1. In hospitals, nurses act as primary caregivers for patients. They give intervention to meets the psychological, physical and spiritual needs of patients and families using nursing processes and critical thinking skills. As primary caregivers, nurses are knowledgeable and caring as they have to give high-quality services to patients. It is also their role to prevent infection and illness through health promotion and maintenance (Toussaint & Berry, 2013). They also act as coordinators who are an essential part of the multidisciplinary care team whose aim is to work towards the improvement of the patient's outcomes. Nurse's coordinator role rotates around the patient's physical and psychological assessment and support. Nurses are also responsible for maintaining clinical competence as well as participating in activities which highly contributes to the development of self and other healthcare professionals. They also have the role of engaging in educational needs of clinical nurses by participating in both informal and formal education programs at national and international levels. Nurses are supposed to respect the patient's decisions which help to boost their autonomy (LeBlanc et al., 2013). Nurses should make sure that they maintain a healthy relationship with patients because they are the ones who present the patient's interests. In education and organizational training, nurses play a significant role of teaching the patients and the society at large the on the importance of maintaining hygiene to prevent infections like cholera and also some measures which they can take to avoid getting infected. For cases of diseases like the STIs, the society is taught some means of controlling the conditions which include the use of condoms during sexual intercourse and by remaining faithful to their sexual partners. It also the role of the nurses to teach the society on how they can handle the sick in the community by showing them love and caring or them so that they cannot feel isolated which may end up worsening their health condition (Landsbergis, Grzywacz & LaMontagne, 2014). In health educational centers, nurses also teach the patients on how they can adapt their new lifestyle in case a patient has AIDs and how to accept their new looks, in fact, they had gone through an operation which let them with missing body parts.
2. HIV/AIDs has a lot of impacts to the government in almost every each country. Due to the high death rates associated with the disease the government experiences reduced labor productivity. The government incomes also lowered due to the decrease in tax revenues and the government is also highly forced to increase their spending trying to implement methods in which it can reduce the spread of the infection to the society (Caniato, Vaccari, Visvanathan & Zurbrügg, 2014). Countries which are profoundly affected by this kind of illness have indicated decreased exports and increased imports. This is because the productivity of the nation is reduced due to high employee absenteeism in various organizations to handle their weak health condition. Therefore, the government is forced to import a lot of product and services from other countries to be able to satisfy their citizen's needs. The state is also forced to introduce expensive healthcare products and services to take good care of the victims. The government also incur a lot of losses as it has to cater to healthcare cost and burial fees for the victim who fails to survive the infection. Due to high employee turnover in different government institutions, the government is forced to spend a lot of capital in training new, inexperienced employees. It has a negative impact on the government economy (Carman et al., 2013). This is because the government role in the healthcare sector will continue to be pressurized under the increased demand due to direct response. The expenditure of the government as it tries to manage the disease increases.
3. In the US the hospital admission of patients with Aids is very low as compared to other OECD countries because they have some stable models and plans for managing the infection, so a very few numbers of its citizens have the disease. Death rates for AIDs infections are meager as compared to OECD country like Australia which is still developing as stated by Ventura-Garcia et al. (2013). This is because developing countries have to import healthcare services even and drugs to manage the disease and sometimes they are costly they can't afford them leading to shortages in their hospitals and AIDS patients don't get proper medication which has led to high death rates. Jørgensen Xu & Costanza (2016) claims that the US has more skilled and competent professional in the field of healthcare as compared to Australia. This has enabled the country to be able to manage various infection in the country as well as educating the society on some prevention measures which they can put in place to avoid been affected by multiple diseases. In case of AIDs, the US whose economy is stable has been able to distribute condoms in various institutions so that people can use them which are highly recommended in the prevention of AIDs during sexual intercourse (Wohlfeiler et al., 2013). On the other end, some other OECD countries like Israel cannot be able to do the same which has led to the high spread of the infection.
4. Different countries have different health outcomes for AIDS due to various political, economic, social and cultural forces differences. In the economic point of view, countries whose financial status is not stable like in the developing OECD countries, they are not able to provide the best services and drugs to its citizens who are suffering from AIDs. Due to the unfortunate economic situation, the most OECD countries are also not able to have adequate measures of the infection. According to Costigan, Barnett, Plotnikoff & Lubans (2013), some medical services and drugs are expensive and even not available in all countries, with the weak economy a nation like Australia is not able to import them. OECD countries which continuously have political crisis like Korea its citizens suffer. This is because sometimes they are restricted in their movement and so when a patient needs emergency medical attention they are not able to access health care facilities which can worsen their condition or even death. Cultural differences can affect the health sector significantly. The spread of infections like HIV/AIDs is highly spread in countries like Switzerland with practice polygamous marriages as compared to the ones who practice monogamous (Squires et al., 2013). By having very many sexual partners a citizen may end up infected by the disease. Wife inheritance which is also highly practiced by most of developing countries has also contributed to the spread of AIDs. Ignorance of individual can also affect their health like not going to the hospital when sick or not following doctor's prescription.
Managerial healthcare career is essential within the health sector as it focuses on ensuring that nurses and other professionals within this field are trained and equipped with know-how and skills for carrying out their duties accordingly. People in various stakeholder groups are affected differently by infections like AIDs and other diseases. Infections adversely affect these groups because when people fall sick withdraw from work and this lowers the productivity of the nation. More resources are allocated by the respective government to control the infections. Different regions have different health standards as well is disease prevalent. The differences arise because of the various economic developments, availability of resources among other many factors. Developed countries have well-established health services because they invest highly in health sector compared to developing countries.
Healthcare management is a kind of process which seeks to ensure that operations in different stakeholder of healthcare institution are running correctly. For healthcare institutions which apply healthcare management correctly, they tend to offer high-quality products and services to their clients. However, the surrounding environment of healthcare sectors nowadays seems to have some forces which demand extraordinary changes in the organizations. This change includes demographic change, competition from other institution and customer demands. For a healthcare organization to be able to meet all these requirements and conquer this forces, it requires to apply strong healthcare management actions to be able to produce new values. Pressures are rising as healthcare organizations are looking for ways to reduce costs and to enhance the quality of their services and products. Even though in the past people had to travel a long distance in search of healthcare institutions to get medications, nowadays they are located all over, and patients and people can access them quickly. Health care institution comprises of many professionals from doctors, pharmacist, dieticians, therapists and nurses who all work together to ensure that they maintain the health o citizens. The task they perform is not as easy as people view them as they need a lot of skills and professionalism.
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