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Analysis Of Network Architecture

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You are required to produce the following deliverables as part of your contract:
1. Analyse the network and enlist all vulnerabilities found.
2. The vulnerabilities identified in the network architecture from (1) above should be explained in detail.
3. Provide recommended improvements to the network architecture in order to harden the entire network and to fix the vulnerabilities identified above.
4. Draw the improved network architecture.
5. Based on a rough estimate of the number of operating devices at the Perth HO and the Port Hedland Offices, as well as the network bandwidth, estimate the network traffic intensity during a given time of the day (approximated in numbers). Is there any bottleneck identified on this link that can be exploited by the adversary for launching a DoS attack? If so, propose a solution for countering this threat.
6. Create a JMeter profile to generate network traffic with intensity calculated in (5) above.
7. Generate the network traffic based on the profile from (6) above.
8. Capture the generated network traffic using Wireshark. (Hint: Run Wireshark on a separate virtual machine from JMeter).
9. Write-up network security policies for the resources of the network (devices and technologies). Do not write access policies for end-users rather define policies appertaining solely to the network architecture.


1.0 Introduction

The days are gone for the individuals that’s they need do need to determined anything early with respect to workstations for operating the work and they need to follow the complex work processes that is involves various physical devices for each and every single communication or interaction among their workstations. Even if we look at Two decades ago, IT (Information technology) and Computer networking have changed the way the world operates and how the individuals are fit inside it. The working hours are now not been restricted in firm or a corporate and the area of influence to the environmental location of their workplace.  Irrespective of the political lines doing or operating business has become almost independent (Shen, 2013). All the individuals in the enterprise are now looking to be linked up with one another through internet and any other connections they so considered specifically at all location and time period.

It has become hugely specialized as far as its functionalities are concern and the concept of the workplace has been completely differs that it is no more a mandatory meeting point for any task that is been done. It is been expected that any individual can perform any task based on their own devices as now a day’s everyone has one computing device for sure.

Considering a scene that everything can be smooth and polished and we have to prepare ourselves to handle such huge amount of vulnerabilities and risks that have come in the same package as technological enhancements. They try to protect by keeping themselves checked every now and then (Xu, 2016). If we look at the requirements of old ages then we can easily put a correspondence or comparison between the network protections. 

Everything needs to be done in this case such as counter measures for different attacks needs to be put in the areas, regulation of traffic, blocks needs to be drawn up, the different entrance points needs to be checked. To protect such incident there is the only possibility with regular or consistent vigilance and sufficient preparation.

2.0 Solution and Details

2.1 Windows Server 2008

Windows server is one of the operating system from Microsoft and is completely depends on Windows Vista similar code. Windows Vista functionality and architecture is similar with Windows server and when if we review the installation of complete graphical user interface as Windows vista installations as it enhance the ability of server (Dugan & Pruski, 2013).  The launch of Windows server 2008 was highlight because of including native wireless support and IPv6 support and additionally to an amount of enhancement in general security and pace (speed).

A huge amount of capabilities were included in the 2008 version of Windows Server that will assist the network administrator.  Server managers, Self-healing NTFS, Failover Clustering, Windows system resource manager, Active Directory, Server core are included. For the domain of 64-bit operating system it is been marked as the entry server for Window’s operating systems, moreover all other variations were released in both 64-bit and 32-bit versions (Jani & Jbara, 2013).  It is capable of supporting the 1TB of memory on 64-bit architecture and 64GB of memory on 32-bit architecture and it is also capable of supporting 32 single physical processor.

2.2 Windows 8

The operating system released by Microsoft is Windows 8 is a sample or attempt to unite and streamline the UI and OS platforms for all its private computing devices that includes cell phone devices. Windows NT family has been included Windows 8 as its part of a family. A huge amount of functionalities in Win-8 were cut down to User interface that is touch screen such as face or picture locking system and PINs for authentication of the user login (Chang, Tsai & Chen, 2013).  Latest add ups to Win-8 which includes UEFI and Hybrid Boot integration for better and quick startup, which support the close field communication and native support for Universal service bus 3.0 devices.

The Win-8 protection functionalities which includes intelligent screen pushing and virus filtering, mainly controls provided by latest system backup options Reset and Refresh, Family Safety and Securing booting to protect boot kits from getting infected the system between other s. There are latest store apps and wins software’s that are provided or launched which streamline the utilization of the OS from the cell phone touch screen devices.

2.3 Windows 10

Win-10 is the new OS (operating system) for private computing applications released and developed by Microsoft. It prolonged on the older concept in win-8 that focuses on combing UI and features available to mobile users and desktop, effectively reducing the difference among the desktop devices and mobile devices and the global private computing applications (Stidley, 2012). Win 10 introduced by global apps are a proper placing up from older metro-style apps that launched Win 8 and its main objective is to process the application code to execute across Win based applications without any modifications.

Win 10 launched with more protective functionalities catering to latest requirements and parallel with its mission or objectives of combining all private computing applications. This include various factors of authentication such as enhanced support for authentication related to biometric in the terms of face and iris recognition and permissions through inbuilt cameras and biometric such as fingerprint recognition if supported the fingerprint readers if available (Panek, 2015).  The abilities are decoded on the selection versions of Win 10 and that allows the automatic decoding of critical information through various policies and selective rejection of access to decode the information to applications and creating hurdles running of software that is not been signed digitally through a device guard.

2.4 Red Hat Linux

It is a Linux distribution that was developed by the organization Red hat and ended in 2014. It is recognize to be the first distribution in Linux to utilize the RPM package manager that is been developed originally for use with RED HAT LINUX but adapted lately and utilized many distributions in Linux.  The Version 3.0.3 of RHL (Red Hat Linux) was also the first distribution Linux to support the linkable format and executable as divergent to the a.out format used by the older and other variations (Whitaker et al., 2016).  It also launched such functionalities as Anaconda, it is a graphics installer which is user-friendly to use for Linux novices and have the ability of configuring firewalls and Lokkit.  After the rejection was done, the Fedora assignment was included with RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) creation, thus providing the lift up to the Open source and Fedora free OS (Operating System).

2.5 Apache

The most widely used web service in the world is Apache. The creation of Apace is conducted by an open source community of various developers under the foundation of the ASF (Apache Software Foundation) and at its core, the servers of apache as on HTTP daemon and as an HTTP server, but an amount of another functionalities has been included on to in the form of modules that are compiled which extended this common functionality (Minasi et al., 2013). Basic language user interface supports included Perl, Tcl, PHP and Python.  Another functionality which includes SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), filtering support and a URL Rewriting module, Transport Layer Security support and so on so forth.

It usage an open-source interruption and prevent modules called ModSecurity. It also provides the supports services of virtual hosting to allow an individual apache installation to handle different websites. Digital certificate authentication and password authentication are some of the authentication methods available (Tidro, Boyce & Shapiro, 2015). It does not integrate in a individual architecture and does provide the support MPM (Multi Processing Modules) thus allow it to run in any one of the three different modes such as threat or process hybrid, event hybrid and process based.  So here the right choice of MPM allows the Apache to be optimized for various architectures. Other recognition functionalities of apache which includes bandwidth throttling, gzip decompression and compression, IPv6 compatibility, Reverse Proxy functionality, custom logging and HTTP/2 protocol support.

2.6 MS Exchange Server

It is a calendaring application as well as mail server which is been developed by Microsoft for executing exclusively on the line of operating systems of Windows Server (Chang, Tsai & Chen, 2013). The actual version of this application or software was an inner mail server which is been used by Microsoft and the new versions of the application or software was launched for the basic or general utilization in the month of Oct, 2015. A huge amount of different versions of the Server Exchange has been launched over the years and it has been listed as Exchange Server 4.0, Exchange Server 5.0, Exchange Server 5.5, Exchange Server 2000, Exchange Server 2003, Exchange Server 2007, Exchange Server 2010, Exchange Server 2013, and Exchange Server 2016.

The most recognizable functionality of the Exchange server of MS role is in clustering. Moreover the server exchange gives failover clustering for the exchange service, there is a individual point of rejection in the Exchange data as all the connecters in the cluster are expected to transmit the same information while using Exchange server MS (Zhu, Yang & Lovinger, 2014). There are many issues that were recognized by the 2007 Exchange server, but not rely on the manufactures of storage and not fully eliminated and individual software suppliers to give the asynchronous and geo-clustering data replications to rectify the problem.

2.7 IEEE 802.11

This is bunch of basic issues and maintained by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) MAN/LAN regular committee for accessing media controls and physical layer terms. The rules apply to WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) over the 60 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 900 MHz frequency bands. The brand Wi-Fi of products with respect to networking is based upon IEEE 802.11 standards. The different revisions to the standards that are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11a, and so on so forth, remove the older versions of the standard so as to include them and the standard stated only by the new revision.

Moreover, the marketplace uses various revisions as single standards to particular abilities of their services and products. The first introduction of wireless techniques of modulation is stated in the 802.11 in the year 1997 and the latest or the present version of the modulation technique is stated by 802.11ac. The different standards each reflects the bands frequency that they can utilize and this utilization is also varies slightly on the local and country laws (Shinder, Diogenes & Shinder, 2013).  The work of 802.11b on the 2.4 GHz radio band frequency and utilize the same OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) transferring scheme as was stated in 802.11a. The throughput that is average of 802.11g is about 22Mbit/s. 802.11g is completely backward compatible fir 802.11b and 802.11 standards older version is 802.11g that have been launched in the month of June 2003.

2.8 WPA and TKIP

Wi-Fi Protected Access is a protocol of security and certification program with respect to security that was created by the Wi-Fi Alliance and it was created in response to serious issues that the finders exposed in the older wireless computer networking security system of WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy). WPA has implemented a huge amount of 802.11i standard and most recognizably it usages of TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol). The basic variation among TKIP and WEP authentication is that TKIP automatically generates a latest 128-bit key for individual packets and WEP used an individual undetermined 64-bit or 128-bit key which is entered manually on all the devices and access points, thus TKIP prevents the attacks of WEP threats. Michael is a message integrity checker algorithm that is been included by WPA and it replaces the CRC algorithm of WEP’s (Loschen, Stewart & Lombardo, 2014). Various security threats to WPA2/WPA applications which includes WPS PIN backup, Hole 196 and MS-CHAPv2 weaknesses.

2.9 BYOD

Bring your own device is the full form of BYOD and the organization policy that is changing rapidly and gaining huge momentum. This rule is enabling the employees to bring their own computing applications or devices, such as tablets, smart phones and laptops to their organization and utilization of these applications or devices to enable the data that is addressed to be recognized by the organization and in the old fashion it is accessible only through the organization authenticated and provided desktop computers placed in the organization.

The major drive behind such rules is that with the rise of computing and mobile devices, many workers have started to bring their devices in the office premises and they find it much easier to work on their own devices (Mavrogiannopoulos et al., 2013). Many other companies have placed a banned policy for employees to use their personal devices in the office premises but that policy completely fails. It has been observed that by BYOD the productivity of the organization has increased the reason is that they can utilize their personal device much easier and it will lead to easy operation and increase in productivity. 

2.10 VPN

The companies have made the employment of the Virtual Private Network for granting access for the private network of the company to the internet of the employees. The employees can make usage of the internet for accessing from remote place through the network of the company. It has the perception of the differences, which will be not be present physically in the campus of the company and office (Merlin, 2013). An achievement of the meaning variety, for an instance the protocols of tunneling through virtual mode, connections through dedication and the encryption of the traffic. VPN in the tradition has the network model which has point to point connection and has no support for the technologies of broadcasting.

The usage of VPN has to make a creation of the Wide Area Network, which will make a connection among the employees staying in the remote place, which are at the outside of the offices. The company has made the campuses, which has the separation in geographic manner through a network, which is single. A provision of the confidentiality of the VPN is there against the sniffing in the packet level. It has the authentication of the sender, which has the integrity in their message (Weisbecker & Hat, 2013). In generally, the protocols that are been followed make a consideration of the VPN protocols that are secure.

The security of Internet Protocol (IPSec), the layer of transport security (TLS/SSL), the layer of security regarding Datagram Transport (DTLS), Encryption of Point to point basis of Microsoft (MPPE), Protocol of Microsoft Secure Socket Tunneling (SSTP), Network of Multi Path Virtual Private (MPVPN), and the VPN of Secure Shell (SSH). There is authentication of VPN’s both ends which provide a performance of two factor authentication, biometrics, passwords and the methods of cryptography which are secure. The network to network has a tunneling through the usage of the digital certificates or passwords.

The protocols of Mobile VPN has a difference from the protocols in the VPN of convention for the users of mobile (Ferrari, 2015). They expect for continuous roaming through the networks and going through the coverage of network. It actually makes a cause of the models of the convention based network of the tunnels used for disruption. In case of the connections which are dropped, timeouts of applications, data which are lost. The protocols of the Mobile VPN has a requirement for making disassociation of the tunnel networks that are coupling. It locates in between the functionalities of locator and host authentication. Both of them has the dependence on the address of IP. The protocol of Host Identity is the example of the protocol that belongs to VPN.

2.11 PPTP

The meaning of the PPTP is Point to Point Protocol of Tunneling that implements the protocol of VPN. A tunnel of PPTP has made the establishment through the peer contact within usage of the port of TCP 1723. However, the tunnel of GRE has an initiation and maintenance regarding the usage of the connection of TCP (Farash & Attari, 2014). Here is the encapsulation of GRE tunel of the packets of PPP, which makes an allowance of the protocols that are compatible with the PPP that are tunneled. There are certain vulnerabilities regarding security that have an existence in PPTP. There is an association of the vulnerabilities that have the existence in PPTP. The vulnerabilities have association with the protocols that are in PPP and MPPE, the integration which is mutual.

A vulnerability is the MS-CHAP-v1 that has the unsecured consideration. The session key of RC4 has the usage of MPPE that can have the vulnerability for the MS-CHAP-v2 for the attacks in the dictionary level. There are attacks of brute force and the MPPE vulnerabilities for making the attacks of bit flip. 


2.12 WAN

A computer network that is termed as Wide Area Network has the connection of the network that is smaller or the computers in the individual level through a high distance. A general employment is there of the WAN that makes the interface of the leased telecommunication service (Brown et al., 2015). There is an operation on package of different subscription such as the consumption of the bandwidth that are based on the packages. There is example of internet that can be used for WAN. The employment of WAN is in the institutions, which is of variety. The companies along with the governments has the creation of the environment where an occurrence of their activities are there and the participation can have the communication for the location in the geography. The range of geography can have the coverage through the WAN that can be of cities of multiple numbers that is throughout the world.

A connection of WAN has the LAN in multiple numbers, which are owned in private terms. It actually depends on the area of coverage and the type of application and the type of specification where the WANs have the definition. It has the terms of Metropolitan Area Networks and Campus Area Networks. On the other hand the CAN makes connections with multiple LANs that makes the presentation in the campus through the usage of the technology of WAN (Prahlad et al., 2014). There is the LAN for the building of individual in the campus. These are the usage of the organizations for the provision of the interconnections in interdepartmental level of the campus. There is the MAN which makes connection of campuses in multiple numbers which has the city blocks along with buildings that goes far for covering the entire city. There is the utilization of the network of the technology in the WAN for achieving the interconnections of LAN.

The technologies that are been stated through the usage of WAN have several variation levels, such as the telephone lines that can be switched by the circuit with the waves of the radio and fibers of optic. The speed of the link in the edge is of the WAN that can have the range starting from 1 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s in case the core links of the WAN has the speed which has the range from 1Gbit/s to the higher of 100 Gbit/s.

2.13 Network of Mobile Ad-hoc

The networks, which are in the level of Mobile Ad-hoc have the network which is absolutely infrastructure less that can have the self configuration and the task of technology which are wireless. Major devices in the  MANET has the capability for moving freely about the direction in the independent level without the restrictions that are particular or the patterns that are predictable (Xu et al., 2013). It actually has the meaning of the link and distance between the nodes that are been subjected for change in continuous manner.

The nodes has the receiving of traffic in large amount that has the consumption of the traffic that is relevant. It actually makes a doubling through the router. Each and every node has the maintenance for the information of routing and the transmissions of packet between the nodes. It is all about accounting the presence of an unknown number that is possible for the transceivers among the end nodes. The protocols of difference has a development and implementation in the last twenty years due to the wireless technology’s proliferation and the computing device of the mobile that has the interest in the MANETs (Lobanov et al., 2013). On the basis of the technology and application used, the various MANET types used has the definition such as the SPANs or the Adhoc Networks of the Smart Phones, Adhoc Networks of Vehicle (VANETs), Mobile Adhoc Networks based on Internet (iMANET). It is absolutely needless for telling that the network has the employment of the technologies along with the protocols that are been specialized in difference from the protocols of regular network. It is the networking protocol that are the protocols of ad hoc network in the natural basis.

2.14 Firewall

A network security system’s category is the firewall that has the design for monitoring and regulating the flow of the traffic among the network for securing the network against the traffic that is malicious and vulnerabilities of the security. There is the deployment of the firewall for securing the network that is the system of single host (Little, Adams & Brown, 2013). It is against the network that is potentially insecure such as the internet. The network is there in the protection of firewall’s scope and there is a general assumptions that it will have trust and security. There will be the firewall that has the work for maintaining the state. In such case of the firewalls that are based on network, there will be the solution on software that is of the firewall. It can be the computer appliance of the hardware that makes a hostage of the firewalls and has all the software.

The firewall has the work in the different level for the model of OSI as per its application. In the layer of Network there is a work of Firewall which has made a performance of “filtering the packet”, in the judgment that is not for the packets that are incoming. It follows the rules that are certain and defined by the administrator of the network (Kirsch, 2014). The packets actually has the rules following that is standardized by the administrator of the network. These rules are allowed for passing the firewall. The firewalls of Application Layer will have the functionality that is more and they have the analysis and reading of the data, which has transmissions in inside. It has the scanning of them for the items, which are improper.

2.15 Antivirus

There is the software that is anti-malware and the software, that is of security that makes the helping of the users for preventing, detecting and removing the malware from the systems of the computer (Pires et al., 2012). The only intention for using to remove the virus of the computer where there is a growth of role for inclusion of the protection that is against the attacks of malware. Such attacks include the worm of computers, ransomware, hijackers of browser, Trojan horses, backdoors, spyware, keyloggers, dialers and rootkits. In the additional level, the software of antivirus have the bundle for the functionality in the additional level in the filtering of spam, scanning of URL, phishing and scam to attack the filters.

Most of the programns in the antivirus has the employment in the security of layers in multiple level for achieving a rate in better detection. There is an impossibility of the algorithm for perfect detection in the viruses of possibility. The methods that are two up and coming are been recognized for the classifiers of frontier good of the techniques that are of scanning specific malware scanning (Pascal et al., 2012). A detection of the sandbox is there for the techniques in case of mining of data. In the detection of sandbox, files are been suspected for allowing for running in the environment that is virtual where there is the logging of the actions. It is all about to make decision to check that there is a malicious activity.

In the techniques of data mining, there are features that are been extracted from the file and there will be an analysis to learn the machine and techniques to mine the data for the classification of its maliciousness. In the methods by tradition there is the detection of the malware that makes the inclusion of detection that is absolutely based on the heuristics and detection.

2.16 Policy of Security

The policy of security in the system has the definition where a constitution of system’s secure state. In the organization’s case, the policy of security will have the dictation for the constraints that are various which are placed on the members in the organization that has the elements of external category, such as walls and the doors, which are locked (Willliams & Tang, 2013). In case of the system of the network, the policy of security has the controlling of the system that is of various functions. There are components, which are internal to the users along with the systems that are external. The environment should have the performance of the tasks regarding the systems.

The policy of security has the importance as because it has the power for prevention regarding the risks of security in the inadvertent level. It actually makes an ensuring the risk which has the area of attacks that are considered to be malicious. The design of policy regarding security for the systems, which are complex is for the task that is challenging. The security policy has the system for staying secure (Chaudhri et al., 2015). There should be the capability of the system for the enforcement of the security policy in the strict manner otherwise the existence will not make any yield of the results.

2.17 Vulnerabilities of network

The vulnerability of network has the weakness in the architecture of the network that is of overall network. It actually provides the allowance for performing the actions for the attacker that makes the assurance of information in the level of compromise. In case of flaw of the system or the case of susceptibility, there is the existence of the attacker that have the capability for the exploitation of the gains regarding the flaw access. There will be a production of vulnerability in the system. There should be a noting that all the vulnerabilities does not have the carriage of the risk. In such case, there will be the existence of the vulnerability that can have the affection as possessed assets have the value of none. Several examples are there in the case of exploiting vulnerability are there in the knowledge (Durumeric et al., 2013). As the attacks of success are been conducted, there is a term for the exploitation of the vulnerability. There are attacks, which are conducted in the level of success. There should be an exploitation of the vulnerability. In case of vulnerability, there is the time period that comes among the system vulnerability’s introduction.

There is a removal of the vulnerability that has the meaning to introduce the policy of security to limit the access for the updation of the system. Its also about the attacker’s removal in the system. There is quite variety of the vulnerability cause. The systems are quite complicated as they have the difficulties for securing the design flaws, which is susceptible in the inherent manner.

In the point of access in the network there is the introduction of the point of possibility for creating the vulnerability throughout the network. The bugs of the software and the operating system has the flaw for leading the vulnerability creation. The management that is improper in case of the passwords by the employees can have the result in leaking the information through the creation of vulnerabilities. 


2.18 DoS Attack

The service attacks denial or the DoS is the malicious attacker’s attempt for causing the resource of the system for becoming unavailable for the usage that is intended through its users of dependency. There are current DoS Attackers in the service of network. In the modern days, the attacks of DoS have the distribution.

It has general attack of spoofing of IP address (Chaudhri et al., 2015). The attacks are in two forms, services of crashing and flooding. The attack’s worst known form is the DoS of Advanced Persistent. In such case the attackers have the resource and establishment for skills of networking. There is such attack that will be in between the multiple vectors. There should be strategic attackers that have switching targets for measures to prevent and mitigate. There should be the vectors for attack through cycling which makes target of continuous cause in case of suffering the provider of service.

2.19 JMeter

There should be a development of the JMeter tool through the support of Apache Software Foundation which have the project for loading the web applications for the purpose of testing. It should be measured and analyzed to perform service of network (Williams & Tang, 2013). The functionality of the JMeter should have the augmentation through the developers for usage of the plugins. The functionality has the expansion to install the design of new ones.

2.20 Wireshark

It’s a tool of open source to analyze the traffic of network in the level of packets. There should be a usage of troubleshooting of network, development, analysis and education. It should have the crossing of the platform software which has the running in the systems which are like the Unix. It has the similarity of the functionality for monitors of other packets that have the features of the interface along with options of sorting.

It has the capability to understand the structure for protocols of networking. API pcap actually captures packets through the factor that is limiting through capabilities of capturing.

2.21 Vulnerability list

  1. Connection of wireless is open.
  2. There is no installation of the firewalls.
  3. There is no such protection of the servers behind the firewall of hardware (Pascal et al., 2012).
  4. Communication of long distance is through the network that is wireless.
  5. Exchange of web has the direct connection to the cloud that is without the security.
  6. There is no such definition of ACL.
  7. The polity of network is very old and high vulnerability is there.

2.22 Improvements that are recommended for hardening the network

Fixing the vulnerabilities

  1. The connections that are wireless should have the security through the usage of firewall.
  2. There should be a protection behind the firewall hardware (Pires et al., 2012).
  3. There should be an ACL definition for protection.
  4. The policies of the revised network is required for threats that are current.

3. Implementation

3.1 Network that is improved

Figure 1: Improved Network

3.2 Profile of JMeter

Figure 2: JMeter

Figure 2: JMeter

3.3 Capture of Wireshark

Figure 3: Wireshark Capture
Figure 3: Wireshark Capture 

4.0 References

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