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Question :

Discuss about the Study of Motivation in Marketing ?

Answer :


As stated by Alegre, et al. (2016), an employee’s performance is typically influenced by employees’ ability, job satisfaction, as well as the work environment. Job satisfaction has been defined as the measure of how content is an employee in his or her job (Alegre, et al. 2016). It is for the same reason major organizations are found to come up with major motivational approaches that help to enhance the capability of the employees and at the same time, provides job satisfaction. The aim of the report is to determine the major factors that lead to job satisfaction among the employees in an organization. Omantel, the telecommunication company of Oman has been selected as the case study for the report. A detailed discussion on the importance of employee job satisfaction shall be carried on in this report.

Overview of the Organization:        

Oman Telecommunications Company or Omantel is the first telecommunications company in Oman. It is the primary internet provider in the country. Omantel also acquires 65% share in WorldCall Pakistan. In addition to this, the government of Oman owns 51% of the share of Omantel (, 2017). The Company has also established itself as a major international hub and has been currently operating with 10 submarine cables in Oman. The telecom company is also known for its FTTH technology in the country. In the same year, the Company has also won an award for its human resource standard quality.

Vision of the Company: The telecom company believes in connecting people. The vision of the company is to build a totally connected community through innovation (, 2017).

Mission of the Company: The mission is to fulfill all the communication needs of the customers. Thereby, attracting and developing team-oriented environment and delivering profitable growth to the stakeholders.

Value statement: The team and collaboration of the employees working at Omantel add value to the organization. They are helpful and professional in everything that they do (, 2017).


Rationale of the study:

The issue that has been identified in the organization is the lack of job satisfaction among the employees of Omantel. It has been found that the Organization has not been taking any kind of initiative to motivate the employees working at Omantel that could possibly satisfy them (, 2017). This issue can lead to a challenging situation for Omantel because one of the criterions for the success of an organization is by increasing the productivity of the employees. As commented by Lau and Roopnarain (2014), there are many ways that can lead to job satisfaction among the employees. One of the major job satisfaction criterions is by providing monetary compensation. Offering incentives or bonuses or any other forms of gifts in kind like compensatory leave or offering holiday packages can help to improve the overall performance of an organization.

If the recent situation is considered, the market is saturated with major competitors like Qatar Telecommunication Company (Qtel), Ooredoo Oman and others. In addition to this, globalization has also opened up the scope for other telecommunication companies to evade foreign markets. Therefore, any means of improving the situation falls under the responsibility of the management to undertake major steps to improve the situation (Miner, 2015). This particular study focuses on the impact of employee job satisfaction in an organization. In addition to this, the study shall also evaluate the major steps for recognition and improvement in the organization.

Objectives of the study:

The objectives of the study can be stated below:

  1. To evaluate theories of employee motivation
  2. To estimate the impact of employee motivation by their performance
  3. To find out the reasons of low employee satisfaction in Omantel
  4. To find out various means by which employees can be motivated in an organization
  5. To formulate various ways of motivating employees that are suitable for a telecom company like Omantel

Literature review:

The concept of job satisfaction and employee motivation:

Employees are essential for increasing productivity of an organization. Job satisfaction is the emotional response of an individual in the current job place; whereas motivation is the driving force that boosts the morale of the employees to work profoundly to increase the overall productivity of an organization (Judge, et al. 2017). Job satisfaction is a complex variable and is directly influenced by major situational factors of the workplace. As commented by Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2014), employees that have job satisfaction love their job. They feel they have got justice in their job and they get involved in the job.

Job satisfaction is the affective response on the job and a variety of factors are responsible for influencing the job satisfaction. It is dispositional in nature and it is assumed that by measuring personal characteristics of the employees, the level of satisfaction can be determined. Leaders in an organization are responsible for motivating employees and providing them the satisfaction in their job. In the view point of Hülsheger, et al. (2013), leadership effectiveness depends on how well the employees are motivated to work. In the recent time, organizational culture has become dynamic. Considering the various situations like cross cultural environment, gap in generation and any other factors that might create a turmoil situation in the organization, the responsibility of the leader has increased by many folds. If the leadership approach is positive enough, then the employees shall be motivated and satisfied and the productivity of the organization would increase.

Factors influencing job satisfaction and employee motivation:

Managing people at work has become a vital point of concern among the leaders. Managing is concerned with making plans and deciding on various approaches that are directly related to the performance of the employees. In the view point of Hülsheger, et al. (2013), people management has turned out to that point where recognition of employees’ needs has become the most important criteria. Job satisfaction is directly related to the level the employees are motivated at the work place (Judge, et al. 2017). The most important factor that creates job satisfaction and motivates the employees is the leadership approach in the organization. Employees can experience high level of job satisfaction if they work under influential leaders (Tufail, et al. 2016). Apart from leadership, other factors like good pay, recognition, job security, better work place atmosphere with good co-workers are some of the other important features that enable job satisfaction.

Other important factors like better employment opportunity like permanent employment t with fixed working hours, better opportunities for working condition are some of the other factors that can directly influence the employees and create job satisfaction in them (Mauno and Ruokolainen, 2017). In addition to these, job specific proficiency and a good standard of personal discipline accompanied with good peer and better supervision of the leaders are some of the other important factors that create job satisfaction and motivate the employees.


Importance of job satisfaction and employee motivation:

As stated by Judge, et al. (2017), the success of the improvement in the productivity depends on the commitment of the employees. The commitment of the employees can be increased by successful improvement strategies. These strategies shall include an emotional bonding and sense of belonging with accomplishment of self actualization. According to the Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, employees tend to work in a distasteful manner and also try to avoid doing extra work if possible (Jensen and Jacobsen, 2015). This is the reason, employees should be directed and if required should be controlled. Physical and mental efforts are similar to rest or play. It has been further commented that threatening or external controlling are not the only means to achieve the organizational goals and objectives (Mauno and Ruokolainen, 2017). Theory Y is intended towards recent knowledge of human behavior. Certain factors like rewarding and recognizing the employees can actually create a better impact on their performance (Girma, 2016). The major aim is to make the employees effective enough to carry out their work aligning the same with the organizational objectives and goals.

Reading Davies, et al. (2015), it has been found that there is no doubt that the organizational performance can be easily improved if the employees are satisfied with their work at the workplace. The performance improvement does not only count the financial performance of the organization but other factors like less employee turnover, high productivity, increased profit and increased loyalty of the employees towards the organization are also included (Mauno and Ruokolainen, 2017). Workplace job satisfaction and motivation are likely to improve the performance of an organization.

Relationship of job satisfaction and employee motivation with organizational performance:

Employee motivation and job satisfaction lead to commitment of the employees with the organization. According to the Herzberg’s motivation theory, the impact of motivation can lead to job satisfaction (Chen, et al. 2016). Job satisfaction in return can lead to increase the productivity, efficiency and decrease in absenteeism and turnover in an organization. Organizational performance is influenced by both internal and external factors. The external factors are the macro environmental factors like economic or political conditions of the particular place, but the internal factors are largely depended on the workers and employees working four the particular organization. As pointed out by Hofmans, et al. (2013), employees who are comfortable at their workplace can also devote extra and their private time at the office. Overall organizational performance can be viewed as an individual’s participation but it depends on the collective approach of the employees at the organization.

It is only when the employees will be satisfied enough in their job, they shall also put the right effort into the job and make the best as per their ability (Wyland, et al. 2016). This in turn will automatically improve the organizational productivity and performance. On the other hand, dash argued that when employees are dissatisfied with their job, they tend to create negative impact at the workplace and in turn will decrease the organizational performance to a large extent (Omar, 2013). Thus, an organization should consider better policies to motivate employees and increase job satisfaction among them.

Research gap:

With the analysis, the research gap that has been identified is the specific factors that can be used for a particular business sector. The motivation factors cannot be similar for treating employees of every business sector. The operation and business activities are different for different business sector s and thus, the motivational factors and the job satisfaction level shall be different for these employees. Therefore, the aim of this study shall focus on the specific motivational factors that can bring job satisfaction among the employees of a telecom and internet service provider like Omantel.

Variables/ Concepts of the study:

Independent variables

Dependent variables


Motivation and job satisfaction in Omantel

Better pay

Better work atmosphere and co-workers

Recognition in job

Effective leadership

Overview of the Study:



The concept of job satisfaction and employee motivation

Hofmans, J., De Gieter, S. and Pepermans, R., (2013). Individual differences in the relationship between satisfaction with job rewards and job satisfaction. Journal of vocational behavior, 82(1), pp.1-9

Factors influencing job satisfaction and employee motivation

Chen, P., Sparrow, P. and Cooper, C., (2016). The relationship between person-organization fit and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(5), pp.946-959.

Importance of job satisfaction and employee motivation

Judge, T.A., Weiss, H.M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. and Hulin, C.L., (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change.

Relationship of job satisfaction and employee motivation with organizational performance

Davies, E., van der Heijden, B.I. and Flynn, M., (2015). The relationship between organisational support, job satisfaction, retirement affect and retirement intentions for older workers in the UK.

 Research Methodology:

This section of the study is based on the methodology of research used in conducting the entire study.  It is important to frame the research methodology prior conducting the research as it provides a proper guideline of carrying out the research. Moreover, when the timeframe is set, it becomes more convenient to carry out the research in a more systematic manner.


Data type used:

Secondary data are the existing data that provides information on the particular topic where as the data that is collected by investigation is called primary data (Mackey and Gass, 2015). For this particular study, both primary and secondary data has been used. For the secondary data, the sources available both online and offline have been used for writing research paper. The various secondary sources that have been used are books, journals, available newspaper articles and other academic sources. For the primary research, both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been made in analyzing the study. The questionnaire shall contain a series of questions related to the level of job satisfaction and motivation among the employees of Omantel. The survey questionnaire would have 15 questions in total consisting of both open and closed ended questions. However, there will be more closed ended questions as it will help to evaluate the findings easily. The options of the closed ended questions will be as follows:

  1. Strongly satisfied
  2. Satisfied
  • Neutral
  1. Dissatisfied
  2. Strongly dissatisfied

For the qualitative primary research, interview option has been selected. The interview will be conducted face to face among three top managers of Omantel. This shall help me to gain more information on the issues that take place in Omantel. The aim of this interview is to get proper information of what actually takes place inside the organization and the steps that management takes to motivate the employees. There will be 15 open ended questions meant to ask to the managers of Omantel. It is expected that the face to face interview shall be conducted for 20 minutes for each manager to me carried in the meeting room of Omantel (Taylor, et al. 2015). Therefore, in order to gain the inside knowledge of the organization, it is important to interview and conduct the survey among the employees that the perspective from both the sides can be gained.

Research instrument:

The instrument that is used for conduction the primary and secondary research is called the research instrument (Glesne, 2015). The research instruments used for this particular study are survey questionnaire and interview technique. For the quantitative analysis, survey questionnaire will be used and for the qualitative analysis, interview method will be used.

Sampling technique:

Random sampling technique shall be used to carry out the primary research among the employees. Since the interview will be carried on among the managers, the sampling technique to be used is non-probability sampling technique (Panneerselvam, 2014).

Population and sample size:

Number of participants in the study indicates the population and sampling size. For the quantitative research, a survey will be carried on among 200 employees of different departments of Omantel. There are 7 departments in Omantel and there are about 60 employees in each department. Therefore, it is expected that 50 questionnaires will be distributed to the finance department, 50 to the administrative department, 50 for the public relation department and finally, 50 for the human resource department of Omantel. Thus, the sampling size is 200 including both male and female employees.

Measurement scale:

            The scale used to measure the response of the respondents is called the measurement scale (Flick, 2015). The measurement scale to be used for the quantitative analysis is the ordinal scale. It represents a number of options that shows the like or dislike of the particular option among the respondents. Therefore, ordinal scale shall be used as the measurement scale.

Data Analysis:

In order to analyze the quantitative data, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics will be used. In inferential statistics, correlation method will be used to test the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation and the performance of the employees in Omantel. However, the interview shall be analyzed qualitatively by thematic analysis.

Budget and timeline:


Time in weeks

Introduction  + Rational + Objectives


literature Review


Data Collection


Data Analysis


Writing the report





Expenses (RO)



Internet service


Phone calls and other expenses




            It is expected the total budget shall be 50RO.

Limitation of the study:

Time duration is a major limitation of this study. In addition to this, some of the books and journals were inaccessible that would have otherwise provided useful information.



Chen, P., Sparrow, P. and Cooper, C., (2016). The relationship between person-organization fit and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(5), pp.946-959.

Davies, E., van der Heijden, B.I. and Flynn, M., (2015). The relationship between organizational support, job satisfaction, retirement affect and retirement intentions for older workers in the UK.

Dobre, O.I., (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance. Journal of Management and Socio-Economic, (1).

Flick, U., (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage.

Girma, S., (2016). The relationship between leadership style, job satisfaction and culture of the organization. IJAR, 2(4), pp.35-45.

Glesne, C., (2015). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. Pearson.

Hofmans, J., De Gieter, S. and Pepermans, R., (2013). Individual differences in the relationship between satisfaction with job rewards and job satisfaction. Journal of vocational behavior, 82(1), pp.1-9.

Hülsheger, U.R., Alberts, H.J., Feinholdt, A. and Lang, J.W., (2013). Benefits of mindfulness at work: The role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), p.310.

Jensen, U.T. and Jacobsen, C.B., (2015). Taking Leader and Employee Reports Seriously: Exploring the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction with Polynomial Regression and Response Surface Analysis. In XIX IRSPM Conference.

Judge, T.A., Weiss, H.M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. and Hulin, C.L., (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change.

Lau, C.M. and Roopnarain, K., (2014). The effects of nonfinancial and financial measures on employee motivation to participate in target setting. The British Accounting Review, 46(3), pp.228-247.

Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., (2015). Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.

Mauno, S. and Ruokolainen, M., (2017). Does Organizational Work–Family Support Benefit Temporary and Permanent Employees Equally in a Work–Family Conflict Situation in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Emotional Energy at Work and at Home?. Journal of Family Issues, 38(1), pp.124-148.

Miner, J.B., (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. (2017) Omantel Available: [Accessed on: 9-3-2017]

Omar, W.W., (2013). Transformational leadership style and job satisfaction relationship: a study of structural equation modeling (SEM). International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, 3(2), p.346.

Panneerselvam, R., (2014). Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..

Silverman, D. ed., (2016). Qualitative research. Sage.

Skaalvik, E.M. and Skaalvik, S., (2014). Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: Relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. Psychological reports, 114(1), pp.68-77.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Tufail, M.S., Ismail, H. and Zahra, S., (2016). The Impact of Work Social Support on Firm Innovation Capability: The Meditational Role of Knowledge Sharing Process and Job Satisfaction and Moderating Role of Organizational Trust. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 36(2).

Wyland, R., Lester, S.W., Ehrhardt, K. and Standifer, R., (2016). An Examination of the Relationship Between the Work–School Interface, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(2), pp.187-203.


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