May, june, July with approximately 400C
    • Low temperatures in Hanoi: Jan (2.70C) and Dec (5.00C)
    • Rainy months: June to September: averagely 250 mm
  • Health safety and Risk at the site
  • Air pollution majorly from public transportation, industrial and household emissions (Le et al., 2014). This incidence is common in Hanoi city
  • Malaria due to mosquito bites: Mosquitoes are prevalent in the entire area of North Vietnam
  • Rabies: Rabies infection is prevalent in the northern part of Vietnam, though it can be found across the country
  • Communicable diseases in Vietnam
    • Dengue Fever
    • Rabies
    • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Environmental exposures
  • TCDD exposure
  • Air pollution due to transportation, industrial, household emissions and public smoking
  • Road safety: unsafe
  • Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of deaths in Vietnam. Over 14,000 people succumb to road related injuries each year (WHO, 2012).
  • Country and regional politics
    • The current President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is Tr?n ??i Quang
    • Vietnam is a one-party state of the Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) (Duiker, 2018). 
    • Vietnam is one of the most stable countries in South East Asia politically. The Vietnamese government doesn’t tolerate opposition whatsoever (London, 2014).
    • The country has stringent limitations on freedom of expression which also limits the usage of internet (Thayer, 2009).For instance, the use of social media and private blogs can be blocked anytime and heavy penalty imposed on dissenters.
    • Offering of bribe of any form is not allowed
    • There are local laws that guide the parking of motor bike:
      • Never leave your bike unattended
      • Not street or sidewalk for  parking of motor bikes
      • The parking lot reads ‘ Gi? Xe’
    • Religion and culture
      • Vietnam is a communist country, thus an atheist state. However, most Vietnamese belong to three major religions
        • Buddhism (12.2%)
        • Catholicism (6.8%)
        • Caodaism (4.8%)
        • Vietnamese folk religion/not religious population (73.2%) (Crawford, 2012)
      • The national dress code is ao dai, as shown in the image below (Endres, 2016).
  • Vietnamese life revolves around the family
  • Reputation is highly regarded
  • The culture prohibits touching someone’s head or shoulder
  • The culture prohibits touching a member of the opposite sex or public display of affection (Tran & Walter, 2014).
  • Shorts are only worn at the beach
  • The official language is Vietnamese. Thus, there will be need for an interpreter. The team leader in collaboration with a local field assistant will organize for an interpreter.
  • Resources at the field site
    • The research site (Hanoi) has established road network, in addition to water ways. However, the roads outside the city are not well developed thus necessitating the use of four wheel drive cars.
    • The lab of the Ministry of Health located within the city will be of help in offering any lab support

The collaborating institutions that have already confirmed their appointments include

  • Hanoi Medical University
  • Hanoi vaccination and immunization centre
  • The program and research people will be provided by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health
  • The budget for the collaborating institutions will be under the responsibility of the ministry of health
  • There are several agencies already working in the field with an objective of eliminating rabies. These include:
    • Government health institutions
    • FAO
    • WHO
    • CDC

Formalities and Logistics

  • Visa and International Travel
    • All team members are to obtain their travel visas at the Consulate General of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in Sydney, Australia two weeks before August 1st.
    • A direct flight from Sydney to Hanoi, Vietnam will be used
    • For more information, please find the itinerary in appendix 1
  • Approvals
    • All team members are to obtain their ethical clearance forms from the respective departments in the Griffith University by 30thJuly 2018.
  • Funding and budget, and personal finances
    • This is a fully funded project by the School of Medicine at Griffith University in partnership with the Vietnam Ministry of Health. The total budget is BDT 500,000 (Inclusive of VAT and TAX). However, team members are advised to carry along with them debit/credit cards for personal finance. Also, team members are advised to ensure there is appropriate financial support for their families for the whole period of research (August)
  • Accommodation and local travel
    • The research team will be accommodated in a luxurious hotel: Apricot Hotel which will be booked online by the team leader. The hotel is secure and is 100 Km from the field site.
    • Transportation from the airport to the Apricot hotel and to the field site and back will be offered by vans from the ministry of health
  • Travel medicine and insurance
    • Researchers are advised to visit a traveller’s clinic to ensure the travel vaccination recommendations for Vietnam are accomplished.
    • All researcher will sufficiently be covered by Bupa travel insurance
  • Personal protection
    • All necessary protection gears for the research will be provided such as mosquito nets,  safe drinking water, and air masks
  • Clothing
    • All researchers are requested to adhere to the culture and climate of Hanoi (as already provided above) during the period of research
  • The safety and security of the research team will be taken care of by the Vietnam police administration. However, members are advised to be cautious with their Belongings and Not to Travel Alone at Any Time.
  • Each team member is expected to be able to walk short distances between households
  • Be able to cope up with overcrowding and traffic jams in the city
  • In case, there is any health issue to be taken care of such as food allergy, vascular diseases etc., the researcher should notify the team leader in advance through the research application form
  • Appendix 2: Project Implementation plan
  • Each team member is advised to ensure the safety of their families during the period of research in order to avoid any withdrawal from the field trip

References 

Crawford, A. C. (2012). Customs and culture of Vietnam. Vermont: Tuttle Publishing.

Dress Code in Vietnam [Image]. (2016). Retrieved from sites at Pen state.

Duiker, W. J. (2018). The communist road to power in Vietnam. UK: Routledge.

Endres, K. W. (2016). Beautiful customs, worthy traditions: Changing state discourse on the role of Vietnamese culture. Internationales Asienforum, 33(3-4), 303-322.

Jenum, A. K., Diep, L. M., Holmboe-Ottesen, G., Holme, I. M. K., Kumar, B. N., & Birkeland, K. I. (2012). Diabetes susceptibility in ethnic minority groups from Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Pakistan compared with Norwegians-the association with adiposity is strongest for ethnic minority women. BMC public health, 12(1), 150.

Lee, H. S., Thiem, V. D., Anh, D. D., Duong, T. N., Lee, M., Grace, D., & Nguyen-Viet, H.

(2018). Geographical and temporal patterns of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) incidence in humans in the Mekong River Delta and Southeast Central Coast regions in Vietnam from 2005 to 2015. PloS one, 13(4), e0194943.

Le, T. H., Nguyen, T. N. T., Lasko, K., Ilavajhala, S., Vadrevu, K. P., & Justice, C. (2014).

Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam. Environmental pollution, 195, 267-275.

London, J. (Ed.). (2014). Politics in contemporary Vietnam: Party, state, and authority relations. New York: Springer.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, & Ministry of Health. (2016). National

Program For Rabies Control And Elimination In Viet Nam In The Period From 2017 To 2021. Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://nihe.org.vn/farm/nihe/2018/02/27/35aa38a1-57c0-437d-96fc-add336992325.pdf 

Mol, A. P. (2009). Environmental governance through information: China and

Vietnam. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 30(1), 114-129.

Nam, N. P., TRANG, T. T. T., Tyler, S, Nguyen Quynh, A. N. H., SINH, B. T., Huy, N. N.,

... & Huong, D. T. (2015). Local planning for climate adaptation: Vietnam’s experience. Asian Cities Climate Resilience Working Paper Series. IIED, London.

Nguyen, T. T. H., Hoang, V. T., & Nguyen, T. H. (2013). Epidemiology of rabies in Vietnam, 2009–2011. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7, 29-37.

Thayer, C. A. (2009). Vietnam and the challenge of political civil society. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 1-27.

Tran, L., & Walter, P. (2014). Ecotourism, gender and development in northern Vietnam. Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 116-130.

World Health Organization. (2012). Road Safety in 10 Countries. Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_traffic/countrywork/vietnam_2012.pdf

Vietnam [Image]. (2012). Retrieved from World atlas Map

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