Discuss about the Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Type 1 diabetes is considered as a progressive autoimmune disorder. It initiates when the immune system misguidedly attacks and destroys healthy tissues. In T1D, an infection and other triggers leads the body to misguidedly attack the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin (Gan et al. 2012). Due to the damage of beta cells, pancreas stops insulin production. Insulin causes liver cells, fat tissues and skeletal muscle cells to absorb glucose from the blood (Atkinson et al. 2014). Without sufficient amount of insulin blood glucose level progressively increases. It eventually gives rise to severe health issues. In T1D, the insulin generating beta cells of pancreas are gradually destroyed by means of an autoimmune response to viral infection, genetic causes, chemicals & drugs and environmental effects. According to Atkinson et al. (2014), the autoimmune response concerning beta cells including growth of autoreactive CD4 and CD8 cells, T helper cells, autoantibody generating B cells and stimulation of the innate immune system leads to Type 1 diabetes. After initiating treatment with external insulin, a patient’s own insulin levels may temporarily improves. This happens due to altered immunity. Immunological therapies and beta cell replacement strategy are the most effective treatment methods for T1D (Gan et al. 2012).
Atkinson, M.A., Eisenbarth, G.S. and Michels, A.W., 2014. Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 383(9911), pp.69-82.
Gan, M.J., Albanese-O’Neill, A. and Haller, M.J., 2012. Type 1 diabetes: current concepts in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical care, and research. Current problems in paediatric and adolescent health care, 42(10), pp.269-291.