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How satisfied are they and why?

An empirical study of the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention.

Impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors

Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices.

Job Design and Job Insecurity

The main aim behind this study is to evaluate and identify the causes of job dissatisfaction. HRM is the backbone of each and every organization. No company can survive without human resource management. A poor job design can lead to  job insecurity  which may have a direct impact on the job discontentment. There are various factors that affect job satisfaction in the Australian market. Various strategies and laws that are implemented have been discussed in the paper. Human resource management is core and significant function of every company. Along with this, it explains roles and responsibilities to address job displeasure and job insecurity issues. It outlines that how managers and supervisors increase morale and confidence of employees in order to increase outcomes and results of the company.

Job design is a core function of human resource management and it is related to the specification of contents, methods, techniques, and relationship of job in order to satisfy organizational and technological as well as personal and social requirements of the job (Salvendy, 2012). In other words, job design may be defined as a process of organization work as a group of tasks, arranging and defining the job structure and process at the workplace depending on the job analysis performed. Job design is done by human resource management to reduce and eliminate the mechanical aspects of the job. It plays a significant role to reduce dissatisfaction of the workers (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). Job design also helps to provide job security to the workers in the organization. Job design and job security also help to provide job satisfaction to the workers. Workers are to be considered the assets of an organization. They not only provide support to attain long-term objectives and goals but also help to provide strength to the trade and business. For success and growth of any business, worker satisfaction is extremely important and essential. Employee satisfaction may describe the extent to which employees feel happy and pleased. It is also necessary because employee satisfaction leads to employee’s motivation. Moreover, satisfied employees are encouraged and promoted towards attaining their mission and vision (Aswathappa, 2013).


In Australia, job security and job design is a major concern that affects the productivity and performance of the workers as well as organization. Due to lack of interest in employees, they are unable to perform their daily responsibilities effectively and efficiently (Tooksoon, 2011). It also has a direct impact on growth and success of the firm. After the various researchers, it has been observed that Australian workers are more disengaged and isolated from work. It is observed that they do not accept constant changes and they are weary of several changes in the firm. They want clear guidance and direction from their managers and supervisors as well. In the latest survey of around 32,000 employees in more than 26 countries including Australia, international professional service company towers Watson observed that only 44% of Australian workers studied said their leaders were dynamic and effective, compared to 52% of their international counterparts (Holland et al, 2011). It also affects the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers adversely. Job insecurity is the biggest cause of job dissatisfaction in the organization. It has been studied that top causes of job dissatisfaction and work-related stress are an excessive workload and inadequate staffing process (Watt et al, 2012). Lack of superior support, employees are unable to perform task and duties effectively and efficiently. As a result conflict and barriers also arise in the workplace. The union for international cancer control health insurer Bupa reports that around two in five of the 5000 Australian employees and 200 employees surveyed said that their work had an adverse impact on their mental and physical health. In Australia, the managers do not provide opportunities for promotion and transfer. Hence, they get disappointed and they do not feel good while working in the organization. Poor and ineffective management also influence the level of satisfaction and job security of the workers.

Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in the Australian Market

Due to job insecurity and job dissatisfaction, employees leavetheir job in search of  better opportunities. Dissatisfaction may be raised by a wide range of elements. In Australia, underpaying the employees is one of the significant causes for job dissatisfaction (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). Workers not only have to arrange stagnant wage but also high expenses for health insurance. Due to limited income, the employees are under constant pressure and anxiety which leads to disappointment. Limited advancement is another cause of job dissatisfaction. Lack of career growth and development is the biggest cause for discontentment of Australian workers. Apart from this, managers do not motivate the employees for doing work effectively. Furthermore, workers also feel dissatisfied due to lack of curiosity in the work (Aydogdu and Asikgil, 2011). Boredom due to monotonous work is another reason that leads to dissatisfaction and job insecurity. Employee dissatisfaction is significant for the firm to be taken into consideration. Displeasure with the job leads to worker conflict and unrest. As a result of job discontentment, the employees are not able to perform their work well and effectively. Job insecurity and job dissatisfaction also increase absenteeism and low employee turnover.  It will interrupt operational activities of the firm. Tardiness is the main cause of employee displeasure in the organization (Muffels, 2014). Thus, employees do not feel cheerful and happy at the workplace and they spend their lot of time in the restroom. In Australian companies, managers do not maintain a reciprocal and favorable relationship with subordinates. As the employee feel alone and they do not show their interest in work and job. Job discontentment also affects talent of the workers in an organization. They are not able to utilize their skills and knowledge in the firm due to dissatisfaction.

On the other hand, poor job design also affects the potential and capabilities of the workers. Effective job design is an important factor to provide job satisfaction to the workers (Mowday, Porter and Steers, 2013). An improvement in job design would be helpful to motivate and encourage employees to satisfy and fulfill their needs, requirements and wants. Additionally, Job insecurity indicates negative job attitudes in the form of anxiety and stress regarding job security. Job insecurity also increases pressure and stress among the workers. It also has a negative impact on the outcomes and performance of the company. Therefore, the firm should control on negative factors to motivate the workers and to provide satisfaction to them. It will help to make an effective and dynamic position in the marketplace (Salin and Hoel, 2011).

Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction

The workplace is an important and essential factor in an organization. If the firm maintains effective and favorable workplace then they can achieve its desired goals and objectives. In addition, job satisfaction is a significant factor to workers and companies (Warhurst et al, 2012). Managers and supervisors who recognize their subordinate job satisfaction levels would make all the necessary arrangement develop and build more unique and dynamic working environment in the organization. After the various researchers, it is found that job satisfaction influence employee’s efficiency, effectiveness, performance, endeavor, turnover, and absenteeism. Additionally, it is considered most significant factor to estimate individual welfare and interest. Further, dynamic job design and job security help to determine job satisfaction of the workers (Boxall and Purcell, 2011). Therefore, human resource management should design the job in such way that it provides job security and job satisfaction to the employees. Unique job design should be originated by HRM in the organization to attract and retain more candidates. Along with this, job satisfaction and job security must be provided by the firm to maximize and increase profitability and revenues turnover (Aghdasi, Kiamanesh, and Ebrahim, 2011).

Human resource management is an integral part of the firm. All the rules and policies for the firm are made by HR. Various functions are performed by the human resource department to encourage and motivate the workers within the organization. HR professionals recruit and select a right and appropriate candidate for the company to attain desired objectives. HR executive maintains coordination and cooperation with workers to provide satisfaction and job security (Cullen et al, 2014). It also helps to build and develop morale of the employees. HRD uses enormous policies and strategies to handle and resolve consequences of the workers. HRM also plays an important role to originate strategies for the welfare of the subordinates within the organization. Human resource management implements several effective and dynamic strategies and practices while employee experience job dissatisfaction and job security within the organization that have been discussed below (Daley, 2012).

  • HRM should implement strategies to improve job skills and potential of the workers. It is the effective way to handle job dissatisfaction and job insecurity consequences. In addition, HR professionals must match employee’s skills and potential with responsibilities to eliminate the job dissatisfaction and poor job design (Kehoe and Wright, 2013).
  • Pay practice is one of the significant human resource management practices which normally refer to pay, salary, wage, and benefits etc. Pay and wage have an important role in initiation strategies and policies (Batt and Colvin, 2011). Effective and dynamic management should be maintained in the organization to share information and knowledge in different departments of the employees.
  • Open lines communication helps to attain high job satisfaction and morale of the subordinates. Let them share and create ideas and thoughts are key success factors for creating a favorable and collaborate environment. Apart from this, effective and unique recruitment and selection practices should be used for encouraging and promoting existing and new employees.
  • The HRM should recruit the employees on the basis of the capability of doing each and every work effectively and efficiently in the company. The work must carry out good results in the long run. The employees selected by the human resource managers should be true and fare. The selection must be effective that it should not raise conflicts in an organization and it should also help to develop a healthy environment. HR professionals must appoint skilled and experienced persons to run business activities successfully. They are responsible to bring out the talent from the group and select them to become a part of the company. The HRM must check the employee’s area of working whether he is able to work for the company or not. The human resource department must ensure that the quality of work done by the recruiters to fulfill the requirements and needs of the business (Kompaso and Sridevi, 2010).
  • There should be proper decision-making process that will make it easy to give effective output and results in a lesser time. HRM must listen to all the employees and should ask them to share their opinion in order to generate better suggestions. The decision making must be completed fairly and must seek for the company’s better future profits. Thedecisions taken by the human resource management should be in such a way that it is easily acceptable by the company and its employees. Proper decision-making process makes the company efficient to compete with the world (Langley et al, 2009).
  • The performance of the employees should be progressive and effective. Also, it helps to maintaingoodwill of the firm in the global market. HRM should conduct frequent seminars where each and every employee is asked to share his or her knowledge related to a particular topic more widely. They must ensure whether they know about the current affairs as it can help the performance of the business in a hassle-free manner. The overall performance of the business depends upon how employees perform giving results and outcomes. It is the duty of the human resource department to make sure whether the employee is receiving all the information that is needed for the betterment of the company (Rummler and Brache, 2012).
  • There are also several acts that have been made in order to take care of such issues of job dissatisfaction that rises in Australian companies. These acts have helped the business to function in an effective manner without violating any rules or any laws. Companies have to follow these rules strictly. In case of violation, the strict actions are taken against them. The acts have been stated below:
  1. Fair Work Legislation

The fair Work Legislations 2009 ensure employee or employer relationship in Australia. This gives minimum entitlements, allows having flexible working arrangements and working fairly and protecting discrimination against employees.

  1. Sex Discrimination Act and Racial Discrimination Act

The act is made to avoid any kind of discrimination between the genders at the workplace. This act protects people with any indifferent attitude that is generally faced by the employees.

  1. Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Act 1999

This act has been made to provide protection to women in the workplace. It takes care of the equal opportunity and rights to be given to the women and should be treated equally in the environment. There should not be any discrimination between men and women.

Human Resource Management Implications for Organizations

Human Resource department is responsible for managing these problems of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the employees. In Australia, HR managers carry out plans and they work on making strategies to reduce these problems. They collectively sit together and discuss on the related issues and problems to bring out one relevant and important suggestion that can help the company in lowering its issues relating to such practice (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).

Rewards

They give rewards to the workers who are capable and skills in the same field. Although it is not necessary that paying can motivate them but it also is something that will harm. Rewards give them a sense of relief and make up their mind to work in a more effective way. The Companies give incentives like bonus, incentives and other benefits that help to increase their income and also help to overcome their poor attitudes towards business. Rewards and recognition help to make happy and satisfy the employees and it also provides support to increase production and outputs in long run. Incentives like a vacation package, a better working space in the office, few extra paid incomes help to make them satisfied. This strategy used by human resource managers is proved to be a more effective way of increasing the business production (Aletraris, 2010).

Low Stress

It usually happens that employees do work for extra hours hence they face a lot of stress. This makes them develop and build apathy, fatigue, tension, and various other health issues. Therefore, to avoid such harsh working criteria and issues, the HR managers are responsible for maintaining the amount of work that needs to be given to the employees. They must ensure that the work given to them may not become a burden and they are able to do it effectively and efficiently without causing any health issue. Also, it helps to increase job satisfaction and morale of the workers. It is an effective way to maintain the favorable working environment in the workplace. To maintain such environment HR must know how much each employee is capable of doing work or not. HR department takes care that proper communication should be maintained between the managers and employees so that the problem can be rectified and eliminated. To avoid the health issues caused by the stress of work HR department should use healthy diet and techniques to eliminate these issues.

Conclusion

Employees are seen most satisfied and motivated when they find the interesting work in an organization. Interesting work will enhance the quality of work given by the employees. Hence, HR department assigns the task to the employees on the basis of their interest and experience. This increases their knowledge and capabilities to do work effectively. This not only helps the company in regulating business but also increases the interest in doing work. Human Resource must know the fields in which each and every employee is specialized so that it becomes easy to assign the work to every worker in order to increase productivity.

Culture

The culture of the company should be favorable to motivate the subordinates for performing tasks and duties. There must be a will built and the reciprocal relationship among employees. To maintain such environment HR department hold  day to day meetings in order to introduce the new employees with the already existing workers. HR department is responsible for maintaining a record of company’s background and takes care of its reputation in order to attract more and more employees and clients. HR department must take care of the employee’s background before hiring them in order to avoid future conflicts and issues (Alvesson, 2012).

On the above mentioned study, it can be concluded that job satisfaction and job security play an integral role to maximize returns and results with minimizing the risks and challenges worldwide. There are enormous factors that may cause job insecurity and job dissatisfaction that have a direct impact on the long-term objectives and outcomes. HRM should focus on the best practices and policies to address organizational issues and challenges. Apart from this, several effective and unique strategies and implications should be imposed by the human resource management. Effective HR practices are also used and initiated by HR managers to eradicate and reduce poor job design, job insecurity and job dissatisfaction barriers and issues. In this way, the organization has been able to maintain a good position in near future.

References

Aghdasi, S., Kiamanesh, A.R. and Ebrahim, A.N., 2011. Emotional Intelligence and organizational commitment: testing the mediatory role of occupational stress and job satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, pp.1965-1976.

Aletraris, L., 2010. How satisfied are they and why? A study of job satisfaction, job rewards, gender and temporary agency workers in Australia. Human Relations, 63(8), pp.1129-1155.

Alvesson, M., 2012. Understanding organizational culture. Sage.

Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Aswathappa, K., 2013. Human resource management: Text and cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Aydogdu, S. and Asikgil, B., 2011. An empirical study of the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. International review of management and marketing, 1(3), p.43.

Batt, R. and Colvin, A.J., 2011. An employment systems approach to turnover: Human resources practices, quits, dismissals, and performance. Academy of management Journal, 54(4), pp.695-717.

Boxall, P. and Purcell, J., 2011. Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Cullen, K.L., Edwards, B.D., Casper, W.C. and Gue, K.R., 2014. Employees’ adaptability and perceptions of change-related uncertainty: Implications for perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), pp.269-280.

Daley, D.M., 2012. Strategic human resources management. Public Personnel Management, pp.120-125.

Holland, P., Pyman, A., Cooper, B.K. and Teicher, J., 2011. Employee voice and job satisfaction in Australia: The centrality of direct voice. Human Resource Management, 50(1), pp.95-111.

Kehoe, R.R. and Wright, P.M., 2013. The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Journal of management, 39(2), pp.366-391.

Kompaso, S.M. and Sridevi, M.S., 2010. Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International journal of business and management, 5(12), p.89.

Langley, G.J., Moen, R.D., Nolan, K.M., Nolan, T.W., Norman, C.L. and Provost, L.P., 2009. The improvement guide: a practical approach to enhancing organizational performance. John Wiley & Sons.

Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W. and Steers, R.M., 2013. Employee—organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. Academic press.

Muffels, R.J. ed., 2014. Flexibility and employment security in Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rummler, G.A. and Brache, A.P., 2012. Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.

Salin, D. and Hoel, H., 2011. Organisational causes of workplace bullying. Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, 2, pp.227-243.

Salvendy, G., 2012. Handbook of human factors and ergonomics. John Wiley & Sons.

Tooksoon, H.M.P., 2011. Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 2(2), pp.41-49.

Warhurst, C., Carré, F., Findlay, P. and Tilly, C. eds., 2012. Are bad jobs inevitable?: Trends, determinants and responses to job quality in the twenty-first century. Palgrave Macmillan.

Watt, H.M., Richardson, P.W., Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Beyer, B., Trautwein, U. and Baumert, J., 2012. Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: An international comparison using the FIT-Choice scale. Teaching and teacher education, 28(6), pp.791-805.

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