The increased rate of overweight in paediatric children brings several diseases. However, it becomes common among paediatric babies. Being overweighted, the risks for affected by diseases can be described as followed.
Asthma: Bartick et al. (2017) stated that a large number of babies being overweighted have possibility to be affected by Asthma.
Diabetes: It has become prevalent among babies as well as adolescents.
Gallstones: The children having obesity has significantly higher risks of getting affected by Gallstones.
Heart disease: Arthrosclerosis is one of common causes of heart disease. It is associated to high blood cholesterol and levels of triglyceride. It is related to poor habits of eating and overweight.
High Blood pressure: Redsell et al. (2016) asserted that obesity among children is more likely to be affected by high blood pressure.
Overweighted children are more likely to become obese adults. It is very tough to break the cycle. Unhealthy diet as well as sedentary lifestyle is the major factors for cancer, stroke as well as cardiovascular disease (Modrek et al. 2016). Hence, it is extremely important to maintain a healthy diet from paediatric children. The prevalence of obesity and childhood overweight has increased in a massive amount in recent decades. The importance of breastfeeding is laid in this issue.
What is already known
Lactation has been reported frequently in order to protect infants from the infectious diseases like diarrhea, acute otitis media and infections in lower respiratory systems. In addition, diseases caused for obesity is related to lack of breast feeding among children. Breast milk includes nutrients, hormones, enzymes and antibodies as well as factors of development, which helps to combat the infectious agents (Lefebvre & John, 2014). In addition, lactation offers short-term advantages along with results positive health, which emerges in future and adolescence through reducing risks of atopic diseases. Reducing the risks of being affected by type 2 diabetes as well as improvement of cognitive development can be effects of breastfeeding. Obesity is paediatric children are related with a wide-range of co-morbidities. There are different casual ways that can explain the relation between lactation and childhood overweight. It is seen that breastfeeds infants can learn recognizing the feelings of leading better self-regulation of energy intake in the later life. The hormones consisted in breast milk affect food intake the regulation as well as energy balance that have significant impact on deposition of body fat.
Most of infant formulas include more protein compared to breast milk that leads to greater response of insulin as well as resulting in the increased growth of adipose tissue (Yan et al. 2014). Hence, it is suggested that impact of lactation on overweight issue might be described by later preferences of food with the breastfed babies adapting quite easily to new foods compared to formula-fed babies. The taste of breast milk is varied with the food choices of mother. On the other hand, the taste of infant formulas is likely to be consistent.
There are several variables included in the propensity score such as socio-demographics. The size of municipality like small-town, urban and metropolitan and federal states of residence along with migration background and country of birth need to be considered for this. In addition, variables concerned for birth as well as pregnancy such as twin birth, maturity at birth and birth weight and smoking of mother at the time of pregnancy along with alcohol consumption are the major variables included in it (Hunsberger et al. 2013). The beneficial effects of lactation include lower risks for ear as well as respiratory infections. In order to bring awareness among the women, peer support programs can be useful to train them. It also results in atopic determinants and gastroenteritis and necrotizing infections. Lack of breast-feeding on children of Australia is threatened for obesity as well as other conditions, which may stem for the issue. In this situation, relationship between paediatric overweight and lactation and the process of influencing by the factors like duration and exclusivity are required to analyse. Potential expectations for association of lactation with minimized risk of paediatric overweight are required to explore. In addition, initiation is related to reduce risks of paediatric overweight (Victora et al. 2016). Various biological mechanisms are available through which lactation may minimize the risks of overweight. Breastfed infants can control an amount of milk consumed by them. Therefore, self-regulation of energy intake engages responding to the internal hunger as well as cues.
Gap in knowledge
The long-term effects of lactation are very conflicting in previous researches. Randomized controlled attempts on lactation effects are seen to be rare for owning to well-established benefits in short-term of lactation. Hence, allocation of subjects regarding lactation and non-breastfeeding groups need to arise well-founded ethical consideration. Intervention is required to increase in lactation duration. However, findings give any impact on prevailing obesity in the age between 6 to 11 years. There are evidences for advantages of breastfeeding rely on the data from the study of observation. However, it fails to address high degree of the confounding concerns for decisions regarding breastfeeding of women (Virudachalam et al. 2016). In addition, meta-analysis shows that larger studies accurately control for possible confounders, which is reported less effects of protection compared to small studies having inadequate adjustment. In addition, evidence for protective effect of lactation derives from the studies that are conducted in the country of people with high rate of income. In those countries, breastfeeding is closely related to higher-socio economic status. There are different methods required to enhance casual interference in the observational studies (Tate et al. 2016). It includes comparison of the cohorts from different countries with distinctive cofounding structure. Therefore, it is significant to research on the particular topic in order to find all possibilities and issues of lactation to children that can reduce obesity issues among paediatric children.
· What is the role of lactation to reduce paediatric overweight?
· What are the challenges faced by women in breastfeeding to their child?
What needs to be known
The data would analyse from the baseline survey of Examination Survey for the children as well as Adolescents and interview related to health. In addition, cross-sectional research would be conducted based on the nationally representative sample. It also aims to obtain comprehensive data on health of children along with adolescents living in Australia. Moreover, detailed information regarding the study design would be published. There would be two stage of sampling process involved in the selection of 7 locations of Australia. The data would be collected from different types of community and size of population. Survey questionnaire method would be followed in order to collect primary data. It would be helpful to identify the challenges faced by women related to breastfeeding (Bider?Canfield et al. 2016). In addition, secondary data will be collected from several journals and books related to the topic. It is important to gather adequate information regarding the importance of lactation to reduce paediatric overweight. Ethical issues will be considered during the conduction of the research.
Project aims and expected benefits
The project aims can be described as followed.
· To address the role of lactation to reduce paediatric overweight
· To identify the challenges faced by women in order to breastfeed their child
It is expected that the project would be helpful to create an impact among women regarding the importance of lactation. It would also assist to cover most of the issues found in previous literatures. In addition, finding the challenges faced by women related to lactation would be useful to recommend some solutions that can assist to overcome the issues.
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Bider?Canfield, Z., Martinez, M. P., Wang, X., Yu, W., Bautista, M. P., Brookey, J., ... & Xiang, A. H. (2016). Maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding and childhood overweight at age 2 years. Pediatric obesity.
Hunsberger, M., Lanfer, A., Reeske, A., Veidebaum, T., Russo, P., Hadjigeorgiou, C., ... & Eiben, G. (2013). Infant feeding practices and prevalence of obesity in eight European countries–the IDEFICS study. Public health nutrition, 16(02), 219-227.
Lefebvre, C. M., & John, R. M. (2014). The effect of breastfeeding on childhood overweight and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 26(7), 386-401.
Modrek, S., Basu, S., Harding, M., White, J. S., Bartick, M. C., Rodriguez, E., & Rosenberg, K. D. (2016). Does breastfeeding duration decrease child obesity? An instrumental variables analysis. Pediatric obesity.
Redsell, S. A., Edmonds, B., Swift, J. A., Siriwardena, A. N., Weng, S., Nathan, D., & Glazebrook, C. (2016). Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of interventions that aim to reduce the risk, either directly or indirectly, of overweight and obesity in infancy and early childhood. Maternal & child nutrition, 12(1), 24-38.
Tate, A. D., Trofholz, A., Rudasill, K. M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Berge, J. M. (2016). Does child temperament modify the overweight risk associated with parent feeding behaviors and child eating behaviors?: An exploratory study. Appetite, 101, 178-183.
Victora, C. G., Bahl, R., Barros, A. J., França, G. V., Horton, S., Krasevec, J., ... & Group, T. L. B. S. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet, 387(10017), 475-490.
Virudachalam, S., Gruver, R. S., Gerdes, M., Power, T. J., Magge, S. N., Shults, J., ... & Berkowitz, R. I. (2016). Mothers’ and Clinicians’ Priorities for Obesity Prevention Among Black, High-Risk Infants. American journal of preventive medicine, 51(1), 46-53.
Yan, J., Liu, L., Zhu, Y., Huang, G., & Wang, P. P. (2014). The association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1267.