Assuming the farm is less than 20ha and the soil has Olsen phosphorus of 20 the using the method of carrying capacity calculator the approximate carrying capacity would be 26.
Using the Reg French model and assuming that each animal has 1DSE/ha/25mm rainfall (assumption for rainfall>250mm) and assumib the land is 1ha,
the theoretical stocking rate would be 14.
- Use of special fodders or fodder crops
Some fodder crops or plants such as Sirosa phalaris if managed well can be many times as productive as the actual pastures. If there is a predicted shortfall in the animal feeds crops like oats, annual ryegrasses and other fodder crops also can be used to address shortage as a way of shortage management during winter.
- Supplementary feed
This is technique employing a deep knowledge of particular animals’ feed requirements. It involves a pre plan where feeds that run short during the winter are bought and stored technically before their prices rise in the market. This makes the cost of buying feeds to be lower than buying them during the winter period when the prices are very high.
- Fodder storage
Sometimes during spring the pasture growth may be way up above the animal requirements majorly on quantity and mostly if not well utilized results to tremendous wastage. Excess pasture during these periods may be harvested and stored appropriately for use during the needy winter period. Pasture can be stored well until winter by conservation as silage or hay during the spring season.
The process of hay making starts with mowing of the desired grass for hay making. The grass should be mature but not overgrown to enable production of tuff and stocky hay. The cutting should be followed by three to five days of sunny weather to allow substantial hay drying. After grass cutting conditioning is done where it is crimped or conditioned. This break the stalks open in a bid to allow moisture increased evaporation. Further conditioning by macerating reduces the size of the stalks allowing for more drying of the hay to the required moisture content faster. Tedding is also done at this period to spread out the grass on the field to accelerate drying rate.
Raking is done to bring the spread dry grass into windrows for easier picking by the baler machine. When fully dried it is baled either in square or cylindrical bales depending on the amount preferred. Square bales are smaller than the cylindrical bales. Hauling and stacking of the bales is done to secure them from the harsh weather and storage follows.
Dig a shallow pit on a gentle sloppy ground with depth decreasing from the higher end of slope. Place a polythene paper lining the inside of the pit. Chop forage that is to be preserved using a chaff cutter and put it into the plastic lined pit and spread it to a thin layer. Do this until the pit is a third full. Sprinkle water diluted molasses over the layer to feed the micro organism thus preventing rotting. Press down the forage to expel any trapped air thus preventing fungi attack. Do the processes of adding forage, sprinkling molasses and pressing severally until the pit is filled to a dome shape above ground and then cover it with polythene to bar water from entering by digging a small trench round it. Finally cover the pit with a layer of soil and allow it to ferment.
Assuming a pasture digestibility of 75 percent then from table 2.2 the minimum pasture quantity would be 400KgDM/ha/day.
Assuming a production of 1000kgDM/Ha/day, the available pastue is 600KgDM/Ha/day.
1DSE=1KgDM/ha/day, thus=600DSE to utilize 30 percent.
Therefore, total pasture carry 100*600/30=2000DSE.
- C) 3
- b) Hay
- e) Silage
- E) Urea blocks
- d) Unimportant as it will not affect how much they eat per day
- c) 20%
- E) The answer should be focusing on energy and not on crude protein
- Height of pasture (high herbage).
- Stage of growth of pasture 9best in green pasture)
- Pasture composition (combined grasses, legumes with clover )
Salt levels rise
- Rising water temperatures.
Falling dam levels
Build up of phosphorus and nitrogen in water
- Removing manure and dried vegetation that build up during dry conditions and maintaining ground cover adjacent to paddocks
Select approximately 50 sheep at random from the stock. Make the sheep stand still and ensure that each is at relaxed position without any tension or in a crush. Placing your finger on the backbone behind the long rib with other fingers on the stubby ends of the short ribs. Using the condition score description in figure 3.2 check the features of the backbone and short ribs. Record then findings and the get an average for the 50 animals.
12MJME/KGDM is available
1kg of barley=90 percent DM
Energy recommended by group is 4MJME daily
If 10.8=1KG barley
Australia, M. a. (2009). Prograze. North Sydney: Meat and Libestock Australia.
Victoria, A. (2017). Testing your Stock Water is Critical in Dry Seasons. Agriculture Victoria.