Statistics and research conducted by various non-governmental organizations show that people living with disabilities in Australia have been greatly underrepresented (Campbell & Oliver, 2013).This underrepresentation is common and very evident in all sectors of the Australian workforce. For the first four years for instance, the unemployment rate has been increasing and the condition is not too projected to get any better anytime soon. As a matter of fact this condition is worsening day in and day out. This condition is so threatening in that there should be a full representation of persons of all kinds in the work force but this has not been the case.
Employment participation rate for persons with various kinds of disabilities is way less compared to the employment participation of persons without any form of disability. , statistics also show that the unemployment cohort rate has been approximately estimated to lie between 1.3-1.5% times much higher that persons with no nay form of disabilities. Most of the persons with disabilities are often willing to work, they always have the drive within then of trying to secure employment so that they are in a position to support them by becoming financially empowered and independent and also contribute to the society either socially or economically. With all this determination and hunger to secure employment, it’s often very hard to secure the employment itself (Carter, Austin, Trainor, 2012).The wider Australian community has really been underestimating these people. They a see them as lesser persons and people who cannot be in a position to do anything worth it. They overlook them with the notion that they will not be able to deliver as expected, what they are forgetting is that disability is not inability and no matter the physical condition that one is in, they can still perform and should therefore be given same employment opportunities just like other people.
It not just the employment issue, people with disability also got gets the social inclusion they deserve. They are totally ignored and overlooked this has been attributed to be one of the many causes of their underrepresentation. As we all know, work plays Avery crucial role in someone’s life. Work has the ability to make people feel that they are capable; it raises people’s confidence in life and also helps in the development of a person as a whole socially, economically and emotionally. Employment opportunities not being offered to these people makes them feel much more oppressed and misplaced and do not fit in the society (Domingo, 2012).
The Australian government has been trying so much to remedy this situation. The government feels that all people should be given same employment opportunities. The government has been involved in quite number cases trying to solve this issue of misrepresentation. Increasing the employment participation for people with disabilities have been one of the strategies that the Australian government has been using is as to address the issue of labour shortages and at the same time minimizing the rate of the constantly increasing external pressure (DuBois & Miley, 2013). There are quite a number of advantages that would be brought about by an increase in the employment rate for people with disabilities. For instance, increasing the employment rate and reducing underrepresentation of people with disabilities will result into an enhanced quality of life for these people and also increased financial independence which would in turn reduce the dependency ration by a very bug margin. People with disabilities will thus stop relying and depending on their family members to provide for them or relying on other welfare services such as the Disability Support Pension as they would now be in a position to work and earn some living for themselves (Iezzoni, 2011).
Aims of the study
The aim of this particular study is to explicitly look at what are some of the challenges that are being faced by people living with various kinds of disabilities in the employment sector in Australia. Here the employment sector could be either paid or as a volunteer or even both. Moreover, it also intends to look at what are some of the interventions from the people living with disabilities.
This paper will therefore focus to carefully analyse the findings that would be generated herein about the main and common challenges that this group of people face in Australia and some of the barriers and stumbling blocks to securing a meaningful employment opportunity. Strategies that can be employed to remedy the situation will also be looked at.
Basically this report aims to answer the following research questions;
- “What are some of the challenges that are experienced by people with disabilities in the employment sector in disabilities?”
- “To what extent has the current policies and programs supported disabled people in acquiring full-time jobs?”
The literature review presented herein is a qualitative review it basically aims at reviewing the qualitative study and also attempting to present a detailed and a discrete qualitative analysis on the challenges faced by people living with disabilities while they try to secure employment opportunities (Pheasant, 2014). This study will critically and explicitly evaluate previous literature regarding the same issue of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the employment sector. There are certain factors that might have influenced the employment rate, policies regarding employment and also programs that are available to integrate disable persons into the huge and dynamic Australian labour force.
In line with the aims of the study mentioned earlier, this literature review is focused on two major aspects. First and foremost, it’s to understand some of the common barriers by people with disabilities in Australia and second it’s to identify some of the strategies and interventions that are useful in solving the issue but in this case according to the perspective of the people with disabilities.
There was a systematic review on the international reports give b a number of articles describing inclusion in Australia The research has used research databases so as to get adequate information regarding the topic of the stud. Also, there was use of interview whereby a number of participants with disabilities were asked on those challenges they experienced in workforce. The articles used in the research were; Gauging underdog entrepreneurship for disabled entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(1), 3-18, Inclusive growth and climate change adaptation and mitigation in Australia and China: Removing barriers to solving wicked problems and Social work research in the field of disability in Australia: A scoping review. Australian Social Work, 71(1), 18-31 (Ma, Chan, Carruthers, 2014).
There were 266 articles which were identified through the research. There were also additional 1 articles which were obtained from the Google scholar and other database sources. Articles which included information on teenage were excluded since they did not have adequate information. After excluding some articles, 27 of them remained and were critically analysed in depth. The 27 articles included information on adults with disabilities.
After a careful scrutiny if the various articles, important data was obtained from each of them and there are some terms that were specifically selected that could be used to refer and/or represent the population of interest (Madans, Loeb, Altman, 2011).Some of the terms that were selected include; disability, intellectual, mental illness, among others. It is important to note that some of these terms will frequently be used in this report.
The information presented herein was sourced from various sources. For instance, some of the sources that this literature was sourced from include; Google scholar, various computer databases and some other government publications that majorly focused on issues to deal with persons with disabilities.
The two case studies used in the research involves the use of interview on a number of participants within a certain locality. The participants were interviewed and the analyses done as shown by the first study and the second study.
Articles used in the research.
Description of article
Gauging underdog entrepreneurship for disabled entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(1), 3-18.
Saxena, S. S., & Pandya, R. S. K.
The article investigates the challenges faced by people with disabilities in employment sector.
A total of 85 disabilities people were asked on the challenges facing them in employment sectors.
Inclusive growth and climate change adaptation and mitigation in Australia and China: Removing barriers to solving wicked problems.
Bell, W., & Zheng, X.
The article focuses on the social interaction between people with disabilities in employment sectors in Australia
Included a number of disability people aged 20-27 years .They gave response on how they were treated in different workplace.
Social work research in the field of disability in Australia: A scoping review. Australian Social Work, 71(1), 18-31.
Bigby, C., Tilbury, C., & Hughes, M.
The article focuses on the research topic of the study.
10 women with disabilities were receiving support from governmental disability organization in Australia.
How the data was analysed.
The data obtained was analysed by indicating the root cause of the challenges facing peoples with disabilities. Two case studies were used which dependent on research interview and sampling techniques. In order to account for the results a Gant chart showing how articles were analysed was shown as below;
Gant chart with steps used to analyse the articles.
The chart indicates what was done in selecting the appropriate article for the data needed to obtain adequate information. Each section has summarised what was done by the members used in research.
Barriers to employment
The literature used revealed that most of the people with disabilities experience high degrees of exclusion in regard to employment opportunities due to various reasons among which are social, organizational and attitudinal barriers and not issues that directly related to their physical conditions (Garthwaite, 2011). These barriers are not as a result of people looking having a negative attitude to these people in that they doubt the capability of the disabled in terms of deliverance. They feel that these people are not competent enough to deliver as per required of them.
Most of these barriers are linked to issues such as stigma, various forms of prejudice not to mention different kinds of stereotypes discrimination. It was also reviled that these people experience so many challenges regarding employment which are directly and/or indirectly related to various forms of natural, build and rural environment system structures. There were also some physical barriers that were identified and these comprised of inabilities for people with disabilities to carry out their normal daily activities (Groce, Kett, Lang, Trani, 2011). The issue here is that if these people are not in a position to carry out their normal and daily activities effectively, they must get some little help from people around them, then how can they manage to carry out certain tasks assigned to them after employment. There were also challenges that were related to their low levels of education that were identified. Most of people with disabilities in Australia have a very low level of education. Moreover, they also tend to have an extremely limited psychological skill set that could make it almost impossible for them to compete favourably in the job market.
There were certain programs and policies that were specifically designed to implement and to address the challenges facing people with disabilities and their families in general. An example of such a program is a policy called the National Disability Strategy (NDS). In the verge of its implementations NDS made some very remarkable findings regarding some of the challenges that actually exists that face people with disabilities all over Australia as far as the issue of employment is concerned. It was found out that there existed some negative attitudes among the pool of other employed normal people who strongly believed that the disabled people could not deliver as they would work really slowly. Their production levels would be really low which would in turn affect the various organizations and businesses that these people are employed in (Wendell, 2013).
It also reviled that most of the employer in Australia were greatly concerned about some of the random potential risks that were directly associated with the persons being disabled. High risks of recruitment and maintenance costs could be expected which would really cause some great amount of loss (Burkhauser & Daly, 2011). This was solely pegged on the fact that people with disabilities lacked the appropriate knowledge to perfume certain tasks effectively as required f them.
Moreover, this initiative also reviled that most of employees lack confidence and are very reluctant in employing people with disabilities because they strongly believe that these people lack the tactical knowledge and competency that is required so as to be in a position to fulfil certain tasks effectively as per what is required. The lack of trust in the ability of people with disabilities has made employers overlook.
Most importantly, it was also noted that some of the employers complain that there is a total lack of connection and commitment among employers and most of the disability employment organizations (Ali, Schur, Blanck, 2011). These organizations cannot provide employers with people who can work and deliver as per what is expected. Another issue that has been making employers reluctant in employing people with disabilities is the lack of exposure of a disability by the disabled persons themselves. Research conducted showed that these employers often get frustrated and disturbed in cases where a disable person does not fully disclose their disability because this could have an effect of causing unknown and unexpected risks which might be so difficult to manage thus causing great amounts of losses to the employer. It was also found that one of the reasons as to why disabled person do not disclose their disability is because they feel that they would not secure employment if they indicated that they had any kind of disability. These people are trying to survive the say; it’s the only way they are ever going to get employed, by hiding their disability. This shows that there exists some kind of misunderstanding between these two parties as the other needs total transparency and the other feels that they have to hide their disability in order to get employed.
Despite all these challenges, there are some people with disabilities that are actively involved in various workforces and positively contribute towards economic development and social impact on the society (Baynton, 2013).
Types of disability
Disability has been classified in a number of groups including the physical, the speech, intellectual disability, stroke or brain damage and the psychological type of disability (Anema, Prinz, Prins, 2013). In 2009 the statistics in Australia had indicated that the most type of disability which was facing the country was the physical disability which affected almost 80% of the age working individuals in the country. Furthermore, the type of disability being experienced by someone usually affects his or her employment capabilities. Those who had speech impairment had secured good job opportunities unlike those who had psychological impairment in the country who had secured the lowest job opportunities of about 29%. Also, those who had the mental disorders experienced challenges since they could not be punctual to the work and furthermore they would incur interruptions since they had sporadic occurrences of their stability (Attard & Price-Kelly, 2010).
The inclusive strategies and interventions.
In order to discuss the second section of the research proposal, there were two development projects which were analysed. The two projects were keenly selected since they address the aspect of unemployment in Australia facing people with disability (Chen & Xu, 2011). The research proposal shows that the for effective practice which takes the inclusive approach will allow the clients to take the solution and try to come up with the solution for their challenges. The two projects involved the use of methods that focused to solve the challenges facing people with disabilities in securing job opportunities. Also, the two projects aimed at supporting the voice of disabilities in Australia thus fighting for the inclusive practice in the employment position by use of the research (Chen & Xu, 2011).The two projects have been discussed as shown below
The study one
The first project was conducted by use of professional. The aim was to support all the consumers in Australia to give adequate information to volunteer to community organization and give their opinion on the disability people with regard to the employment concerns in the entire country (Dalal, 2010). Through collaboration with different people, the article identifies the problems experienced by the disability people when seeking for the employment opportunities. People shared ideas on the problems facing the disabled individual in the society. They gave opinions on the subject of volunteering and free participation to the community work. This was done through the use of the online channels. The results obtained were that people were willing to volunteer for job opportunities. Employers were to ensure they consider the disability population in Australia (Dalal, 2010).It was quite obvious to consider the volunteering and involvement of the community in work. The platforms revealed that people were to understand the aspect of volunteering and other opportunities that could be available for the disability people. The information obtained shows that people were not engaging the people with disability n employment sectors. The sources show that this research is positive since the community discussed were able to understand the importance of inclusion in society. Therefore, through this approach, the voice of individuals was heard hence people with disability being respected in employment sectors (García, O’brien, McConkey, Wolfe, O’doherty, 2014
The second study of the research
The second aspect of the research acknowledges the work of local communities as discussed in the articles. The purpose was to analyse the aspect of volunteering which entirely related to people with disabilities so as identify the challenges facing them in employment sectors and also come up with the appropriate solutions (Harpur,2014).Also, there was the aim to find apt methods of reducing the challenges facing people with disability when seeking job opportunities in Australia. The information was submitted through answering questions which were explained by each article used in the study. The positive effect of this study was that barriers facing people with disability in the workforce were keenly identified and dealt with appropriate procedure. The articles reveal that different people gave different information on the research. Some areas lacked the volunteers and therefore there was no support for the people with disability in regard to the working environment. Other people show that there is a need to appreciate the importance of potential volunteers in the community to fight for people with disability (Khoo, Tiun, Lee, 2013). Results revealed that there was the need to match the skills, training and boost the experience for the people with disabilities so as to match them with the job skills and techniques needed within the workforce. Also, there was the need to honour and respect those who had volunteered to work despite having the disability short forms. Management in different working areas was kindly requested to treat disabled people the same way as the normal persons. All management practices such as recruitments and other non-discriminatory practices were to be highly avoided in the workplace. The project suggested to work as volunteers willingly but not to be forced to do so due to their disabilities (Khoo et al, 2013).
The links between paid employment and volunteering approach in Australia.
The resources such as the governmental articles, the information from different researchers, the volunteering bodies in Australia and the range of resources have indicated that there is the strong link which is between the paid employment and volunteer work in Australia (Morley, MacFarlane, Ablett, 2014).Generally, the volunteering aspect includes those aspects which entail benefits that focus to improve the employment for the people with disability. Also, they are not limited to accessing new skills which help them to be competent for employment opportunities in Australia. Different research participants indicated that volunteering had improved their working capabilities thus securing employment opportunities in the country.
Basically, the aspect of volunteering is to boost the employment outcomes for the people with disabilities as well as improving their participation in community activities which assist for personal survival (Rimmerman, 2013).Therefore the work experience for people with disabilities is one of the challenges which need much attention when seeking for jobs in Australia. The literature has indicated that the employers have the capability to consider those people with disability who have clear records for volunteer participation. Those previous volunteer individuals can be highly recognized by the employers thus securing the jobs in the organization. Therefore, volunteering for the job by people with disabilities and those who are physically fit indicates a position to secure employment. This means that volunteering serves as an employment pathway for people with disability thus securing jobs in Australia. This forms the key solution for the challenges facing people with disability when seeking for jobs in Australia (Rimmerman, 2013).
Employment support for people with disabilities in Australia.
There is a number of employment organizations which have been formed by the government of Australia to fight for the peoples with disabilities when it comes to job opportunities. For example, we have the Disability Employment Services (DES) which provides the employment support especially for the people with disabilities in Australia. Also, the social organization provides the aspect and principles of social inclusion in within the workforce in Australia. We have other social organization which always work to support people with disabilities in Australia (Segal, Gerdes, Steiner, 2015). Generally, the goal of these social organizations is to boost the economic development in Australia. They have worked hard enough to eliminate discrimination employment sectors and also empowering the marginalized individuals in Australia. Also, there are social films in Australia which work to provide employment opportunities for peoples with disabilities in Australia. They provide labour opportunities to people with disabilities. Therefore, in Australia the social organization helps to boost the welfare of those who are unable to get jobs thus enhancing their standard of living (Segal et al, 2015).
The national disability insurance schemes in Australia.
This is the most recognized strategy for the Australian government which assists in social inclusion for the peoples with the disability. The organization fights to fight for the rights of people who have permanent and partial disabilities in Australia (Millar & Ridge, 2013).The concern of the organization is to improve the standard of living for the peoples with disabilities in Australia. They also create awareness to the public on how and when to offer support to the peoples with disabilities in Australia. If necessary they also provide support for those families which have a person with disabilities. Additionally, the body provides funds for those participants who are willing to help people with disabilities (Stalker, Jahoda, Wilson, Cairney, 2011).
The risks and challenges of the research.
Research is always accompanied by a number of challenges. Some of the challenges incurred included;
- Lack of adequate personnel to give data needed.
- There were a lot of participants who were unwilling to give information.
- Some of the articles were outdated.
The problems experienced subjected on use of research ethics which were to give direction on the research topic. Some of the ethics included the importance of legislation on relationship exhibited between the people with disability and the employment sector. The question on why is it important to fight for peoples with disability?
Recommendations and Implications for the practice.
The employment disadvantage is the aspect which has facilitated the social exclusion in Australia.AS the research question suggests, the people with disabilities in Australia are facing a lot of challenges when seeking employment opportunities. Therefore this means the question arising from this research is of implication practice in the whole country (Syed & Pio, 2010).The research has indicated how people with disabilities are facing challenges when seeking employment in Australia. Most of the challenges facing people with disabilities in securing a good job in Australia are due to lack of awareness about the disabilities issues and the misconceptions from employers in different working environments. From the literature review, the results of the two studies discussed in the development projects have enough evidence that people with disabilities in Australia experience a lot of challenges when securing jobs (Syed & Pio, 2010)
The following aspects are recommended when dealing with the challenges facing people with disabilities in Australia when securing job opportunities.
The first recommendation is that organizations in Australia should have positive plans and strategies that will focus on employment for people with disabilities in Australia. It is also important that clear policies for fighting for the rights of people with disabilities should be formed (Syed & Pio, 2010).Therefore, for these policies to have maximum meaning to Australia they must meet the following;
- They must have employment procedures for fighting for the rights of people with disabilities.
- They must have reference list that provides the people with disabilities adequate systems that should offer apt accommodation.
- A reference and recruitment agencies that focus to recruit individuals with disabilities to secure job opportunities.
- They should incorporate appropriate legislation that will fight for the rights of the people with disabilities when securing job opportunities.
The second aspect which needs to be done to fight for people with disabilities is that employers should conduct a serious investigation to find those barriers facing people with disabilities when securing jobs in Australia (Vasey & Manderson, 2012). In order to get appropriate information, organizations can opt for use of consultants or use both internal and external information containing the issues and opinions facing people with disabilities in securing employment opportunities in Australia. Through this approach, the organization will develop positive attitudes toward the improvement of the rights of people with disabilities in different working environments.
The last aspect to consider is that there is a need for creating public awareness. This can include the mobilization of employers and encourage them to recruit people with disabilities as well as encouraging those people with disabilities to reveal any aspect that may cause harm when in the working environment (Morris, 2018).
Therefore the implication of the research was to explore the challenges facing people with disabilities in employment sectors. This has been clearly identified and the solutions keenly analysed with the future recommendations.
The literature review of the research has explored the aspect of improving the employment sector for people with disabilities in Australia. The aspect of social inclusion in Australia is the key mechanism that can fight for the rights and voice of people with disabilities in employment sectors (Zastrow,2013).The discussion has indicated that the benefits of employing people with disabilities in Australia exceeds the disadvantages faced by people with disabilities. Therefore, the paper has included a brief description of how the organization can do in order to employ people with disabilities. All people in Australia should observe those legislations and principles which focus to fight for the rights of people with disabilities. Observing the social rights forms an integral part which facilitates eliminating the barriers and challenges facing the employment of the people with disabilities in Australia.
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