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Research methodology enriches the knowledge of the readers regarding the ways and means of carrying out the research in an efficient and effective manner. As a matter of specification, methodology deals with the philosophy, approach, design and the process of data collection. Along with this, it also consists of the process of data analysis, samples, ethical approach, reliability, validity and the action plan. This assignment attempts to conduct a collaborative review of 12 journal articles on Malaysian security.
The articles sheds light on the old and new approaches towards enhancing the security of cross border in the east coast of Sabah. The focus of the author in this article is on the import and export activities across North Boreo to the neighboring countries, Indonesia and Phillippines. Herein mention can be made of Eastern Sabbah Security Command (ESSCOM), who toiled hard to tackling with the crimes, which occurs across the borders. The formation of Malaysia in 1963 simultaneously resulted in the independence of Sabah. During that time, such activities were considered legal. In the modern times, the activities like Sabah are considered illegal as the personnel misuse the security codes and protocols, which attaches an interrogative parameter to the security of the lives and properties of the people residing in the cross borders of Malysia.
The articles emphasize on the parameters of the social security programs- old age, invalidity, survivors, medical care, sickness and maternity. The consideration of these factors reflects the attempts of the security personnel to cater to the specific needs, demands and requirements of the foreign workers. Consideration of the maternity is an innovative concept, which supports the thoughts, ideas and concepts related to woman empowerment. Specifically, it is a support to the women, providing her with an escape from the claustrophobic existence of the patriarchy. Legislations like Workman compensation Act (1952) projects the attempts of the security personnel towards the provision of a quality to the workers through the offers and schemes like medical benefits, free medical checkups among others. These offers are applicable for all of the workers, especially those who hail from the foreign countries like Indonesia and Philippines. Countering this, the article covers the social security in the ASEAN countries.
Viewpoints of the Malaysian Institute of Defense and Security regarding the steps undertaken, to protect the national integrity and security of the citizens of Malaysia, form an integral part of the literature review. As a matter of specification, the article is an important source of knowledge for the citizens in terms of gaining knowledge regarding the steps undertaken by the Pakistani military to handle the challenges and penetrate into the path of leadership. Along with this, the article also provides an insight to the readers in terms of the military approach towards maintaining the balance between democracy and security rules in the threshold of Pakistan. The words balance and leadership can be correlated with each other. This is because balance is the most important aspect for the leaders, here the militants of Pakistan, in terms of ensuring the security and safety of the citizens.
The major highlight of the articles is the projection of the attempts of Malaysian government in terms of curbing terrorism. The result of this initiative is the introduction of de-radicalization strategy, within which the security policies gain prominence. The article starts with an insight into the widespread presence of terrorism across the globe, entrapping the freedom of the common people. Implementation of Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) (2015) and Special Measures against Terrorism in Foreign Countries Act (2015) (SMATA) validates the initiates of the Malaysian security officials in terms of ensuring the wellbeing of the citizens. Monitoring of the actions of the foreign terrorist fighters is one of an efficient example of the steps towards bringing radical change in the lives of the Malaysian people. The establishment of Counter Messaging Centre (CMC) popularizes the steps of the government officials in terms of involving the people in this initiative. Herein lays the importance of social media.
The articles upheld the tragic plight of the children of immigrants during the ethnographic fieldwork in Sabah, Malaysia. Wandering for homes can be correlated with the word “statelessness” as mentioned in the name of the article. Delving deep into the plight of Malaysia in terms of security, the lives of the children indicate a dark and ombre shade. This darkness attaches an interrogative parameter to their nationality, as most of the childrens’ parents and grandparents hail from Indonesia or Philippines. Lackadaisical attitude of the governmental officials in this direction would put a question mark to the lives of the children of the immigrants. Protecting the rights of the immigrants and their children would be one of the priorities of the Malaysian government in terms of providing them with a quality lifestyle. Countering this, the first attempt would be to cater to their lodging, fooding and accommodation needs.
Slow yet gradual economic development of the east Kalimantan borders is one of the other areas covered by the articles. A comparative study between Serawak in Sabah, Malaysia and East Kalimantan in Indonesia results in the establishment of the fact that Indonesia is still on the verge of development. There are many socio-political factors, which created a broad gap between these districts of both the countries. The article speaks of the methodological approach of the author towards delving deep into this problem. For achieving a better grasp of the problem, a survey was conducted in 2012, which lasted for 6 months. The responses provided in the survey relates with the initiatives, which needs to be taken for achieving a proper economic development. Within this, development of a firm infrastructure is very important in terms of stabilizing the economy of the country. The article says that infrastructure consists of only the transportation issues while economy includes the establishment of a centre for growth. Countering this, infrastructure includes every aspect, which helps in achieving economic and sustainable growth.
Perspectives of the Malaysian citizens, regarding the concept of national security, gains prominence in the articles. Utilization of the method of survey reflects the inquisitive nature of the security personnel in terms of enhancing the safety of the common people. The concept of “questionnaire” survey can be considered as a modern approach in terms of taking the feedbacks from the citizens regarding the security provided to them. Herein the adoption of liberal approach is crucial in terms of protecting the individual sentiments of the respondents. This is because one wrong step would create doubts in the minds of the people regarding the security provided by the security personnel. Along with this, Data Protection Act (1998) would also be effective in terms of maintaining the privacy and confidentiality of the responses provided by the responses in the survey forms uploaded in the official website.
Ethnographic diversity within the Malaysian population is one of the other aspects, which the articles shed light on. Among this, solidarity, harmony and unity are the typical values, which ties the people to the culture in one single thread. The riot, which took place on 13th May 1969 contradicts the unity within the people. As a matter of specification, this riot opposes the ethnicity, destroying the traditionalism. Introduction of policies reflects the conscious attempts of the security personnel towards the preservation of this traditionalism. Incomprehensive policies nullify the attempts of the security personnel in terms of ensuring the security of the citizens. Non-Bumiputra tribes feel that the policies lack diversity, which is beneficial for the Bumiputras in terms of the maintaining ethnography by ensuring the security of the citizens. Biases between these tribes is a threat to the national security and image of the country, questioning the functionalities of the security personnel.
Speculation of the position of courts in the maintenance of national security and the basic rights of the Malaysian citizens is one of other key areas of literature review. The advent of latest and modern technologies has attached an interrogative parameter to the functions of the lawyers and judges in the threshold of Malaysia. However, these technologies prove ineffective in terms of ensuring the protection for the individual rights of the citizens. Consideration of the viewpoints of lawyers and the judges enlivens the comparative study, which the article attempts to develop for enhancing the knowledge of the readers regarding the effective ways to protect the individual rights of the people. Attaching value to the perspectives of the court personnel of the other developing countries reflects the steps undertaken by them for providing quality existential support to the citizens.
Role of the Malaysian Police, in terms of mitigating the crime rates also gets highlighted in the articles considered for literature review. Establishing wrong strategies does not go with the tag of Royal Malaysian Police. Mere implementation of the laws is not enough to bring down the crime rates. Police personnel need to expose conscious approach in terms of supporting the security department for providing proper punishment to the culprits. Delving deep into the name of the article, the words “management” and “wrong strategy” cannot be placed side by side. Viewing it from the other perspective, wrong strategies degrades the intensity of the term “police” in terms of ensuring the protection of the people. Therefore, the police and the law need to indulge in collaboration for mitigating the crime rates largely.
Exploration of the regional and national policies on the tribe Bajau Laut, the residents of Malaysian, Indonesia and Philippines borders helps the researcher to enrich the knowledge of the readers in terms of Malaysian security. This contradicts the adjective “stateless” in case of the tribes as mentioned in the name of the article. The recent developments in this region are maritime movements, plans for achieving economic development and commercial interactions for managing the attempts towards enhancing the security of the people. The focus of the article is on the refugees, with whom the attributes exclusion, marginalization can be rightly placed. This is because of the interrogative parameter of their identity. Countering this, the phrase, “foreigners everywhere and nationals nowhere” reflects the provision of extra facilities to the foreigners, depriving the natives from their basic needs. The balance needs to be maintained in terms of catering to the security needs of the natives as well as the non-natives.
Projection of the impact of the security practices developed by the government personnel for the citizens of Sabah adds value to the security of Malaysia. The Sulu intrusion of 2013 acts as the base for this implementation. The main areas covered in these policies are the mobility of the citizens under such circumstances. Intrusion by an armed group made the people insecure necessitating the need for security policies and practices for the facilitation of human security. Consideration of the economic prosperity contradicts the aspect of human security. On the contrary, economic prosperity relates to the management of the stock of armed weapons for ensuring the security of the people.
The articles considered for literature review proves successful in terms of enhancing the preconceived skills, expertise and knowledge of the readers regarding the Malaysian security. The role of the police is crucial in terms of proper management of the policies implemented. As a matter of specification, focus needs to be placed on the borders areas, as the people are socially neglected. Firmness in the policies would help the police and the law personnel to ensure the safety, security and wellbeing of the people. These policies need to be evaluated in terms of upgrading the standards and quality of performance in terms of security.
Acciaioli, Greg, Helen Brunt, and Julian Clifton. "Foreigners everywhere, nationals nowhere: Exclusion, irregularity, and invisibility of stateless Bajau Laut in eastern Sabah, Malaysia." Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 15.3 (2017): 232-249.
Allerton, Catherine. "Statelessness and the lives of the children of migrants in Sabah, East Malaysia." Tilburg Law Review 19.1-2 (2014): 26-34.
Carson, Gordon. "Space, Mobilities, and Insecurity in Maritime Sabah: The Impact of Government Bordering Practices Following the 2013 Sulu Intrusion." Human Insecurities in Southeast Asia. Springer Singapore, 2016. 69-88.
Chen, Ou. "National Security Concept of Malaysian Citizens in the New Century-Based on" Questionnaire Survey"." International Journal of Business and Social Science 5.5 (2014).
Dollah, Ramli, et al. "Old threats, new approach and national security in Malaysia: issues and challenges in dealing with cross-border crime in east coast of Sabah." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 7.3 S1 (2016): 178.
Hamidi, Ahmad Zahid. "MALAYSIA’S POLICY ON COUNTER TERRORISM AND DERADICALISATION STRATEGY." Journal of Public Security and Safety Vol 6.2 (2016).
Inderjit, S., and S. Ananthan. "THE BALANCE OF LEADERSHIP CHANGE AND CHALLENGES BETWEEN CIVIL DEMOCRACIES AND MILITARY RULE IN PAKISTAN." The Journal of Defence and Security 4.2 (2013): 160.
Khan, Kasem, and Md Zubair. "The conflict between national security and individual privacy rights in Malaysia–Where do the courts stand?/Md. Zubair Kasem Khan." Esteem Academic Journal 11.2 (2015): 60-71.
Pongtuluran, Yonathan. "DEVELOPING ECONOMY IN THE BORDER OF EAST KALIMANTAN." Academic Research International 4.4 (2013): 544.
Saiman, Mohd Safri, and Salmie Jemon. "Social security: case of foreign workers in Sabah, Malaysia." Malaysian Journal of Business and Economics (MJBE) 1.1 (2014).
Shamsuddin, Khairul Anuar, Jessica Ong Hai Liaw, and Ahmad Azan Ridzuan. "Malaysia: Ethnic Issues and National Security." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 5.1 (2015): 136-43.
Teh, Yik Koon. "The Royal Malaysia Police has got its strategy wrong: Laws alone do not bring down crime rates." International Journal of Police Science & Management 17.1 (2015): 9-16.
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