Design an aircraft power distribution system and explain the features of your system that help to ensure the continuing integrity and safety.
As shown in diagram, a design of twin engine busbar system for a aircraft which required less than 12KW power in each channel. The system is of two 28VDC. As shown in fig the two main DC busbars namely No.1 and No.2 are operating in parallel and getting power from two 28VDC generators. Non essential DC services are thereby directly connected to busbar No.1. For feeding the Non-essential AC consumers, the two DC busbars are individually connected with a inverters. The output derived from the inverters is 115VDC at 400Hz. There is one centre busbar which is connected directly to the two main DC busbars No.1 and No.2, which is further providing DC power for the essential consumers of aircraft. This busbar also provides a load of 115VAC, if inverter is powered off. When aircraft is on ground without the engine running, we can connect the centre busbar with the external power source by regulating the switch. At the middle of the diagram, there is battery bank of a aircraft which is connected to the battery busbar which in turn feeds the vital consumer services. The essential consumers can also be feed by this battery busbar by connecting it through the DC essential busbar, if required.
To make system run efficiently and affordable, several protections are required. Thus for proper protection at several levels are provided by proper switching and protection devices.
Thus over voltage protection relay is used in order to avoid over voltage condition and is part of the primary power generation protection system. This also consists of reverse current circuit breaker (RCCB) for controlling the reverse current. These together come under voltage regulator. Thus it regulates the output of the generator to the No.1/No.2 DC busbars by controlling the generator feed contactors. As we have discussed the centre busbar and essential consumers are connected to the main busbars, thus a circuit breaker or smart contactor can be used to provide protection. The use of circuit breakers can be done to protect individual loads or groups of loads fed from the supply or feeder busbars.
The main principle for fault protection should be that, minimum of disruption occur on a electrical system. If in case faults occur, it should trip circuit breaker of that particular load but should not hamper the next level protection, in order to avoid cascade failure and ensure that this does not occur again.
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