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ACCG8086 Cyber Security Governance Frameworks And Ethics

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  • Course Code: ACCG8086
  • University: Macquarie University
  • Country: Australia


Writing a business report analysing complex issues and challenges demonstrates communication skills as well as critical, analytical and integrative thinking. Being able to communicate clearly in writing and reflect on what you have learned is a skill that is valuable for your future as you navigate the complexities of technology and the associated ethical dilemmas.

The aim of this assessment task is to write a business report that investigates and analyses the issues relating to the ethical dilemmas faced by cybersecurity practitioners by reading and analysing relevant scholarly articles, using contemporary examples and providing a personal reflection.

Address the following questions in your report:

a. Explain the ethical dilemma(s) in your selected article. Your explanation should include the business/technology nexus and how emerging technologies underpin the digital economy.

b. Evaluate the specific cybersecurity ethical issues and challenges in your selected article

c. How can COBIT 2019 support an appropriate organisational cyber ethics approach in the context of the issues raised in your selected article?

d. To what extent does the ACM Code of Ethics provide guidance for dealing with cyber ethics in the context of the issues raised in your selected article?

e. Reflect on an appropriate organisational response to dealing with cybersecurity ethical dilemmas (bearing in mind that cyber security is dynamic).




The use of technology is everywhere. Mobile phones which are used by individuals in daily life track the owner wherever the owner goes. Drones help in daily life to track human activities, and there are also autonomous vehicles which are used in daily lives to make life easier. Technology is used everywhere, and there are also consequences to technology. Using technology has an adverse effect on the life of people (Libicki 2018). The use of technology can also threaten individual autonomy, can violate privacy rights as well as can harm the individuals in physical as well as financial way. The technologies have included values or have included politics because technologies help to make the actions easy or make it more difficult. Technologies also have consequences in the political background that structures the roles as well as responsibilities in the society and within the organizations.

Ethics include moral principles that help to given the behaviour of an individual, and that is a critical part of a defence strategy in cybersecurity (Senlin 2018). Without having a clear standard of ethics as well as rules, the professionals of cybersecurity are considered the same as the black hat criminals against whom the cybersecurity professionals protect the systems, and the data. Cybersecurity ethics includes arrays of approaches that do not provide a simple solution to different ethical dilemmas which are faced by the IT professionals.

The practitioners if cybersecurity has their way to secure the network by keeping the data safe from any kind of intruder in the network system (Mishra 2019). The cybersecurity practitioners protect the functionality, integrity as well as reliability of the social practices than depends on such data system as well as on the networks. The professionals of cybersecurity are protecting the lives as well as the happiness of human beings who depends on the professionals for security. The professionals of cybersecurity are challenged ethically on different levels. The first challenge that they face is technical quandaries having ethical implications. This includes stating the best security technique will be useful, and which resources will be needed to implement the security techniques.

The cybersecurity professionals have access to many confidential data as well as knowledge of the individuals, and the computer networks as well as systems that provide them with a deal of power. The power of the cybersecurity professionals can be abused deliberately as well as inadvertently (Feldman, and Chow 2017). There are many ethical dilemmas which are faced by cybersecurity professionals. Cybersecurity professionals have the dilemma to read the private e-mail of the users. Professionals also face an ethical issue of monitoring the webs sites of the network users and face an ethical dilemma to keep routine logs of the visited sites. Sometimes the cybersecurity professionals also capture the program to capture all the activities which are displayed. The professionals also face an ethical dilemma to read the documents as well as look at graphic files which are stored on the computer system of the user. This report details one such ethical dilemma faced by cybersecurity professionals and explains the issues, and challenges faced by the professionals while handling the cybersecurity. This report also explains the COBIT 2019 support for the approach of cyber ethics, and guidance of the ACM code of ethics for cybersecurity. This report also deals with organization response about how they deal with the ethical dilemma of cybersecurity.


a. Ethical dilemma

The moral responsibilities that are needed for digital business communities or business groups for business purposes among the people are studied in this article (Levine 2019). The business groups or the business people have online interaction to communicate within themselves. The communities of digital business mainly include online markets, as well as communities of social networking which are used for the businesses. Most of the people have a moral obligation in following the regulation of the communities which are developed, and the exact contour of the obligation is sometimes ambiguous (Mishra 2019). It can be said that it is imperative to follow the digital communal norms that promote the trust, cooperation as well as trustworthiness among the group of members. As per the discussion in the article, the research that is carried out in the article includes two goals. As the number of participants is growing in the digital business communities, the first goal of the article is to it helps to understand as well as appreciate the importance of the engagement of an individual in the digital business communities, and second, it provides a structure to determine moral boundaries of the engagement.

This article states the need for trust in digital business. It states if the community of digital business includes a community which is relevant to Integrative Social Contract Theory (ISCT) stated by Donaldson and Dunfee. The basic framework of the ISCT can be applied to the community of digital business (Nocetti 2017). The ISCT framework that is described in this article helps to understand the moral behaviour of the communities of digital business. Social efficiency hyper-norm can easily be applied to the community of digital business in different ways that allow free space for the digital communities, which establishes the micro-norms.

The online business or the digital business carried out mainly includes a new understanding of the moral responsibilities of the user. Online business also needs rules that include simplicity, cost-saving, and interconnectedness for conducting the business on the internet. The environment of digital business also entails the unique uncertainties that require trust for encouraging the people for accepting the vulnerability when there are risky situations. The digital business communities include all online markets, and e-commerce websites such as eBay and Amazon. Digital business communities also include business information like network for the business purpose, which is included in Facebook groups or Reddit threads (Smeets 2018). The communities of digital business are different from one another, and the people who are associated with the communities are also different from one another. This environment helps to create an ethical environment that comprises of different cultures as well as moral perspectives, and this requires moral philosophy for handling the diversity as well as the dynamic nature of the communities involved in digital business. As stated in the article, the ISCT framework is considered a systematic approach for conducting business ethics. This is a useful tool for discussing the ethics in the community of digital business as this framework is flexible to different environments that are represented in the digital world.

With the use of ISCT framework, particularly trust trustworthiness as well as cooperation can be achieved. All these are associated with the issue of the business environment, and they are essential for the digital business as it has increased risk. The loss in the digital business can be financial. There is the significance of loss to individual perceiving uncertainty. The online participants do not identify each other, and they do not have social as well as legal means for punishing the people for reneging their commitments. The business communities or groups conducting business online can have lack of control as well as have greater vulnerability as the parties are often faceless as the transactions which are done are paperless (Libicki 2018). For communicating digitally, there might be sarcasm, and jokes that often people do not understand, and this types of misunderstanding creates distrust among the community members. The article also states that trust as well as cooperation in the digital relationship includes simple extension of the traditional theories that creates risk environment. Risk in digital communities mainly includes trust issue relevant for the business to carry out. Stating increased uncertainty states greater trust is required to enable the people to get engage in the community of digital business. Trust mitigating the digital risk can be developed using the micro-norms as social contract which is outlined in ISCT

As explained in the article, ISCT framework of Donaldson and Dunfee is considered as hypothetical social contract which is an agreement about different moral responsibilities in business world which are agreed by the hypothetical contractors (Senlin 2018). ISCT mainly includes normal requirements for all representative which are known as hyper-norms. These are consistent with the precepts including significant philosophies, and with the human values. ISCT helps in creating normative requirements for all community members for abiding their own community micro-norms along with community specific rules that has consistent behaviour as well as beliefs for the individuals in group.


b. Cybersecurity ethical issues, and challenges

There are many evidence of micro-norms in conducting the community of digital business. Some of the communities publish formal micro-norms or supporting the trust building as well as cooperation in the community (Buchanan 2016). As for example, eBay is a consumer to consumer shopping website, and the customers or the sellers of the company are instructed not to misrepresent the identities or neither can they report falsely to some other eBay member. These rules are not a part of the Code of Business Conduct and ethics for eBay. The Code of ethics that is stated by eBay, is they believe in honesty, and their open environment can help them to establish a competition in market ad bring best people to them. Another company Craigslist also does not mislead or have deceptive content as well as the company also does not support offensive posting r obscene posting.

For these type of communities, informal digital micro-norms are also used, and their informal nature of the communities makes them difficult to pinpoint. The founder of the company Craigslist states that they are famous not because of the formal rules, but because of the trust culture that have on their site which are created through informal rules (Smeets 2017). The users of Reddit can use a micro-norm to up-vote or down-vote the items based on their level of interest. The authenticity of the site is voluntary, and users can vote as per their choice. The results shown in Reddit is based on the truthful reflection of the interest of the user. There are different micro-norms that helps to fit the style of different communities. Communities like eBay mainly depends on formality, and companies like this mainly have formal micro norms. Communities like Reddit are informal communities, and thus they have more number of informal micro norms. From the discussion above it can be stated that different communities have different micro norms which fits the need of the communities trust, cooperation, and trustworthiness. There are different varieties of micro norms, and all those are included and supported by ISCT. Thus ISCT is an important tool that is to be implemented in different communities.

Adherence to the micro norms in the communities of digital business states spontaneous scalability that results in high level of intra communal trust (Houlden 2018). The sociality mainly explains the willingness of the people so that they can participate in the organization outside their families. Strength for digital micro norm in the social norms are mainly needed for becoming sustainable and giving power to the communities of digital business for communicating the micro-norm violation to large number of people. This provides strong development of micro norm for the digital business communities that is not feasible offline.

The tool of ISCT has one weakness. The weakness is digital contexts which might lack the commitment to some digital community. The main premise of the ISCT framework is that it provides strength to community which enforce the micro norms. Freedom to exit in a community is considered as an imperative was in original ISCT work. For being micro norms being authentic, and creating a framework successfully for making decision, there should be participation of the voluntary in community. Freedom in most of the digital community business mainly provides fitting place for exploring ISCT. The offline communities might be difficult to exit in most of the communities.

In the field of community of digital business, there is a need of ethics for enabling the trust as a value in the business (Libicki 2016). Individual in the digital business is mainly responsible for following the authentic micro norms of trust, cooperation as well as trustworthiness in the community of digital business. As stated in the article, ISCT is based on the understanding of moral responsibility in the community of digital business. The concept of community for including the people of digital community for conducting the business related to communication as well as activities. The framework of ISCT can also be used to show the trust, cooperation as well as trustworthiness for allowing the communities to have aggregate of economic welfare in the digital business.

The article also explains two cycle of trust, cooperation, and trustworthiness is considered as importance of the micro norms for the communities of digital business. The participants mainly includes a particular community for the trustworthy people so that we can trust them. When the individuals in a community states that other people are to be trusted, and they can act with the trustworthiness, and that makes a rational sense for the individual to trust them (Liaropoulos 2016). This helps to encourage the community of digital business to be trustworthy so that the can be trusted. Effectiveness in first cycle of trust in the digital business mainly promotes the social welfare in the business communities that depends on the second cycle. With the given risks in the community of digital business, most of the businesses will not be trusted as well as corporate without the micro norms with the trustworthiness as well as cooperation. The participants in the communities includes digital business that acts as trustworthy as well as cooperate with the others to trust as well as cooperate without the micro norms.


c. Support of COBIT 2019 in cyber ethics approach

COBIT is mainly developed by the international professional association (ISACA). This is a non-profit independent association (Volpe 2019). The COBIT mainly provides a particular business framework for governance as well as helps to manage the IT. COBIT mainly supplies acceptance principles, analytical tool as well as practices that includes new growth map which influences in the practices which are proven. All the practices as well as analytical tools are encompassed with logical framework from the processes related with IT. COBIT 2019 is also known as COBIT 5 which includes the following features.

  1. The business scope is not needed to have which covers all the business functions as well as IT functions.
  2. There is also a need to have some rational understanding that will help to analyse the standards which are already existing through some practices or supplement for each other.
  3. There is also a need for the framework to assimilate with other frameworks of ISACA.
  4. There is also a need to have proper improvised guidance on the emerging technologies as well as on the enterprise architecture.
  5. There is also a need for COBIT, which is to be bound by some external standards as well as external frameworks.

The framework of COBIT 5 is generic and thus proves to be useful for the enterprises as well as small, and large scale industries which are used as commercial as well as non-profit organization. When there is dependency on the technology for the reliable information, there is a need to provide all quality as well as control of information. The framework of COBIT 5 is actually exclusive for the business processes. The benefits of COBIT 5 in organizations, and mainly used executive who is at top level, and also includes consultants in the organization covering IT operations, Security, and Risk management, Audit, Governance as well as compliance.

The new version of COBIT is COBIT 5 which provides guidance for helping the enterprises to have better govern as well as manage the information, and technology in their organization (Fliegauf 2016). The framework of COBIT is mainly used by the enterprise for all the industries that comes around the globe, and the publications of COBIT are to be downloaded with more than million times. ISACA mainly introduced in COBIT for providing as well as organizing some set of control for the IT. The interaction of the COBIT mainly comes in four phases, and that includes four area reflecting the trends as well as priorities in the technology, updating the aligned with the latest standard of the industry, and helps to design a guide which provides flexibility as well as guidance for helping the organization tailor in governance system in their need.

The first release of the COBIT 19 includes two release phase.

  1. The COBIT 2019 Framework includes the introduction as well as methodology that details the governance principles, providing key concepts as well as examples that lays out structure of the framework including the model of core COBIT.
  2. The framework of COBIT 2019 states governance as well as management objectives that provides the core model as well as includes 40 governance objectives that are defined as well as matched up with the processes. Governance and management practices included in organizations.

ISACA will release the second part in December that will state:

  1. COBIT design guide that will design the information, and technology governance solution that offers how to design the information to be tailored in governance system for the organizations.
  2. COBIT 2019 will include implementation guide that will provide a solution to IT governance, and will provide a roadmap for having continuous development in the governance.

Among all the changes from the COBIT 5, the new release of COBIT 19 includes a maturity model that is mainly based on the integration model for assess the capability of the enterprise and assessing capability for each activity in the framework of COBIT. In new framework of COBIT 19, there are three additional management objectives or processes as also includes some design factors.

COBIT 2019 provides guidance that increases value that is derived from the assets of information and technologies by having better governance as well as management. This guidance mainly helps to increase the new growth as well as innovation that fortifies the organization against the threats, and the risks all over the world (Niekerk 2018). COBIT 2019 mainly offers flexibility for designing the practical governance solution which are specific to the business goal of the organization as well as includes some particular context. COBIT mainly helps to meet the business challenges in areas of regulatory compliance as well as risk management and helps to align the IT strategy in satisfying the goal of the organization. COBIT 5 includes five principles which were essential for effective management and is included in governance for the enterprise of the IT.

Principle 1: COBIT helps to meet the need of the stakeholders

Principle 2: Cover the enterprise from end to end

Principle 3: Apply integrated framework for the organization

Principle 4: Enabling a proper holistic approach for the organization.

Principle 5: Separating the governance from the management of the organization.

The five principles in the organization enables for building up holistic framework for governance as well as managing for the IT which builds on seven enablers: People, policies as well as frameworks, the processes included, organization structures, includes culture, ethics as well as behaviour, and includes information (Ho, and Warkentin 2017). The IT governance of COBIT 2019 also includes services, applications as well as infrastructure, and includes competencies, people as well as skills in the project. The principles and the enablers help to allow the organization for aligning the IT investments with the objectives for realising the value of the investments which are made.

The benefits which are included for adopting the COBIT 19 helps in improving as well as maintaining the information of high quality for supporting the business decisions. Using of IT effectively for achieving the business goals, using technology for promoting operational excellence, and ensure the IT risk for managing it effectively. This ensure the organization for realizing the value for the investment in the IT as well as helps to achieve the compliance with the laws, contractual agreements as well as regulations in the organizations.


d. Guidance of ACM Code of Ethics

The ACM code of ethics mainly expresses the conscience for computing profession, and it affirms the obligation for the computing professional including individually as well as collectively for using the skills for benefiting the society (Wijaya and Aziz 2019). The general principle of ethics includes Contributing to the society as well as includes human well- being acknowledging the people with the stakeholders for computing. The ethics principle helps to avoid the harm, and needs to be honest as well as trustworthy. Ethical principles are needed to be fair as well as take decisions which does not discriminate among the other laws. Ethical principles respect for work required for producing the new ideas, inventions as well as helps to create computing artefact. The ethical principles of ACM code of ethics respects the privacy as well as honour confidentiality in the organization.

The professional responsibilities in ACM code of ethics includes:

  1. Striving for achieving the high quality in processes as well as in products for the professional work.
  2. Maintaining high standard professionalism along with competence, ethical practice as well as conducting the business (Uwe and Gerber 2019).
  3. Knowing as well as respecting the existing rules for pertaining the professional work.
  4. Accepting as well as providing appropriate review for professionalism.
  5. Providing comprehensive as well as evaluations or the computer systems along with their impacts that includes all possible risks.
  6. Performing work which are needed only in the areas of competence.
  7. Fostering awareness in public as well as understanding the technologies related to computing along with their impacts.
  8. Accessing the computing as well as communication resources when authorized as well as compilation are done for good things.
  9. Designing as well as implementing the system which can work robustly and that secure the usability of the system.

The professional leadership principles of ACM code of ethics includes ensuring the public good which is a central concern in the computing work. Articulating as well as encouraging the acceptance of work for increasing the social responsibilities by the group members (Bagus, and Lily 2019). The leadership principles also includes managing the personnel as well as resources for enhancing the quality of the working life. This also include creating opportunities for the members of the company or the group for growing as professionals. This includes use case when there is need of modification as well as retiring of the systems. Leadership principles also helps to recognize as well a take care of the special system associated with the systems in the infrastructural society. Compliance with the Code includes upholding, promoting as well as representing the principles of ACM code, and treat violations of Code as some inconsistent membership with the ACM code of ethics.

e. Organizational response dealing with cybersecurity ethical dilemmas

The concept of security dilemma along with supporting defence theory helps to explain the relationship between the attacker as well as the defender, and some main causes leads to escalated arm race as well as conflict in the international relation and military conflict.  The defence theory mainly explores two constructs (Nkomo and Brown 2019). It states if the attacker is in advantage, and secondly it states whether the behaviour of the defence is distinguishable. Security dilemma which is less severe includes defence advantage as well as distinguishable behaviour of defence. The security dilemma which is more severe include offense advantage and the behaviour of the offence, and defence is not distinguishable.

The situation of the security dilemma mainly tends to an arm race or some escalated state of tension and does not include possible conflict in the state. Some of the concepts are mainly adapted in the cyber conflict as well as cyber warfare. The attacker mainly holds advantage from asymmetry of attacker defence.

In Lawfare on October 2019, the cybersecurity analyst provided a thoughtful critique for the Department Cyber strategy which was released publicly in the year 2018. There is a new strategy from breaking up the previous documents in the lists of China among the group of four state that pose to have strategic threat in the prosperity as well as security. The US is consistently aware of the cybersecurity measures of China and states China as cyber threat (Haes et al. 2020). Along with the strategy of cyber defence is calculated towards having preventing the attacker rom making the initial intrusion, there is struggle with the reversing advantage back to the defender. The surface area of the potential attacks in most of the organizations are much vast, and the cost of defending them against the possible data breaches is high. The total cost of carrying out the incursion is much less than having a defending system against all the intrusions of cyber-attack. In cyber defence case, there is cost advantage favours for the attackers because of surface area so that it can be protected as well as democratization of the malware associated. At the core of the strategy of cyber defence, the strategy is to be changed fundamentally. The approach that is best for the strategy of prevention weighted is detection of the cyber defence.

Cybersecurity dilemma efforts in preventing the system which are being compromised against different threats. Some of the threats which are included in the companies are purely criminal, and other threats are espionage but are not always states sponsored. Second, the individual should distinguish whether the cybersecurity of the country will in itself to increase or decrease the cybersecurity of some other countries (Mulgund, Pahwa, and Chaudhari 2019). For example, if one country eliminating its own botnet will increase its cybersecurity, and will also increase the cybersecurity of other countries. But if one country is adopting the particular active defence for its measure, then the country will increase its own cybersecurity and will decrease the cybersecurity of other countries. There are many positive externalities to improve the cybersecurity of a country or an organization. One of the main factor that is included in favouring the stability in the cyber space s counterintuitively for medium where everything works at same speed of light, and it is difficult for detecting when the capabilities are advancing. Cyberwar is considered as an activity that includes deeply hidden tools, and decisions are made between the attack tools defeating the routing around the vulnerabilities defeating the cyber-attack in straight forward way.

If one country goes by about what the attacker has done, then there is a lag between the decisions making process to attack the target, and have successful penetration. The additional lag between the actions can be taken along with its detection. This can also be difficult to react defensively for making quick improvements (Fern, Andes et al. 2020). The dilemma of cybersecurity can fade further when the countries starts to depend on similar infrastructure for the cybersecurity. There should be commercial software in the global commodity a well as in cybersecurity that takes the customers from anywhere. There are vulnerabilities for one country for the vulnerabilities for setting up all the patches in the cybersecurity. The cybersecurity is much useful for both espionage as well as attack. There is increasing cybersecurity in one of the countries makes it difficult for other countries for collecting the intelligence on the security.


As per the methods of cybersecurity as well as the solutions of cybersecurity, there are more advanced technologies which are used for security the information in cyber space. In the corporate space, there are some methods that ensures information safety of the organization. The information in the organization includes information of the employees and the information of customer for financial records as well as product specifications.

The IT professionals for protecting the data of the company or individual needs to see everything. This states sensitive information of the user, communication between clients as well as details of account personnel, medical records, payroll, and other information as well. IT personnel are expected to keep the information secret to themselves, and there are many reasons for maintaining the data confidentiality, and information confidential to them. The reason of keeping data confidential includes basic trust to legal issues. There might be security breach that compromise the function of the business and safety of the client.

The structure of security systems is mainly formed by the moral principle as well as practices for the people involved as well as the standards included by the profession. The security problems that are faced by organizations includes taking responsible decision making, data confidentiality, and misuse of data, and privacy of data. Professional of cybersecurity face ethical dilemmas everyday while securing the data. The personnel securing the data needs to take ethical decision. The personnel of cybersecurity is also expected to have a Code of ethics along with the ethical decision. There are ten elements of the Code of ethics that is to be implemented by the cybersecurity professional. Cybersecurity professional needs to make right approaches on the principle of individuals to make their own choices.

As per the new guidance of COBIT 19, there are five principles which are followed by the guidelines. Principle 1: Meeting the stakeholders’ need, Principle 2: Cover entirety of project, Principle 3: Apply integrated framework for the technology, Principle 4: enabling some holistic approach, and principle 5 including separating the governance from the management. All these principles are explained briefly in the report above. This report explains the COBIT 2019 detailed cyber ethics as how the organizations can manage their technology as well as information in their network. The framework of COBIT is used by all the organizations, and the framework depends on four main areas. This report explains the benefit of adopting the COBIT framework in the organizations, and all the frameworks that COBIT have in security the IT framework of the organization. This report also details the ACM code of ethics, which are followed by the cybersecurity professionals and states how the ACM code of ethics inspires as well as guides ethical conduct of the computing professionals.

The ACM ethical code is mainly concerned with the fundamental ethical principles which are applied to conduct of computing professionals. The ACM code does not include algorithm to solve the ethical problems. The Code states the process of ethical decision making. All the ACM code of ethics are explained in the report above which satisfies the ethical issue in cybersecurity. 



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INF20011 Mobile Business And Social Media

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Answer: Social media of Michael Kors Michael Kors use Tweeter and LinkedIn on which the company maintain different accounts to share the information to their customers. Twitter There are different accounts, which are managed by the company from which the five essential accounts include Michael Kors verified account, Michael Kors Bags, Michael Kors outlet, MichaelKors.Giveaway and John M. Jones. All the accounts of the company are used to ge...

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CIS502 Information Systems For Decision Making

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Answer: Introduction Business Continuity planning can be defined as the method which focuses on creating a system for preventing and recovery of different threats for a firm. The plan aims to emphasize that all the personnel and assets are completely protected. It aims in providing quick function in case of disaster. BCP emphasizes on convenience personnel in advance which requires input from different individual from some of the key stakehol...

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INF80043 IT Risk Management Project

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Answer: Introduction Background of the Organization ACORN or Young Acorn Foundation is a tier 2 NFP organization. They are focused on the community development within marginalized areas. ACORN is mainly operating in the Asia and Pacific regions and has a presence in every major city of Australia, Asia and Pacific countries for successful coordination of community development activities or CDA and fund-raising campaigns. ACORN even launched a...

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