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A Report On Educational Leadership And Administration Add in library

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Question:

Describe about a Report on Educational Leadership and Administration?

 

Answer:

Introduction:

This report aims at giving an insight into the concepts of educational leadership and administration. It provides us with some key differences amidst educational manage and that of management of other forms of organizations. It also focuses upon some of the factors that affect educational leadership or management along with key identities with respect to focus on community, type of leadership, learning processes, cultural influence, and that of social justice. It highlights upon the possible challenges of the educational management or leadership. The report discusses about the various factors responsible for effective management and administration.

Managing and administration of education is quite different than that of other organizations. The corporate values which are assigned by academic institutions are being compelled to take up on a frequent basis by the external means such as trustees often result in improper fit within the institutional environment. Various types of leadership practices exist, such as strategic, operational, and distributive. An effective leader is expected to develop a vision and also inspire others including students. The leaders are also required to create favorable climate to bring about positive changes.

Concept and Significance:

Educational leadership plays a crucial role within the transformation of society, and to bring about change effective leaders are key identities. Apart from the belief that leadership qualities make considerable difference to educational institutions and that of student outcomes, there is recognition as per which effective educational leaders as well as managers need to be developed for providing best educational facilities to their learners. Innovative leadership positions have particular scopes of accountability. They may aim at fulfilling temporary or permanent need.

Although the management and administration concepts are similar for all organizations and administration, yet some differences exist amidst educational management and that of other organizations.

 

Management and Administration of Education:

Managing and administration of education is quite different than that of other organizations. The corporate values which are assigned by academic institutions are being compelled to take up on a frequent basis by the external means such as trustees often result in improper fit within the institutional environment. Traditional systems strongly favor individuality, creativity, and also heterodoxy. They value freedom of action highly. Independence is valued more than accountability. Introducing institutional norms which emphasize hierarchy, discipline, and team loyalty is quite difficult not because these are not worthwhile values, but because these are not considered to be significant for teaching.

Differences between educational management and other management:

The major differences between educational management and that of other managements are as follows –

  • Resource allocation suggests the availability of educational professionals and also sufficient time for meeting the standards of students. Scheduling enables educational professionals to have adequate time for providing instructions as well as interventions required by the students. On the other hand in any other organizational management, resource allocation refers to optimum utility of various resources like human resource, funding, materials, etc.
  • Being the key leader, educational principals are required to share their leadership with educational professionals for promoting reflection as well as collaborative investigation for improvement of learning processes. But in other organizational management, CEO or the key employer acts as the leader.
  • Managing and administration of education is quite different than that of other organizations. The corporate values which are assigned by academic institutions are being compelled to take up on a frequent basis by the external means such as trustees often result in improper fit within the institutional environment.
 

Factors of Educational Leadership or Management:

As per Boscardin effective leadership starts with increased knowledge of the instructional environment, such as needs of individual students, strengths as well as weaknesses of staffs, student information and schedules, and matters of instructional programs. Researchers who aim at exploring the qualities of effective educational leadership often start with the knowledge of leaders regarding the students. By creating a data-driven acknowledgement of students, institutional management and higher authorities can inform their decisions relating to resource allocation, professional development, scheduling, and funding and procurement. Professional development means the significant enhancement in the capabilities of educational professionals so as to minimize skills gap of the students. Funding and procurement refers the way characteristics of the population of the student affect the availability of funding sources and also the manner of allocation of budget.

All leaders who are increasingly effective have potential knowledge of instructional and educational tools that are available for addressing the needs of the students. This is applicable in several cases such as team-oriented approach for researching as well as vetting research-proved processes which address particular needs. On account of increased availability of educational programs of management, often institutional leaders rely upon their team members for continuous research as well as sharing of information regarding innovative methodologies. Once an effective program has been chosen, it is obvious that institutional leaders develop a deeper understanding of programs for ensuring fidelity of implementation, driving behavior through proper levels as well as ensuring educational professional avail themselves thoroughly of the training regarding professional development.

Leadership:

The first and the foremost requirement for positive changes within educational practices is leadership. Various types of leadership practices exist, such as strategic, operational, and distributive. An effective leader is expected to develop a vision and also inspire others including students. The leaders are also required to create favorable climate to bring about positive changes. It is also important to share leadership responsibilities across the institution.

Type of Leadership:

Strategic leadership

The leaders at educational institution are required to inspire teachers for change of practices. The leadership practices must set out realistic vision whereby they would understand the need for innovation and related contribution. All educational leaders have to take ownership of issues, provide support as well as guidance when needed.

Operational leadership

Apart from vision, it is necessary to realize the practical change by determining the required activities. This would involve the need for right culture for learning, encouraging and sustaining innovation. A favorable climate means whereby leaders manage as well as organize perfect opportunities.

Distributive leadership

The higher authority as educational institution will be responsible for productive changes but would not be the sole drivers. They would be facilitating various changes.

 

Necessary Changes in the Educational Leadership/Management:

One of the most important emphases within educational field during the early twenty-first has been the rising demand for increased accountability for increasing the performances of the students. National as well as state expectations demand all educational institutions to facilitate achievements of curriculum objectives of best practices. So, increased efforts within educational management have paved the way for educational leadership by higher authorities. For meeting key challenges related various expectations of improvements, especially in term of progress of students, effective strategies are required in learning field. Accomplishment important improvement efforts demand for collection as well as assessment of relevant data for determining needs and also monitoring performances for further changes. Some of the changes that are desired within educational leadership and administration are:

  • Developing and sustaining a vision – A proper and definite vision is very much important for successful accomplishment of undertakings. Creation of distinct goals enables the leaders to guide the team members in a planned manner. A proper vision states the desired objectives to the leaders and their team members, and also ensures that educational programs are accomplished in a timely and effective manner. Clear goals also avoid unnecessary complications or wastage of time on useless undertakings. Organizational vision enables all stakeholders to follow certain objectives and standards and abide by it thoroughly to achieve better outcomes.
  • Sharing of Leadership – Distribution of leadership across educational institution and giving leadership succession are indispensable towards success of educational institutions. Leaders are greatly responsible in influencing others to have a better understanding of what needs to be incorporated and in what manner. The entire process demand for facilitation of individual as well as shared efforts for accomplishing common goals.
  • Tapping expertise of leaders – The educational management is required to utilize the best available resources within the educational institution. Various stakeholders are associated with varied qualities and skills. Being the key leader, educational principals are required to share their leadership with educational professionals for promoting reflection as well as collaborative investigation for improvement of learning processes. Principals who effectively tap into the expertise of professionals throughout all processes achieve greater focus of all stakeholders to transform educational improvements.
  • Collaboration – Collaboration refers to the cohesive association of all stakeholders of the organization such as educational professionals, students, guardians, principals, and staffs. The principal is the key entity to bring about successful collaboration amidst educational stakeholders.
  • Learning Community – The educational professionals and most importantly the principal authority needs to be the role model for learning and seeking for continuous growth and improvements. Since the functions of educational parameters are fixed, the educational leaders need to manage the processes as well as structures of the institutions.
  • Effective use of data for decision-making – Several elements of educational improvements often stress the significance of data-driven making of decisions. In the present scenario, educational institutions must gather data related to demography, instruction, demographic, and perceptual information for improving the processes of learning. For instance, data is collected for diagnosing learning of students and prescribing interventions which would support learning of students in need. Initially it is important that principals employ information-collection processes for determining staff as well as student needs.
  • Monitoring instructions – It is important that higher authority of institutions support activities as well as programs by means of modeling-related behaviors, engaging in staff development, and also prioritizing processes. Also, educational professionals are required to focus on the achievements of students. They need to develop instruction as well as promote reflection regarding instruction and its impact upon individual achievement.

Influence of Culture:

In the given article of “Gender and Education” by Vincenza Priola it has been depicted that gender dimension of institutions is seen as fundamental to determine all activities and processes. It lays stress on the fact that gendered positions of some organizations influence the creation as well as negotiation processes at the workplace. In fact, women managers within organizations face troubles attributed by the demand for shaping the positions of women in traditional roles pre-occupied by men. Commonly, women have always been fighting against a masculine culture even in the managerial and administrating processes of educational institutions. According to the article, the number of females within the managerial roles may rise but not necessarily cause changes in practices. Work practices are often influenced by the dominant culture. It has been rightly stated in the article that academic profession has exhibited resistance towards cultural changes as well as position of women within educational institutions. As per Miller the most common feature of management at educational institutions is not only dominance of men but also their organizational styles. The concept of gender dimension within organizational life leads to assessment of “fit” that relies on male profile and not female profile, along with negative outcomes for perceptions of suitability of women for positions of managers. As per Whitehead () shifting of culture of educational learning to a more entrepreneurial as well as managerialist culture can lessen the equality of scopes and strengthen the gendered culture, thereby favoring men who adopt more aggressive approaches towards management. This may lead to even more tensions for women who aim at becoming managers even in masculine culture of organizations.

 

 

Strategic view of educational institution:

Once confronted with increased differentiation as well as faster change in environment, educational institutions should act more deliberately as well as purposefully. Strategic action needs an increased level of central steerage as well as unity at organizations to overcome the weak central governance as well as collegial form of decision-making.

For implementing strategic objectives, post-bureaucratic management applies key tools: effective allocation of resources depending upon internal rivalry, and also contracts as well as performance reviews. This often replaces the age-old process of bargaining amidst departments as well as central administration whereby departments used double strategy of vows. On the departmental level, data necessary for making informed decisions often prevails within scattered paper files as well as tacit knowledge of long-serving administrators. To address various problems, certain authorities are assigned for important purposes. So the most significant part of strategic behavior within the academy is the entire process of planning as well as reflection. As depicted in the article by Meyer proponents of innovative managerialism within educational field argue that the techniques of managers are essential for responding to the demands of an effective environment along with enhanced level of uncertainty. Meyer has argued that continuous changes within educational management are effectively understood as examples of key organizational learning with respect to the limitations of bureaucratic institution within turbulent environments. On account of increased availability of educational programs of management, often institutional leaders rely upon their team members for continuous research as well as sharing of information regarding innovative methodologies. Once an effective program has been chosen, it is obvious that institutional leaders develop a deeper understanding of programs for ensuring fidelity of implementation, driving behavior through proper levels as well as ensuring educational professional avail themselves thoroughly of the training regarding professional development.

Educational Management and forms of decision-making:

While the modern managerialism distinctly needs increased capacity of central steering, potential strengthening of institution at higher level should be balanced by increased discretion as well as entrepreneurialism at operational level. In a way, strength at the top level should be matched with new spirit of management at department level. Here, this concept raises issues regarding viability of age-old collegial institution techniques of governance. Once confronted with increased differentiation as well as faster change in environment, educational institutions should act more deliberately as well as purposefully. Strategic action needs an increased level of central steerage as well as unity at organizations to overcome the weak central governance as well as collegial form of decision-making.

From the point of learning-oriented institution, process of collegial decision-making shows many characteristics shortcomings:

  • Collegial management refers to “management by committee”. The committees act more like law courts which does not become active unless outside events compel. These generally adjudicate issues.
  • The operational unit under the respective administration is the single faculty members.
  • The decision mode of collegial management aims at identifying smallest common denominator amidst individuals, and not responding towards situational challenges.

Professional Knowledge & Understanding:

This factor points out the complex knowledge as well as understanding of educational thoughts as well as developments within society, learning and education that demands for successful leaders. With respect to teaching and learning, leaders often indulge critically in knowledge as well as understanding of research including that of developments in arena of learning for ensuring applying of different development techniques to enhance learners’ outcomes.

With respect to education policy, leaders utilize their acquired knowledge within educational policy for supporting academic developments. Leaders are always on the process of applying their effective knowledge for enabling contemporary societal developments, environment, digital technologies, and global community as a whole. Leaders always seek for enhancing their knowledge and practice contingent leadership styles that suit various situations.

Leaders are responsible for developing self-awareness by reflecting upon their own practices and processes. They aim at building and maintaining own credibility by means of modeling commitment towards professional learning, and also integrating ethical practices within culture with trust as well as respect. Leaders at educational management act as role models for other entities for encouraging sustainable developments of effective leadership qualities. Leaders motivate positive relationships with various stakeholders such as students, staffs, partners, parents, etc. Leaders possess increased understanding of various dynamics of political power as well as influence of link between students and society. They take up the responsibility of reflecting true commitment towards management and administration of educational organizations. They are greatly responsible in communicating effectively with various individuals and most importantly the students so that they feel motivated to abide by the organizational rules.

Critical Reflection:

A significant part of the innovative leadership department is the development of teamwork. Instead of bringing decisions to ultimate central authority, leaders of managerial department need to ask different work groups for exploring issues, developing scenarios, building cases, and thereby leading to effective actions. The leaders at departments need increased support from staff. For researching issues, managing as well as analyzing data, maintaining public relations, and hosting various activities, the central department would need frequent support from staffs. A favorable potential environment would ensure steady availability of effective leadership qualities. With respect to education policy, leaders utilize their acquired knowledge within educational policy for supporting academic developments. Leaders are always on the process of applying their effective knowledge for enabling contemporary societal developments, environment, digital technologies, and global community as a whole. Leaders always seek for enhancing their knowledge and practice contingent leadership styles that suit various situations.

The factors that have been identified in the management and administration of educational are also to be considered in cases of organizational management. Educational management and leadership encompass certain factors that may even be applied to other organizational management. Educational leadership is essential for effective functioning of educational institutions since a definite practice is to be conducted for ensuring thorough effective functioning of organizations. Various stakeholders are associated with varied qualities and skills. Being the key leader, organizational managers are required to share their leadership with other professionals for promoting reflection as well as collaborative investigation for improvement of organizational deliverances.

 

Conclusion:

To conclude from the report, it may be confirmed that various factors are existent in the educational administration and management. The leaders are also required to create favorable climate to bring about positive changes. It is also important to share leadership responsibilities across the institution. By creating a data-driven acknowledgement of students, institutional management and higher authorities can inform their decisions relating to resource allocation, professional development, scheduling, and funding and procurement. Resource allocation suggests the availability of educational professionals and also sufficient time for meeting the standards of students. Scheduling enables educational professionals to have adequate time for providing instructions as well as interventions required by the students. So, increased efforts within educational management have paved the way for educational leadership by higher authorities. For meeting key challenges related various expectations of improvements, especially in term of progress of students, effective strategies are required in learning field.

[1] Murphy J, Torre D. Vision: Essential scaffolding. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2014;.

[2] Bottery M. Educational Leadership and Economic Realities. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2002;30(2):157-174.

[3] Yeung J, Ong G, Davies R, Gao F, Perkins G. Factors affecting team leadership skills and their relationship with quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation*. Critical Care Medicine. 2012;40(9):2617-2621.

[4] Bisschoff T. Book Review: Developing Educational Leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2005;33(4):487-488.

[5] Schmid H. Leadership styles and leadership change in human and community service organizations. Nonprofit Management Leadership. 2006;17(2):179-194.

[6] Hariri H, Monypenny R, Prideaux M. Leadership styles and decision-making styles in an Indonesian school context. School Leadership & Management. 2014;34(3):284-298.

[7]  Jansen E. Changes in Leadership Style, Management Control and Management Accounting. SSRN Journal.

[8] Chen Tsai K. Creative Leadership for Directing Changes. BMS. 2012;3(2).

[9] Yeung J, Ong G, Davies R, Gao F, Perkins G. Factors affecting team leadership skills and their relationship with quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation*. Critical Care Medicine. 2012;40(9):2617-2621.

[10] McKELVIE S. FACTORS AFFECTING SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATES OF MAGNITUDE: WHEN IS 9 > 221?. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2001;93(2):432-434.

[11] Bates R. Administering the Global Trap: The Role of Educational Leaders. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2002;30(2):139-156.

[12] Quicke J. A New Professionalism for a Collaborative Culture of Organizational Learning in Contemporary Society. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2000;28(3):299-315.

[13] Lumby J. Leading Organizational Culture: Issues of Power and Equity. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2012;40(5):576-591.

[14] Metsämuuronen J, Kuosa T, Laukkanen R. Sustainable leadership and future‐oriented decision making in the educational governance – a Finnish case. International Journal of Educational Management. 2013;27(4):402-424.

[15] Bush T. Editorial: Educational Leadership and Management: Scope and Diversity. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2003;31(4):347-350.

[16] Saiti A, Eliophotou‐Menon M. Educational decision making in a centralised system: the case of Greece. International Journal of Educational Management. 2009;23(6):446-455.

[17] Gibton D. Post-2000 Law-based Educational Governance in Israel: From Equality to Diversity?. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2011;39(4):434-454.

[18] Morrison M. Diversity and Diversity Management: Messages from Recent Research. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2006;34(3):277-295.

[19] Blackmore J. Deconstructing Diversity Discourses in the Field of Educational Management and Leadership. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2006;34(2):181-199.
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