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7808ICT Information Security Management For Human Readable Security Features

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  • Course Code: 7808ICT
  • University: Griffith University
  • Country: Australia

Question:

In this assignment, you have to write a research paper on an advanced topic of network security. The assignment can be completed either individually or in group (maximum 2 per group). The following is a list of potential topics (not limited to) – the topic needs to be narrowed down to address more specific research questions:

Kerberos,
PGP, VPNs
SSL, SET, IPSec
Smart cards
Steganography
Watermarking
IDS, Firewall
Biometric Encryption
Key exchange mechanism
Trust based systems
Web Security
Wireless Security
Security Issues in RFID
DNA cryptography
Blockchain Technology

 

Answer:

Introduction

Smart card are termed as smart as they are integrated with a computer chip. Smart cards are devices that helps in identification of user and provide cost efficiency features [1]. Smart cards are used in various fields including health services, banking, telephone, employee ID, transport and physical access control. The security of users affect the trust of the user with the company or any other business organization.  The use of the smart cards in the daily purpose helps in providing security and ease of access at various places [2].  Smart cards have been used for proving the identity of users in protected areas. Smart cards can also be used in the payment gateway [16]. The smart cards are provided with high-level security as these cards are used in high level protection areas [3]. The security of the smart cards from intruders and hackers is important as they might target these cards for breaching out data and money for the users during any kind of transaction [17]. Smart cards contain various security protocols including security overlays, micro-printing and holograms. The memory technology have been maintaining the uses passwords and ID with installed within the computer IC chip in the card [4].  In ECB algorithm, the plaintext is divided into N blocks and block size is n bits. If the plaintext is not a multiple of block size, the text is padded to make the last block the same size as the other blocks. Same key is used to encrypt and decrypt each block. So, it is not recommend encrypting big amount of block with same key. This is because message with highly structured have possible for cryptanalyst to exploit these regularities [5]. 

 

Aim

The aim of the study is to analyze the security of the smart cards.

Objectives

The objectives of the study are mentioned below:

  • To analyze the importance of smart cards
  • To identify security protocols integrated in the smart card
  • To identify security issues evolving in smart cards
  • To recommend strategies for minimizing security issues in the smart cards 
  1. Literature Review
  2. Research Works

Smart Card Security features

Human readable security features: As stated by Wang Ding and Ping Wang, Smart cards include human readable security identifiers in which falsification is prevented by this features [6]. The misuse of the card can be prevented by this security features of the card.

Security features on the Smart card Chip: The microchip is tested during its production and inserted to the smart card. The testing of the smart chip helps in integrating a mode into it [7]. This protect the use of memory without any identification of user. The data and information over the chip is encrypted that helps in providing security.

Security features of the card operating system: The operating system is integrated with a Personal Identification Number (PIN) that helps in protecting the card from other intruders [15]. The PIN helps in safeguarding data included in the smart chip [8]. This PIN have to be entered correctly by the users for getting access to their account. Public-key encryption is an asymmetric-key cipher. It is based on personal secrecy. Asymmetric-key cipher uses two different key in encryption and decryption of plain text. They are thought of as locking and unlocking padlocks with keys, then padlock that is locked with a public key can be unlocked only with the corresponding private key.

Authentication: It is a process that helps user in accessing their account related to the smart card. This process involves a series of positive results in the testing of authentication [9].  User gets the access after successfully completing the whole security check up.

Verification: The verification of identity of cardholder is done perfectly before providing access to the account. The PIN consists of four digits combination of numbers that is inky known to the cardholder. Therefore, access to the account is only provided on successful match of PIN with the smart card. Biometric technology is also used for the verification process [10]. Biometric include digital signature, fingerprint, eye retina scan and facial recognition. This security measures are integrated in the smart card verification. 

 

Smart Card Security threats

There have been various security threats involved in the smart cards. Some of them are discussed below:

Logical attacks: These types of attacks technical attacks in the technology of smart cards [18]. The attacks can be done on the communication of information exchange in the transaction [11].

Physical attacks: This attacks include physical damage to the smart card by dissolving chemical substances into the smart chip. Scratching and damaging the card physically can damage the data and information stored in it. The memory of the ship can be damaged by various physical methods including hardware damage and virus attack during transaction [12]. Various cryptographic algorithms can be installed in the smart card that breaches out the PIN and other data and information.

Research Methodology

This research has collected data and information related to the smart cards. Data has been collected from primary sources by conducting online survey with smart card users [13]. The use of the online survey helps in collecting huge amount of data in a small time frame. There have been five close-ended survey questions added in the survey questionnaires. Sample size of the online survey has been 50 participants have smart cards. Random sampling method has been used to select sample size for the survey [14]. Data has been analyzed using quantitative data analysis method. Data has been represented using graphs and tables on the Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The research has followed a proper ethical consideration.  The data and information of the participants have been kept secret and nit shared with anyone. The Data Protection Act 1998 has been properly followed in the research.   

 

Data Findings And Analysis

The quantitative data analysis have been performed in order to analyze collected data and information.

  1. What is your age?

Options

Number of responses

Percentage of responses

Total respondents

Below 20 years

7

14%

50

20-25 years

17

34%

50

26-30 years

20

40%

50

Above 30 years

6

12%

50

 

 

  1. Do you agree with the security provided by smart card?

Options

Number of responses

Percentage of responses

Total respondents

Strongly disagree

6

12%

50

Disagree

17

34%

50

Agree

20

40%

50

Strongly agree

7

14%

50

 Do agree with the privacy provided by the smart card?

Options

Number of responses

Percentage of responses

Total respondents

Strongly disagree

5

10%

50

Disagree

15

30%

50

Agree

24

48%

50

Strongly agree

8

16%

50

 What are the security issues in smart cards?

Options

Number of responses

Percentage of responses

Total respondents

Logical attacks

9

18%

50

Password break

14

28%

50

Physical damage

7

14%

50

Lost

20

40%

50

 Do you agree with the confidentiality of smart cards?

Options

Number of responses

Percentage of responses

Total respondents

Strongly disagree

4

8%

50

Disagree

14

28%

50

Agree

12

24%

50

Strongly agree

20

40%

50

 Analysis

The tables and graphs shows that most of the participants are young age from 21 to 30 years. This shows that most of the young age people are attracted towards the use of smart cards in their daily life. 40% of the participants are agreed with the implementation of the smart card and its security benefits in the market. 24% participants are agree with the confidentiality of the smart cards. They believe that usage of smart cards are safe in the market. 40% of the participants have been satisfied with the verification process of the smart cards. The security of users affect the trust of the user with the company or any other business organization.  The use of the smart cards in the daily purpose helps in providing security and ease of access at various places.  Smart cards have been used for proving the identity of users in protected areas. 48% of the participants are agreed with the privacy factors included in the smart card implementations in the market. The use of the smart cards in the daily purpose helps in providing security and ease of access at various places.  Smart cards have been used for proving the identity of users in protected areas. There has been positive response to the online survey in each questions related to the smart cards.

 

 

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the use of the smart cards in the market have been successfully implanted. Smart card users are enjoying the benefits offered by the smart devices at various places. The use of the smart card has been implemented in various fields. These smart cards help in maintaining the ease of transaction in various fields including transport and banking. The user access control has been enhanced by the use of the smart cards. It is a part of the ICT devices that helps in providing security to data and information. Smart card has been helping in various fields in the market. This can be used in the travelling purposes and biometric uses.  This help in maintaining a secured approach in the transaction made by customers. The cyber-attacks can be prevented by the smart cards by maintaining a string passwords or pattern at the security point.  This study focuses in the benefits of the smart cards in the market. The limitations and security threats included in the implementation of the smart cards. The security threats of the smart cards have been properly analyzed in the study. 

 

References

  • Chuang, Ming-Chin, and Meng Chang Chen. "An anonymous multi-server authenticated key agreement scheme based on trust computing using smart cards and biometrics." Expert Systems with Applications41, no. 4 (2014): 1411-1418.
  • Odelu, Vanga, Ashok Kumar Das, and Adrijit Goswami. "A secure biometrics-based multi-server authentication protocol using smart cards." IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security10, no. 9 (2015): 1953-1966.
  • Ma, Chun?Guang, Ding Wang, and Sen?Dong Zhao. "Security flaws in two improved remote user authentication schemes using smart cards." International Journal of Communication Systems27, no. 10 (2014): 2215-2227.
  • Howard, Peter. "Telecommunications systems and methods and smart cards for use therewith." U.S. Patent 9,357,375, issued May 31, 2016.
  • Mishra, Dheerendra, Ashok Kumar Das, and Sourav Mukhopadhyay. "A secure user anonymity-preserving biometric-based multi-server authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards." Expert Systems with Applications41, no. 18 (2014): 8129-8143.
  • Wang, Ding, and Ping Wang. "Offline dictionary attack on password authentication schemes using smart cards." In Information Security, pp. 221-237. Springer, Cham, 2015.
  • Lu, Yanrong, Lixiang Li, Xing Yang, and Yixian Yang. "Robust biometrics based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments using smart cards." PloS one10, no. 5 (2015): e0126323.
  • Henderson, Andrew. "Smart Cards, Smart Identities." In Digital Identity Management, pp. 29-40. Routledge, 2017.
  • Andrews, P. Elana, and M. S. Dhanesh. "A body biased adiabatic dynamic differential logic (BADDL) to prevent DPA attacks in smart cards." In Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), 2017 International Conference on, pp. 686-690. IEEE, 2017.
  • Farash, Mohammad Sabsinejad. "An improved password?based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol using smart cards without verification table." International Journal of Communication Systems30, no. 1 (2017).
  • Lloyd, David, and Andrew Innes. "Virtual smart cards with audit capability." U.S. Patent Application 15/196,702, filed January 4, 2018.
  • Baker, Aaron, and Colin Tanner. "Apparatus and method for dynamic offline balance management for preauthorized smart cards." U.S. Patent 9,911,154, issued March 6, 2018.
  • Je?ábek, Stanislav, Ji?í Bu?ek, Jan Schmidt, and Martin Novotný. "Emulator of contactless smart cards in FPGA." In Embedded Computing (MECO), 2017 6th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2017.
  • Finn, David, Mustafa Lotya, and Darren Molloy. "Smart cards, payment objects and methods." U.S. Patent 9,836,684, issued December 5, 2017.
  • Hanna, Rema. "Technology beats corruption." Science355, no. 6322 (2017): 244-245.
  • Riaz, Mahreen, Grzegorz Rymar, Mohammad Ghavami, and Sandra Dudley. "A novel design of UHF RFID passive tag antenna targeting smart cards limited area." In Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2018 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2018.
  • Mayes, Keith. "An introduction to smart cards." In Smart Cards, Tokens, Security and Applications, pp. 1-29. Springer, Cham, 2017.
  • Baker, Aaron, and Colin Tanner. "Apparatus and method for dynamic offline balance management for preauthorized smart cards." U.S. Patent 9,911,154, issued March 6, 2018.
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