Describe about An investigation of instructional approaches for students with additional needs in Jordan?
Research Philosophy: Positivism
The present study would be conducted based on the positivism philosophy of research as the study emphasizes on understanding the instructional approach needed for the special need students in Jordan classrooms. This is real life situation. Thus according to the opinion of Cameron (2009), the positivism philosophy main supports the real life situation and helps the researchers to consider the facts and figures associated with the situation. Similarly, Lancaster (2012) also supports positivism philosophy by saying that this approach helps to determine the scientific studies. Thus the current study also tries to analyze the scientific studies behind the effective instructional approach towards the special needs students.
Research Approach: Deductive
Generally there are two main approaches of research one is inductive approach that helps to develop new theories and another one is the deductive approach that helps to test the already existing theories. Since, the present study has been already supported with various theories and past literatures, the researcher has decided to follow the deductive research approach and identify if there exists any kind of gap in the previous studies and will try to reduce that gap using the present study. Further, the study also follows a waterfall model approach that helps to evaluate the theories with relevant data collected from this present study.
Research Design: Descriptive using Mixed Method:
The current study mainly emphasizes on the deductive nature of research. This deductive approach is mainly utilized to evaluate the background of the present study and also the information related to this domain. According to the opinion of VanderStoep et al. (2009), this deductive approach helps to identify various solutions to identified research questions. Thus, through this approach the researcher tries to identify the solutions to the above discussed research questions and sub-questions. In order to find the solutions the researcher uses the mixed research approach that is uses both the quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the instructional approach used by the Jordanian classrooms towards special need students.
Creswell (2010) defined mixed methods as an approach wherein the researcher bases knowledge claims on pragmatic grounds. Pragmatism is famously known for being problem-centered, pluralistic and consequence-oriented. This implies that mixed methods uses inquiry strategies that involve simultaneous or sequential collection of data, in order to best understand the research problem. Using the mixed method of research, the researcher collects both numerical and textual information.
This research method helps the researcher to gain in depth and breadth understanding and validation, at the same time offsetting the weakness. Further, this method also helps the researcher to use variety of methods, data sources to examine the present scenario. This allows the researcher to accurately approach the phenomenon. Through approach the researcher would learn different strategy elements of the present instructional approach and also try to understand the perceptions and experiences of efficacy.
Data Type Collected:
The researcher focuses on both primary and secondary data while conducting this study. The reason behind collection of both the data is that it helps the researcher to conduct detailed analysis of the data at the later stage of the research and then evaluate the primary data with that of the secondary data to make effective conclusion. This primary data collected is mainly classified into quantitative and qualitative data. Both the data has been measure using variety of tools and techniques for effective results.
Data Collection Method:
The data collection method undergoes two steps one is the collection of secondary data through various available sources like online books, journals, articles and websites and another step is the collection of primary data using the observation method and focus group interview method.
The implementation of the instructional approach is mainly evaluated using the structured observation. This observation method allowed the researcher to evaluate the fidelity of the present instructional method. Observation will provide familiarity, knowledge and understanding as to how teaching in resource rooms in Jordan is performed. Further, this procedure also helps the researcher to understand the problem that the students are experiencing from the instructional methods devised by the teachers. Here the teachers were given some random lesson plans to teach the students. A video was recorded of the overall observation and observation of the students and teachers both were recorded. The observation instrument was validated through a review of an expert and a pilot study was conducted in comparable classrooms of Jordan. Observation scores were obtained and were compared using Likert scales using the point-by-point inter-ratter dependability for attaining unbiased scores(O'Cathain, 2009).
For establishing the social validity and improve the data collection, a sample of few students with special needs and also student who do not need any special need were called to take part in the focus group interview. The students were asked about their experiences related to the instructional approach followed by the teachers on the lesson plans provided to them. This process was mainly used to investigate the perception of the students related to the approach of the instruction and also the extent they feel that the present instructional approach is helping them to understand the learning plans(Bazeley, 2009). The reason behind choosing this method is that it would help the researcher to immediately improve on the instrcutional methods in the classrooms of Jordan towards the special need students. Through face to face discussion with the students the researcher can clarify the results and also add the human dimension inside the impersonal data(Castro et al., 2010). This saves the time and money comapred to other data collection method and also provids deep information on the present studty alsong with some useful quotes that can be collected form the interaction with the students. This helps to deeply expalin the impersonal statistical data Futher, this method also helps to identify the the students requirement about the instrcutional approach and also address their need by discussing with the teachers about their approach. Thus this method helps to identify the usefulness, effectiveness and use of the instrcutional method used in the Jordan classroom. This further helps to answer the research question identified in the initial stage of the rsearch (Saunders, 2009).
The data that will be collected from the above method will be quantitatively analyzed using the MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance). This process would help the researcher to investigate the important elements of the instructional strategy and also measure the obtained scores and examine the data(Newman and Benz, 1998). Again the data examined will be entered into the SPSS to calculate the statistical significance of the instructional method differences between the two groups of students. This would help the researcher to evaluate the instructional approach that is properly needed by the special need students in Jordan classrooms. Qualitative analysis from the focus group interview will be completed using an informal method to interpretivism. The recording of the focus group interviews were transcribed for making an effective analysis and then the conclusion was scrutinized using the transcripts(Quraishi, 2012).
Bazeley, P. (2009). Editorial: Integrating Data Analyses in Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(3), pp.203-207.
Cameron, R. (2009) 'A sequential mixed model research design: design, analytical and display issues', International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(2), p. 140-152
Castro, F., Kellison, J., Boyd, S. and Kopak, A. (2010). A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4(4), pp.342-360.
Creswell, J. (2010). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and mixed. London: Sage
Lancaster, G. (2012) Research Methods in Management, 4th ed. Oxford: Elsevier.
Newman, I. and Benz, C. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press.
Northcutt, N. and McCoy, D. (2004). Interactive qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
O'Cathain, A. (2009). Editorial: Mixed Methods Research in the Health Sciences: A Quiet Revolution. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(1), pp.3-6.
Quraishi, M. (2012). Research Methodlogy and its Application. SaarbruÌˆcken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Saunders, M. N., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) Research methods for business students, 5th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall