1. Compare and contrast three data encryption standards for WiMAX networks?
2. Research the security challenges for any two examples of WPAN technologies.
3. Read the following two research papers as follows, please give your critical reflection on the topic of Energy Harvest.
Comparison of three data based encryption standards for WiMAX networks
Following are three data based encryption standards: -
CCMP: CCMP is called as Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol. It is a method where encryption protocol methods were form in divided classes based on 802. The standard is used specifically in wireless local area network and especially in WiMax technology. The basic algorithm used in this method is based on US government along with advanced encryption standard also called as AES which will be discussed later in the report. This method offers increased level of security in comparison to other similar base of technologies like TKIP (Hassan & Bach, 2014). The method includes 128-bit keys along with 48 bite beginning vector that helps in reducing the level of vulnerability in order to replay varied attacks. The existence of counter mode elements helps in providing data privacy. In addition, there is cipher block chaining message for authentication code elements that provide information in an integrated manner with properly authenticity. The increased level of privacy as well as high security of the model as compared to other models like TKIP needs an additional level of processing power and consist of new and upgraded version of hardware. There is one more associated model known as Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code element that helps in providing authentication and data based integrity. The increased level of privacy and security of CCMP is when compared with TKIP need additional kind of power to process and it is usually important for new as well as upgraded version of hardware (Jayakumar & Christopher, 2013).
AES: as mentioned below AES is also called as Advanced Encryption Standard. The method is a symmetric form of block cipher selected by the government of US to save classified base of data or information and is also executed in software as well as hardware worldwide to encrypt the fragile information. The NIST also called as The National Institute of Standards and Technology initiated with the growth of AES in the year 1997 when it was announced the requirement for the successor based algorithm for DES also known as Data Encryption Standard which was become riskier with time. It came up with new and advanced level encryption related algorithm that can be unclassified and it must have the right capacity to save government information well into next century (Jayakumar & Christopher, 2013). The system tried to make it simple to execute in software as well as hardware and limited environment. The system also offers good level defense system which is completely against many attack methods.
PKM-EAP: the system is based on authenticating the framework which has been utilized in the different kind of wireless networks also with different other set of connection which goes from one point to another. The foundation is primarily being to give as well as handle the usage of transport of the key usage of material which is through different EAP methodologies. The method is also vendor specific and the existence of proposal with well-defined information for the same. The process of authentication set on framework assisted in giving the common base of data and the operations that associated to handle the EAP methods (Zhou et al, 2016). The need of EAP which was utilized for the wireless LAN based authentication that defines the codes existing in packet with AAA key needs. The model of EAP is also helps in supporting the analysis of data in right manner. The EAP when properly protected is also for the encrypted method which defines the right amount of deficiencies in EAP which based on an assumption to save the right communication model.
Analyze the security challenges with two examples of WPAN technologies
Wireless USB: The wireless USB carry some of the malware infections which depend on the antivirus scans and the other reformatting to handle the carrier for the next digital epidemic. There are issues related to the functions and the attack code which remains on the long content after the device memory tend to appear with the average user to be deleted. The issues are with the thumb drives where the USB devices from the keyboards have the firmware that can easily be reprogrammed based on the usage of the USB memory sticks with the testing of the BadUSB infected device. The manner of the USB devices from the keyboards have the firmware which could easily be programmed with the use of the USBmemory sticks. This tend to have a major attack on the Android handset which is plugged into PC. The replacement of the software which is being installed with the corrupted or the backdoored version can impersonate the USB keyboard. (Goffredo et al., 2016). The malware is injected which hijack the internet traffic with the change in the computer DNS settings to the servers which are required. It also includes the man-in-the-middle attacks with the spying of the communications mainly from the machine of the victim. Through this, it is not possible to run the executable files from the different USB sticks.
There are certain issues which are related to the bad ability to spread with the undetected pat from USB to PC and then back. This includes the speculation of the USB attacks which are the common practices for spying with the internal documents as installing the malware on the targeting machine. The trust comes with the fact that there are no malicious standards where the USB has been infected and touches the non-trusted computers. The major focus is on the computer security with the gain in access without any trace.
The other example is the Bluetooth which is one of the wireless technology that tends to look bad where the malicious attackers have the liability to access and crack the device with blocking them from receiving the phone calls. Along with this, there are threats of the range which is greater with the personal areas network. The Bluetooth handsets are demonstrated with the effects that include the mobile bugging device, with the transmission that is heard to the attacker. It is important to focus on the development and the communication of the company policies for the mobile device and the security. It includes the issues related to the denial of service attack as well.
According to Shaikh et al, (2016), all possible processes consist of conversion of energy that to some level is inefficient or ineffective. Machines face problems like motors get hot because of issues in automobile engine and many other similar cases where every case, energy is widely wasted. There is existence of many kinds of radio stations that put megawatts of RF however; the signals can reach antennas in the form of microwatts. The concept of energy harvesting device also get some of the present wasted energy which can convert it into electricity and put it on work. The best kind of energy based harvesting and associated collectors comes with large solar plates and generators from winds. These devices have major options for energy sources for the current power grid. There are small levels of embedded devices as well which should depend on energy searching system that can get milliwatts of energy from vibration, biological sources, light, or thermal. All thanks to ultra-level of low power of MCU where these micro –power energy can be applied when battery needs to replace and can be very challenging, costly and sometimes impossible to address. With number of careful design, energy based harvesting devices can also replace the batteries with applications. Since the results from energy harvesting devices is usually small as well as intermittent and the system should carefully be designed that may consist to boost the converter as a charge controller for rechargeable batteries. When it comes to something like this which is closer as energy harvesting device then it can come to providing or meeting the demands of various embedded systems(Goffredo et al., 2016).
Ulukus et al., 2015, focus on the procedures of energy harvesting takes a lot of routes based on their sources and type of energy which can be converted to electrical form of energy. In simple words, the energy harvesting system needs a right source of energy like heat, light or vibrations. Following is the detailed discussion of important elements:
- Harvester/transducer: the energy based harvester can collect as well as convert the energy from the basic source into varied electrical source of energy. It consist of transducers including the technology of photovoltaic for lights, inductive for magnetic and many similar techniques (Shabbat et al, 2016).
- Storage of energy: examples are battery or super capacitors.
- Management of power: the current case of the electrical energy which is a right form of application. The typical conditioners also happen to include regulators with complicated control based circuits that can be properly managed with power and also based on needs for power and the present power (Shabat et al, 2016).
Goffredo, M., Mass, K., Parks, E. J., Wagner, D. A., McClure, E. A., Graf, J., ... & Santoro, N. (2016). Role of gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids in modulating energy harvest and fat partitioning in youth. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101(11), 4367-4376.
Hassan, A., & Bach, C. (2014, April). WiMAX Basics From Deployments to PHY Improvements. ASEE.
Jayakumar, M., & Christopher, T. (2013). Secure Key Based Key Scheduling for DES and TDES Algorithms. International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 8(7), 1535-1540.
Shabat, S. K. B., Sasson, G., Doron-Faigenboim, A., Durman, T., Yaacoby, S., Miller, M. E. B., ... & Mizrahi, I. (2016). Specific microbiome-dependent mechanisms underlie the energy harvest efficiency of ruminants. The ISME journal, 10(12), 2958.
Zhou, J., Ma, M., Feng, Y., & Nguyen, T. N. (2016). A symmetric key-based pre-authentication protocol for secure handover in mobile WiMAX networks. The Journal of Supercomputing, 72(7), 2734-2751.