The article from the AccountingToday dated 10th of May 2017 can be directly linked or deals with accounting regulation as well as measurement (Accounting Today, 2017). The title of the article is “Professors propose new measure of accounting complexity. In this article, proper emphasis has been given proposing a way for communicating with the accounting complexity.
There was a need for a new measure of Accounting Reporting Complexity so that most of the valuable information can be retained that was previously being ignored. The article had been published for solving the issue and present in the forthcoming news article (The Accounting Review) that will be published by the American Accounting Association (Weil, Schipper & Francis, 2013).
Inclusion of items that is present in the accounting news
The new measure will be using the interactive tags especially in Extensible Business Reporting Language format where the technology is needed by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the financial filings. It was felt by Professor to bring out or construct a new measure of Accounting Reporting complexity (Saunders & Cornett, 2014). It is for this reason that the professors proposes a new disclosure that will help in providing more accounting information through capturing XBRL tags. This will be reflecting greater accounting complexity and reducing the same.
The professor had opinion that preparation of complexity of the financial reports actually help in increasing the number of disclosed accounting concepts. It is the responsibility of the preparers where they will be collecting, categorizing as well as storing and analyzing more information in the given process. This process needs more broader as well as in-depth understanding of the authoritative accounting standards in the most appropriate way (Samkin et al., 2016).
The Sustainability Accounting Standard Board actually speaks about the board structure that adds more members in the Board that looks or works for SASB Foundation Board of Directors. Addition to that, the SASB Standard Board takes into account different representative that comes from corporate companies, regulators as well as academia and investor groups. There was clear mention regarding the corporate structure that is present in the section that is a typical non-profit with a governance Board (Pratt, 2013). The Board of Directors is of the opinion that they had no standard Board previously. Furthermore, it had a Standards Council that was performing with the omission work and they were a magnificent grouping of volunteers for the previous years that evaluation of interim principles, but they did not have ability allot to them to subject principles, and they weren’t responsible for the result within the principles. Nevertheless, in an attempt to reinforce the supremacy and reinforce the responsibility, it is now appointing a principles board. This exacting arrangement is very comparable to the arrangement of the IASB and the FASB with a misunderstanding establishment, which does the domination and has a fiduciary duty and then a procedural board that does the standard-setting effort (Lodhia & Hess, 2014).
Linking major issues that are present in the selected news article
The major issue that is mentioned in the article is the increase in complexity in the accounting standard that needs proper attention as soon as possible (Lavia López & Hiebl, 2014). To this, the researchers had predicted or examined the fact that as there is rise in complexity, it is duty of the preparers as well as auditors to look into the matter. It is because both preparers and auditors struggle hard to produce the necessary reliable or credible financial reports as they mostly contain errors or there is incorrect application of accounting principles. Furthermore, it is noted or discovered that this leads to high level of accounting complexity that give rise to more financial restatements. There are other problems as well such as internal control problems, longer delays at the time of filing for financial statements as well as increased audit fees. Therefore, the given research explains how increased accounting reporting complexity actually leads to undermining of the quality of financial reports that is filed with the SEC (Lall, 2015).
In the given article, the professors believed that new measure of accounting complexity actually proves to be beneficial to a large number of constituencies (Kordecki & Bullen, 2014). Addition to that, the measure can be properly used internally by the accounting firms where the corporate boards as well as audit committees weigh the level of complexity in relation to the similar firms in the given industry. Hence, the information needs to be guided by proper allocation of resources to the accounting function that controls over the financial risk. It mainly helps firms after avoiding negative financial reporting consequences.
The article clearly helps in understanding the fact that the new measure actually can be properly used by the auditors at the time of risk assessment process as well as fee negotiation process. They can even use the new measure at the time of conducting new client acceptance decisions. It is the investors who get benefited from the use of such measures that act as an indicator of reliability of the reported number that help in assessing over the issues. The difficulty arises from predicting the performance of the accounting firms in the near future. Therefore, the new measure will help investors for making better choices that will best fit with the risk appetite in given way (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017).
It is the belongings of the oversight that in fact dilemma and straight associated to the agency-based representation of domination and administration that deteriorate the corporation in agreement to the forecast done by specialist and could injure the whole financial system on an adverse manner (Hoskin, Fizzell & Cherry, 2014). It is troubled with the belongings of business plan and reserve portion that require appropriate concentration in the current scenario. It has been viewed from the previous decades where the association models has majorly make the groundwork for the a variety of change that comprise in the supremacy and organization carry out that has been taken jointly for increasing the supremacy and manipulate of diverse types of shareholders for the prominent claims by the shareholders. Furthermore, in the known constituencies, it helps in establishing any other type of business accountability and responsibility on behalf of the shareholders that deals with the power. It is the managers who were found under escalating pressure on how to transport it earlier with the known conventional returns and curtailing the riskier reserves that aspire at meeting the prospect needs. Therefore, it needs to find out with gathering or judgment out the best imaginative answer to the troubles that are looks by the public in the most appropriate way (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017). It has a variety of diverse viewpoint on the board that span regulatory and policymaking, but also the speculation society. Addition to that, in a secretarial lecturer and serve up on FASAC, the optional board that links with FASB
There are different role that the managers need to pay within the span regulatory as well as policymaking that comes under the investment community. It is the advisory committee that links with the working of the statutory Board such as FASB as well as IASB. From the corporate perspective, it is needed for the company to remain cost effective as well as control over the standards that can be implemented as per the given standards. The perspective is from the investor where the decision made by the management are utilized on how well they meet with the investors that best serve the needs as well as interests of the Board as a whole. From the corporate perspective, it can be stated that there involves various representatives that actually serve the best interests of the society (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017). SASB is approaching to confirm its temporary principles by the initial quarter for the upcoming financial year 2018 round of monetary filings. “In the subsequently year when we codify the principles, which will be the main work of the principles board all throughout this year to get to the initial year of the principles that are appropriate for the first quarter of 2018. Addition to that, once it is formed, it represents the subdivision advisory collection, and those will be the lookout of the company in a given situation that serves for longer period of time from the perspective of the investor
It is needed to have an Investor Advisory Group from the investor standpoint, where it will form position operational group that is being segregated by each of the sector, and they will do the continuing work of looking at these principles and their apply capability, their cost efficiency, there are many issues that prevails in the industry, and they will then give advice the board on the practical program that the board need to adopt for going forward in the given agenda. It is thereby necessary to conduct a round of finalization where there are advisory groups those who will involve in the advisory groups for taking the decisions in the most appropriate way.
Identification of main issues as present in the new standard
FASB is looking for feedback especially on taxonomy where they are asking for comments on the effectiveness of US GAAP Financial Reporting Taxonomy (Weil, Schipper & Francis, 2013). This reveals the fact that FASB released an invitation to comment document that asks for input especially for GAAP taxonomy where there is a set of computer readable tags in Extensible Business Reporting Language that actually corresponds with the different standards as well as accounting terms. To explain in detail, XBRL Technology is one of the technology that help companies for tagging thousands of pieces of financial data that they actually wants to include in their financial statements as well as footnote disclosures where the computers will be comparing the data in easy way. It is performed in a way that helps investors, financial analysts as well as regulators for locating it through faster means. It is the SEC that requires public companies for submitting the financial filings especially in XBRL format during current period where there is lot of problems that concerns with the data quality as well as other issues. Therefore, SEC is now allowing making use of Inline XBRL that is mostly flexible in nature (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017).
It is necessary to identify the need for new as well as revised proposals in the current scenario or situation (Weil, Schipper & Francis, 2013). It has been noted that the revised proposals had been able to offer a reliable basis for secretarial mainly for assurance contracts so that it is easier for the users of monetary declaration for accepting the fact on how insurance contracts control or manipulate the financial performance, cash flows and financial arrangement of a trade unit. It properly takes into consideration aspects from the current Exposure Draft that supports vital or related issues that was raised when IASB address it in given arrangement. However, the revised suggestion had reacted to the precise issues during introducing augmentation for upholding with the insurance contracts at the time of diminish the ongoing process that proves to have adverse impact on the overall economy (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017).
Explaining the fact whether there is a normal consensus or if there is any disagreement between the commenting parties
There is normal consensus present between the commenting parties as mentioned in the previous question. FASB invitation to comment document such as US GAAP Financial Reporting Taxonomy actually talks about efficiency as well as effectiveness review. Furthermore, this help in dealing with probable further improvements for the usability of actions that is needed in the GAAP Taxonomy. It is the FASB who took over the accountability especially for development as well as maintenance of the GAAP Taxonomy from XBRL where they are looking for genuine feedback especially from the accountants as well as other constituents at initial stages after there is review of the taxonomy FASB. It is the Board who plans for hosting a public roundtable meeting for discussing the comments that has been previously received (Weil, Schipper & Francis, 2013).
The new or revised Exposure Draft is detailed in format that can be understood after comparing it with the existing conceptual framework as it helps in addressing the areas that are not formerly covered and significant. There are areas that directly links with the attributes such as measurement, financial presentation, derecognition, the coverage entity as well as arrangement and revelation. The new Exposure Draft has enough content that can easily replace the accessible conceptual framework as it evidently clarifies with the facts so that it can meet the purpose of monetary coverage that takes into account facts that are used for assessing the administration stewardship of the possessions of trade unit. Furthermore, the revised Exposure Draft obviously clarifies the roles of discretion and substances that are current in the monetary coverage in an overall manner (IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017).
Bringing out the assumptions that is present behind the theories (public interest, economic interest group and capture group) and justification for selecting the best for each of the comment letters
The first theory that needs proper explanation is public interest theory that clearly defines the situation where economic markets actually are fragile in nature and propensity of operating inefficient that favors in an individual concern (Accounting Standards Updates—Effective Dates. 2017). Addition to that, this aspect mainly ignores the importance of the society. It needs proper direction and monitoring and there should government intervention especially in case of economic markets. Furthermore, banks are regulated by the government so that it can work based on social interest. Bank has the necessary capacity to work best within the social interest with the required resource allocation in given form.
The other theory that needs proper justification of their use is the capture theory that actually identifies proper relationship between the government agencies and industries that mainly operates as and when required (Bushman, 2014). In case of regulatory agencies, they are created by the government at different levels such as state, central and local levels. In other words, it will help in ensuring protection of the entire interests of the society at the time of taking industrial decisions and activities. For example, as far as government agency is concerned, it needs to get establish at state level where they can regulate the industry and protecting the rights of the society (Hines, 2015).
The other theory that needs proper justification of their use is that Economic interest theory. This theory explains the fact where the industry explains the groups that express the best interests of the industry (Exposure Drafts & Public Comment Documents. 2017). In other words, there are different groups where they face conflict that prevails in particular situation or circumstances. Furthermore, the crowd lobbies administration for making the legislation in relation with interest of the group. In addition, the financial groups do not have communal attention in their agenda. On the converse, controller is also motivated by self interest; they are not concerned with society awareness. All the same, controller arrangement is to maintain their present situation and also get re-elected. Therefore they have to satisfy these financial groups for the cause that they are the general public who administer the monetary classification. The profitable group will have accountability and those groups who do not have the influence will not be able to lobby administration. From an economic interest group theory perspective of principle any probable legislation to be begin may not lead to accountability of trade in relative to their mutual and environmental arrangement while legislations will be put in place keeping economic groups awareness in apprehension for the reason that of lobbying with the supervision (Exposure Draft and Comment letters. 2017).
The most popular theory that is mentioned in the comment letters is the capture theory. The controlling group needs an awareness and appropriate facts of the trade which is being coordinated. For instance, instruction of the insurance industry need the expertise of working along with the banking commerce and collection that works on behalf of education industry that has the ability in how this business mechanism. In addition, the culture that has access to the relevant facts on matters relating to and about an exacting trade, they fit in to that trade moreover they formerly worked there or would be going in viewpoint or will respond with the business facts as far as possible (Exposure Documents Open for Comment. 2017).
It is clearly mentioned in the website of FASB where it mainly represent that FASB refers to spread main beliefs only when the conventional reimbursement exceed the obvious expenses, when it is trustworthy, quantitative cost-benefit calculation as and when necessary. It is recognized fact that price advantage examination is realistic to demanding development when the net financial value of a innovative teaching (Edwards, 2013). Consequently, it mostly events the expenses as well as reimbursement of the teaching into monetary conditions
There are numerous organizations or collection that is usually created by such communal and eventually they create operational in hold up of the trade they fit in. If the manager or collection member is extremely expressively worried with the trade in which they are functioning that means the association is captured by the trade and no more they look for the reimbursement of the culture as and when possible (Deegan, 2013). The demanding agencies are documented for suspicious concentration of the society by escalating the allotment of possessions but if the agencies are captured by the trade they start operational for the industry’s concentration. In addition, when administration agencies are created to manage the oligopoly business where secretarial firms work with corresponding products, and then if this organization is captured by the trade, they are deformed into monopoly. Consequently, these organizations exert as effective head of the operation so that they get the authority to continue with the business activities (Compilation and Review Standards – AICPA 2017).
Accounting Standards Updates—Effective Dates. (2017). Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1218220137102
Bushman, R. M. (2014). Thoughts on financial accounting and the banking industry. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 58(2), 384-395.
Compilation and Review Standards - AICPA. (2017). Aicpa.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.aicpa.org/RESEARCH/STANDARDS/COMPILATIONREVIEW/Pages/default.aspx
Deegan, C. (2013). Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.
Edwards, J. R. (2013). A History of Financial Accounting (RLE Accounting) (Vol. 29). Routledge.
Exposure Documents Open for Comment. (2017). Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/draft/
Exposure Draft and Comment letters. (2017). Ifrs.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.ifrs.org/Current-Projects/IASB-Projects/Insurance-Contracts/Exposure-Draft-June-2013/Pages/Exposure-Draft-and-comment-letters.aspx
Exposure Drafts & Public Comment Documents. (2017). Fasb.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.fasb.org/jsp/FASB/Page/SectionPage&cid=1176157086783
Hines, R. D. (2015). The FASB's conceptual framework, financial accounting and the maintenance of the social world. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 16(4), 313-331.
Hoskin, R. E., Fizzell, M. R., & Cherry, D. C. (2014). Financial Accounting: a user perspective. Wiley Global Education.
IFRS - Conceptual Framework Exposure Draft and Comment letters. (2017). Ifrs.org. Retrieved 12 May 2017, from https://www.ifrs.org/Current-Projects/IASB-Projects/Conceptual-Framework/Pages/Conceptual-Framework-Exposure-Draft-and-Comment-letters.aspx
Kordecki, G. S., & Bullen, M. L. (2014). Evolutionary developments in accounting standard setting for private entities and SMEs. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 8, 1.
Lall, R. (2015). Timing as a source of regulatory influence: a technical elite network analysis of global finance. Regulation & Governance, 9(2), 125-143.
Lavia López, O., & Hiebl, M. R. (2014). Management accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises: current knowledge and avenues for further research. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 27(1), 81-119.
Lodhia, S., & Hess, N. (2014). Sustainability accounting and reporting in the mining industry: current literature and directions for future research. Journal of Cleaner Production, 84, 43-50.
Pratt, J. (2013). Financial accounting in an economic context. Wiley Global Education.
Samkin, G., Samkin, G., Stainbank, L., & Stainbank, L. (2016). Teaching and learning: Current and future challenges facing accounting academics, academics, and the development of an agenda for future research. Meditari Accountancy Research, 24(3), 294-317.
SASB reconfigures board structure. (2017). Accounting Today. Retrieved 13 May 2017, from https://www.accountingtoday.com/news/sasb-reconfigures-board-structure
Saunders, A., & Cornett, M. M. (2014). Financial institutions management. McGraw-Hill Education,.
Weil, R. L., Schipper, K., & Francis, J. (2013). Financial accounting: an introduction to concepts, methods and uses. Cengage Learning