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A Theory Of Human Motivation: Psychological Review

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Describe about A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review?



The main focus of this report is to discuss about the transportation as the human activity, and to discuss the same with the help of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs (Varian 1992). This report will discuss how this theory supports helps in serving the human needs in better way (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). The experiential procedure and the material used in this report will be designed by focusing the transportation activity (Wahba and Bridwell 1976). Along with this study will include primary inputs from the ecosystem, which are crude (oil) and then discuss how human activities are sensitive towards the primary inputs and how the impact of the activity supports in determining the amount of change that occur in the input (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). 

Explain how transport (goods and services) serve human needs using the Maslow's hierarchy framework

People often care about the specific set of requirement only if they are able to fulfill their low level needs (Chichilnisky and Heal 1998). Through the development of civilization it has lead towards the development in cities that are slipping back on the pyramids (Frankl 1946). Transport planners also sometimes try to cast the narrow minded as they try to obsess the time for travelling, but one also obsesses to become human beings (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). In the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, where one could located the requirement of speed (Maslow 1943). One can argue on this that, the same depends on the reason for travel, but most of travel is related to the lowest pyramid levels, and these levels are, love/belonging, physiological, as well as safety (Firestone and Corbett 2005). These levels discuss about the facts that motivate one to work and work is something that drives towards the transit demand (Krutilla 1967). One can surely say that work is considered as self actualization (Firestone and Corbett 2005). When the same thing is put in other way, one work for self-actualization, but simultaneously, they also work for safety as well as physiological needs (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012).

More directly, the actual base is the needs at lower level that are often felt, but it’s important to get those needs (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). For example, when one is waiting for the bus or train, as they want to reach home, when this kind of transportation is safe, or one will look to go home with their child or partner that comes in Love/Belonging level (Firestone and Corbett 2005). In the case of physiological and safety needs, people often work, as they feel motivated towards selling their products, as the same is tied with the success of their own work (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). In the level of self actualization, the question which occurs is that every person demands good urban life (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). By definition it’s stated that the self selected population portion that fulfill all the lower requirements to the point that they hold time to think in this matter (Firestone and Corbett 2005).

According to the Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, one should never expect all these considerations to act very convincing to the citizen that strand over the street corner or either at the transit vehicle as the city tries to design their transit for catalyzing the urban life at the expense to make it quite reliable as well as fast (Goulder and Donald 1997). In that case that person will view other people at the high requirement level, who are above the low level needs (Hallsmith 2013). In case of transportation system Hierarchy of needs, it include five needs level, which are: security, safety, social acceptance, time, comfort and convenience, and cost (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). The safety as well as security of the travelers is referred as the most basic requirement in this specific hierarchy (Kaufmann 1992).    

Transaction Hierachy of Needs Source                                           

(Source: Goulder and Donald 1997)

In case of psychological requirements and the selection of transportation, various literatures has analyzed the Maslow hierarchy of need their in order to shed the light over how the roadways characteristics and various other facilities are graded as well as perceived (Goulder and Donald 1997). It is significant to analyze as well as understand that each characteristic related to the road, transit, bike, as well as pedestrian facility is associated with certain ways to requirement that the travelers might hold (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Presently, the service level of roadways in relation to the motor vehicle makes use of calculated capacity percentage along with congestion, not including the security as well as safety issues (Corbett and Fischbeck 1997). This is considered as one of the issues in trying to compare the roadways with the other kind of mode facilities that all other facilities are link with the security and safety instead of using own vehicle (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012).

People who travel with their single occupancy vehicle might feel quite less vulnerable towards the myriad of the issues that they might experience while using all other mode of transportation (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Therefore, it is viewed that is not the case of 11 transit or bicycle, and pedestrian that require to get converted towards reflecting the need theory of Maslow (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). It’s noted that researchers have started to examine the psychological transit choice of motivation (Corbett and Fischbeck 1997). In the review of various studies, it has become quite clear that the Maslow hierarchy of need theory can explain about the selection of transit (de Groot, Alkemade, Braat, Hein and Willemen 2010). For instance, Habermas (1984) highlights about the six principles of psychology in persuasion, which associates with the behavior and change related to transportation (Habermas 1984). This kind of behavior includes the commitment, social proof, reciprocation, consistency, scarcity, liking, as well as authority along with the theory of Maslow hierarchy of needs (Corbett and Fischbeck 1997).


Primary inputs into human activity from the perspective of ecosystem goods and services

Primary inputs that are selected from the list of ecosystem are crude (oil) that impact the transportation, which is the human activity (Kumar and Hoffmann 2002). Primary input is the crude oil, which is required for the transportation purpose, and without fuel, it’s not possible to run the cars, trucks, aircraft or ships (Kelvin 1971). In this report primary inputs are discussed (Krutilla 1967). It’s noted that in consumption of crude oil is increased all over the world, which has resulted into the decrease the global production (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Increase use of crude oil has created the challenge of pollution in various areas (Kumar and Hoffmann 2002). Although much of the world relies over the production of the trade oil in order to fuel the economies, and all these activities can help in causing the severe damage to the entire environment, whether through knowingly or might be unintentionally (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Dumping of the oil waste, pollution created through the production, or spill of the wreak havoc over the nearby habitat and the wildlife (Kumar and Hoffmann 2002).

The primary inputs of the ecosystem are often impacted through the transportation human activity as they transport the oil from one place to the other, and in certain cases accidents can leads havoc (Corbett and Winebrake 2007). Marine life might also be impacted through the cleanup operations or either through conducting the physical damage to the habitats such as animals and plants that are grown or live in the water (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). The plants and the animals are usually at the risk and they might also come in contact with the contaminated surface of the sea (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). It’s noted that marine animal and the reptiles, or either the birds that try to feed through the diving or through form flocks over the sea; the damage can also occur at the shoreline of the marine life, and even impact the plants and the animals in the marine culture facilities under the sea (Hermann, Schleifer and Wrbka 2011).


It’s noted that the runoff through the processing of the petroleum a long with the petrochemical plants have also started dumping the tons of toxic waste in the nearby sea or in lakes, and these factors has impacted the ecosystem (Corbett and Winebrake 2007). These toxic are used in the transportation vehicles and often impact the environment through creating the pollution (Corbett and Winebrake 2007). It’s viewed that oil pipelines and that are often stanched with various rivers as well as creeks, along with cropland, and the swamping prime pastures (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Furthermore, it’s also noted that the complete lagoons and the bays coasts are fouled through the oil spills as well as runoff of the toxic chemicals in the water that impact the marine life (Clark 1973).

The damage to the environment also results into the retraction of the oil and the production might also directly impact the regional human life (Corbett and Koehler 2004). Damage might also include the water resource pollution and the soil contamination (Lamarque, Quétier and Lavorel 2011). It’s noted that human beings also get affected through the devastation in the environment that also damages the vegetables, health of people, as well as livestock (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). It’s noted that transportation of oil might result into oil spill that could interfere with the daily power station working and might lead to desalination of the plants that needs regular supply of seawater along with safe operation at the coastal ports and industries (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012).

Damage to the environment might also result into the conflicting issues over the regions of oil production as well as transpiration (Corbett and Fischbeck 1997). Harm done to the environment also relates with the oil resources that could be attributed through the side effects of the conflicts or in certain cases it relates to the aggression of military that intend to create damage to the regions of natural resource (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). The world is entirely dependent on oil as it powers in cooling building, transportation, supports in creating the domestic as well as industrial chemicals and even offer the feedstock for various clothing and material (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). Transportation make use of 60% of production of oil that mostly used by trucks and cars (Goulder and Donald 1997).


Impact on transportation by determining what amount of change in the input would cause

Transportation could be impacted if the changes are brought in the inputs (Ciriacy-Wantrup 1963). In case of oil, which is the nonrenewable source of energy gets reduced; transportation can be hugely impacted, as most of the vehicle makes use of petrol (Antrop, Sevenant, Tagliaferro, Van Eetvelde and Witlox 2012). It’s important that the proper facilities and technology could be used for making proper use of crude in the transportation and at the same time adopt certain precautions (Corbett and Fischbeck 1997).



It’s noted from the report that human activity of transportation is impacted through the hierarchical needs. It’s noted from the theory that after fulfilling the basic needs, a person moves towards adopting transportation ways that are in their budget. In most of the cases, people, use public transportation for the purpose of security and safety, where else many people make use of personal vehicle for comfort and luxury. This report has also discussed about primary inputs such as crude (oil) from the list of ecosystem and discussed the same with the human activity of transportation and tried to explore the impact on inputs through the human activity and also discuss its outcomes.



Maslow, A. H. 1943. A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, pp. 370-396.

Wahba, M. A. and Bridwell, L. G. 1976. Maslow reconsidered: A review of research on the need hierarchy theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15, pp. 212-240.

Frankl, V. 1946. Man's Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press

Hallsmith, G. 2013. The Key to Sustainable Cities: Meeting Human Needs, Transforming Community Systems. New Society Publishers.

Chichilnisky, G. and Heal, G. 1998. Economic returns from the biosphere. Nature 391 (6668),  pp. 29–630

Goulder, L.H. and Donald, K. 1997. Valuing ecosystem services: philosophical bases and empirical methods. In: Daily, G.C. (Ed.), Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Habermas, J. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action. Boston: Beacon Press

Corbett, J. J., and Fischbeck, P. S. 1997. Emissions From Ships. Science, 278(5339), pp. 823-824.

Corbett, J. J., and Koehler, H. W. 2004. Considering Alternative Input Parameters In An Activity-Based Ship Fuel Consumption And Emissions Model. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 109, pp. 1-8.

Corbett, J. J., and Winebrake, J. J. 2007. Sustainable Movement of Goods: Energy and Environmental Implications of Trucks, Trains, Ships, and Planes, Environmental Management, November.

Firestone, J., and Corbett, J. J. 2005. Coastal and Port Environments: International Legal and Policy Responses to Reduce Ballast Water Introductions of Potentially Invasive Species. Ocean Development and International Law, 36(3), pp. 291-316.

Kumar, S., and Hoffmann, J. 2002. Chapter 3 Globalization: the Maritime Nexus, in Handbook of Maritime Economics and Business. London: Informa, Lloyds List Press.

Antrop, M., M., Sevenant, C., Tagliaferro, V., Van Eetvelde, and Witlox, F. 2012. Setting a framework for valuing the multifunctional landscape and its multiple perceptions. UK: Routledge

de Groot, R. S., Alkemade, R., Braat, L., Hein, L. and Willemen, L. 2010. Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. Ecological Complexity, 7, pp. 260-272.

Hermann, A., Schleifer, S. and Wrbka, T. 2011. The concept of ecosystem services regarding landscape research: a review. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 5. Pp. 1-37.

Lamarque, P., Quétier, F. and Lavorel, S. 2011. The diversity of the ecosystem services concept and its implications for their assessment and management. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334, pp. 441-449.

Goulder, L.H., and Donald, K. 1997. Valuing ecosystem services: philosophical bases and empirical methods. Washington: Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press

Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V. 1963. Resource Conservation: Economics and Policies. Division of Agricultural Sciences. University of California, University of California Press.

Clark, C.W. 1973. The economics of overexploitation. Science, 181, pp. 630–634.

Kaufmann, R.K. 1992. A biophysical analysis of the energy/ real GDP ratio: implications for substitution and technical change. Ecological Economics, 6, pp. 35–56.

Kopp, R.J., and Smith, V.K. 1993. Valuing Natural Assets: The Economics of Natural Resource Damage Assessment. USA: Resources for the Future

Krutilla, J. V. 1967. Conservation reconsidered. American Economic Review, 57 (4), pp. 777–786.

Kelvin, L. 1971. Consumer Demand: A New Approach. New York: Columbia University Press

Varian, H. R. 1992. Microeconomic Analysis. New York: W.W. Norton.


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