1.A device called an antenna which resides in an electrical circuit has the capability of converting electric power to standing radio waves which can be received by transreceivers. Interlinking of transmitter and receiver is done by antennas. Antennas hold different types of properties.
Properties of Antennas:
Different types of antennas are needed to perform different wireless communication. Some of them are-
This type of antenna works alongside reflector as a bowl antenna powerfully as a waveguide.
Mainly microwave and satellite are embedded with horn antenna. If Normal waveguide are used for transmission then it results in standing waves. Horn antenna prevents the odd things. The more slow but sure the blaze, better could be the similarality and lesser the losses. This results in greater growth of signal.
Depending upon the blazing there are different types of horn antennas viz. pyramidal, sectoral and
Conical horn. These antennas has several merits and demerits-
A yagi (device that receives TV and radio signals), also known as Yagi Uda organized row is an antenna that receives signal from one direction. This type of device is popular among radio stations and band radio operators. It operates over a range greater than 10megahertz.
Yagi Uda antenna uses passive elements. It can be constructed using one or more parabolic reflector elements and one or more director elements as this antenna is of low cost and greater in efficiency. This type of antennas can be made by using an antenna with one reflector, a driven folded-dipole, and directors, mounted for horizontal schism in the presumptuous direction.
It is used in cellular network or mobile network. In this, the network cells is scattered over the area, connected three base stations and a fixed transreceiver. These base stations provide network coverage which can be used for all types of communication. A cell is combined with other neighbouring cells at different frequencies providing a hassle free quality service with each cell. This combination of cells provides cover a wide range geographic area. A large number of devices can communicate through these cells moving through one or more base stations.
Electronics is focused on communications. Telegraph started in 1845, calling in 1876, but communications really became popular with the introduction of wireless and the vacuum tube. Today wireless technology and vacuum tube are in domination. Traditionally one antenna works together with each one or perhaps a few different frequencies. Now technology is so much advanced that we can combine small antennas to interact at any frequency. In this way every application like GPS, Bluetooth don’t need their specific antennas. In fact most of the data can be shared by one digitally controlled antenna.
Thus, these antennas will be replaced by digitally controlled antennas resulting in higher bandwidth and good range.:-
There are several features of CDMA which differs from FDMA. They are-
It is a channelization protocol used to manipulate multiple access protocol. One or several frequency bands, or channels allocated to user by FDMA. It is very commonplace in satellite communication. Like other multiple access systems FDMA coordinates access between multiple users. If channel is not in use, it goes in idle state.
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