This research is focused towards performing a critical assessment of the reasons leading to the immigrants coming to UK. The primary research has been carried out on behalf of UK Border Agency (UKBA) with a view to assess the primary reason leading to increasing number of immigrants coming to the country (UK Border Agency, 2015). With the globalisation of world economy and increasing opportunities available in the developed economies, it has been quite popular within public that they are moving towards such developed economies for a number of reasons. An analysis of UK Border Agency indicates that it has been replaced by UK Visas and Immigration. The agency is concerned with managing the applications from the people those want to visit UK and settle over there. However, there can various reasons that are driven by such people coming to UK, and this field study is solely focused towards assessing the main reasons leading to such an increase in the immigrants across the country (Bulgarian and Romanian migration to the UK, 2014).
As a part of this field research, the main areas that are being focused are especially related to defining the universe, identification of a sample, selecting of an appropriate approach to perform the field research work, selection of appropriate data collection method and designing of questionnaire. These aspects are crucial from the point of view of performing the field research work and as such, they are covered in the following section.
Research universe mainly explains about the entire target population for the study. The target population identification is crucial because it enables the researcher in performing the collection of most relevant data. Research universe is therefore dependent on the area that the researcher seeks to analyse. In this context, the given research is focused towards analysing the reasons for higher level of immigration within UK, and this can be analysed by way of examining the immigrants within UK. As a result, the research universe can be defined as all the immigrants that have come to UK and selected it as a place of residence. They all comprise the research universe in doing this research (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006).
It is not feasible to study the entire research universe because of the factors such as time, finance, approach and accessibility to them. As a result, the researcher is required to make a selection of appropriate target sample from the entire population that can be studied and based on studying such sample, decisions can be represented over the entire population. In respect to this research on analysing the reasons leading to increasing number of immigrants in UK, the representative sample that has been considered to study is the Bulgarian immigrants that are living in UK. The immigrants in UK are from different backgrounds and for this research purpose, the specific representative sample as selected is the Bulgarians residing in UK. By analysing them, the reasons for immigrants coming to UK can be better evaluated. The sample size that has been considered is a sample of 30 Bulgarian people and their selection is done on the basis of systematic random sampling strategy whereby only Bulgarian immigrants are selected on systematic basis in performing the collection of data (Muijs, 2010).
The selection of an appropriate approach with respect to data collection is essential, and this can be ensured by the researcher from considering the approaches such as qualitative data, quantitative data and by way of observation. These are the common approaches that are available to the researcher to select in performing the data collection and their selection is highly done on the basis of nature of the research. In respect to given research on analysing the causes or reasons for increasing number of immigrants in UK, the research approach that has been selected is a mixture of both the qualitative data and quantitative data (Creswell, 2003).
The selection of an appropriate data collection method is essential and this method could allow for the collection of relevant data in achieving the research aims and objectives in a positive manner. The data collection methods available to researcher are face to face interviews, survey, observation and many more. But the data collection method that has been applied in performing the collection of data in this research is face to face interview whereby the Bulgarian immigrants in UK are directly interviewed through a list of questions. In these ways, the collection of data has been performed through applying face to face interview method. A specific process has been followed in collecting data whereby the researchers have selected specific Bulgarian based immigrant by visiting across different popular and common areas in UK and by directly asking people regarding their home country, the people from Bulgaria are selected and they are interviewed to analyse their reason or purpose of visiting or residing in UK (Berg and Latin, 2007).
In performing the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, the researcher is required to design a questionnaire that comprises of necessary questions which can be asked in properly achieving the main aim and objectives of doing this research. The research questions are both of open ended and closed type and they are indicated below:
Q1: You have come to UK on permanent basis of temporary basis?
Permanent Temporary Not Sure
Q2: Have you faced any problems in entering into UK?
Q3: Is there any specific reason for coming to UK?
Q4: Are you seeking for highly qualified educational services in UK and it became your primary reason in visiting the country?
Q5: Are you currently working or in search of an employment condition across UK?
Q6: Does the main purpose of your coming to UK is to seek professional development in UK?
Q7: Is there any other specific purpose of coming to UK? Please explain in detail?
Q8: Are you satisfied from your decision of coming to UK?
Q9: Will you ever consider returning back to your home country in Bulgaria?
Q10: What is your overall experience in UK and how would you compare your country with that of UK? (Newman and Benz, 1998).
The actual research work has been carried out by the researcher and the performance of research task has resulted into the collection of significant level of data. Such data as collected would form the basis in doing this entire research in a positive manner and thereby in accomplishing the main aim in a positive manner. The research has been conducted with 30 immigrants from Bulgaria in a positive way, and since researcher has specifically selected people from Bulgaria, the research work has been conducted till there are 30 respondents participated in the process. In this way, the collection of data has been positively carried out in this research and its analysis in the next section could result into the attainment of main purpose for which the given research has been conducted (Taylor, 2006).
Overall, the entire field research as carried out has been highly effective from the point of view of researching the main reasons for which immigrants are coming to UK market.
This research in particular is focused towards analysing the specific case of UK whereby the focus is towards analysing the rising cases of Bulgarian people coming into UK. An analysis of the case of UK as performed in the research indicates that Romania and Bulgaria migrants into UK reach at a significantly higher level. The number of Romanians and Bulgarians who have come to work in Britain has reached a significantly higher level (Warner, 2014). Data from Office for National Statistics has indicated that there has been significantly higher number of migrants coming to UK and there is varied nature of purposes for which they enter into the country. There has been increasingly number of Bulgarian that is immigrating into UK. As indicated in the article, people in the UK are migrating because of increasing job opportunities available in the UK markets (Barrett, 2014). In 2014, the statistics indicate that there has been increasing number of Bulgarian that has entered into the UK in the said financial year. It has been assessed that the migrants from Romania and Bulgaria into the UK has topped 150000 in the second quarter and this has been a significant rise in the number of migrants to the country (Barrett, 2014).
As there has been significant rise being witnessed with respect to the number of migrants across the country, this has resulted into the performance of this research to analyse the major reasons that have contributed towards such rising cases of Bulgarians. As a result, the research is specifically aimed at performing an analysis especially in the context of Bulgarian people that have migrated to UK in order to analyse the reasons for which they have migrated into the country. An analysis of the article by Barrett (2014) indicates that majority of the migrants to UK have indicated themselves as self-employed, and this has been an important factor which suggests the reasons for people migrating to the country. However, this research is highly specific and aims at analysing the reasons that have become the prime contributing factor towards such rise in the Bulgarians in UK economy.
The purpose of doing this research has been clarified from the background analysis as carried above which suggests that the main purpose of doing this research has been to analyse the reasons for which immigrants from Bulgaria are increasing in UK. In order to address this purpose, the researcher has specifically carried out a critical analysis of literature and also performed primary research so that the reasons for people migrating to UK can be better assessed (Ehrenberg, 2015).
The research methods as utilised in performing this research for the purpose of collecting data are the combination of primary research and secondary research. The primary research has been applied in the form of performing interviews which have been carried out specifically with the Bulgarian immigrants that are currently in UK. Since this research is focused towards performing an analysis of increase in Bulgarian migrants, the research methods in the form of primary research has been carried out. Apart from this, the researcher has also applied the secondary research method in performing the collection of data, and this has been ensured by way of accessing academic journal articles, books and online articles on Bulgarian migrants coming to UK (Walsh and Wigens, 2003).
In these ways, the collection of data has been ensured in this research to analyse the research aims and objectives in a positive manner.
In performing this research, the researcher has specifically considered a questionnaire and it comprises of both the closed ended questions and open ended questions in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data. The research questions as involved are specifically aimed at collecting data with respect to the reasons for which Bulgarians have entered into the UK market. The questionnaire as utilised in doing this research are included in the appendix section.
This section has been the important section in doing this research in a positive manner. The main emphasis in this section of the analysis is mainly focused towards analysing the collected data so as to reach appropriate conclusion. The researcher has performed the collection of specific data through the application of primary research in the form of interview and secondary research in the form of literature analysis. On the basis of data as collected, they are specifically analysed with a view to reach conclusion regarding the main reasons for which immigrants have entered into the UK market (Wilson, 2010). The analysis of the responses collected from doing the primary research is performed as follows:
Analysis of Responses to Question 1: The first question has been focused towards analysing the nature of entrance of people into the market of UK, and the conduct of the research has indicated the following findings:
The findings above from the responses as shared by respondents implies that there are 22 such respondents that have indicated that they come to UK on permanent basis, whereas 5 others have indicated that their nature of coming into the UK market is temporary, and the remaining 3 of them have indicated that they have entered into UK market, but they are not sure whether they are for permanent basis or for temporary basis. The analysis above indicates that there is higher level of permanence being identified in respect to the immigrants into the UK.
Analysis of Responses to Question 2: This question assesses the problems faced by immigrants while entering into UK and the performance of interview has indicated the following major findings:
The analysis above indicates the responses of the respondents which suggest that 17 of them have indicated positively that they have encountered problems while establishing in UK whereas 13 others have indicated that they did not faced any such problem. This finding indicates that there are certain major formalities that are required to be fulfilled in which immigrants often faces problems and this is the reason leading to majority of the respondents positively indicated that they faced problems.
Analysis of Responses to Question 3: This question assesses the reasons leading to the immigrants coming to UK and the performance of interview indicated the following major findings:
There have been specific reasons behind people coming to UK, and this is evident from the responses as shared by respondents above. It has been evaluated that there are 28 such respondents that have clearly indicated that they have visited UK for some specific purposes in their life, whereas in respect to 2 others, it has been identified that there is no such specific reasons behind their visit. When they have asked about the reasons, they have indicated that they come for leisure and enjoying the beauty and tourist destinations across UK.
Analysis of Responses to Question 4: This question assesses whether the immigrants are seeking for accessibility to high class education system of UK and the conduct of interview revealed the following responses:
The analysis above indicates that only 8 out of 30 immigrants from Bulgaria have positively indicated that they have been into UK mainly because of accessing the efficient educational system whereas 22 others have indicated that this is not their purpose of visiting UK. The interview with respondents has resulted into identification that there are only 8 students while others are mainly younger generation people, and these 8 of them have clearly specifies that they want to have accessibility to UK’s best education practices.
Analysis of Responses to Question 5: In this question, the researcher analyses whether the Bulgarian immigrant is currently working or looking towards searching job employment, and the following finding is revealed:
The above responses by the respondents implies that majority of them have indicated their main purpose of visiting UK is mainly to search for employment. This has positively been agreed by 20 respondents whereas the remaining 10 respondents have indicated no which means that they are not seeking any job opportunities in UK. This implies that the main purpose for majority of Bulgarians in migrating to UK is mainly the search for employment. They are mainly driven by searching their livelihood. The performance of interview has indicated that out of these 20 respondents, 14 of them are currently working and 6 others are search for employment opportunities.
Analysis of Responses to Question 6: In respect to this particular question, the focus has been towards analysing whether the purpose of coming to UK is mainly to achieve professional development, and the performance of analysis indicated the following findings:
The above responses by the respondents indicate that there are only 2 such respondents that have indicated that their main focus in visiting UK has been to achieve professional development whereas 28 others have indicated no. This signifies that the immediate concern of the visitors is not towards seeking professional development.
Analysis of Responses to Question 7: This question assesses whether there are any other reasons for the immigrants in visiting UK and the performance of interview has indicated that there are few of the respondents that have indicated certain other important reasons for their migration to UK. As for instance, some of them have indicated that they migrate to UK mainly because their husbands are in UK, and after marriage, they also have to shift in UK. Apart from this, there are few other respondents that have indicated that they migrate to UK mainly because of availing high quality treatment across the country. This might be because of lack of such facilities in their home country which has resulted into their migration to UK on temporary basis. Some of them have also indicated that their children got better job opportunities which led to their parents also shifted to UK. These are some of the important reasons that have been cited by the interviewed respondents for their immigration into UK.
Analysis of Responses to Question 8: This question assesses whether the immigrants are satisfied from their decision of coming to UK and the following findings is achieved:
The findings from the responses of the respondents above clarifies that there has been higher level of satisfaction within them from their decision of coming to UK. This has been evaluated from the above responses which suggest that 27 of them are satisfied while 3 others are dissatisfied from it. The respondents that are dissatisfied are mainly because of their inability in accessing important ways of making money, and this is the primary reason for which they are dissatisfied.
Analysis of Responses to Question 9: This question assesses whether the respondents would consider returning back into Bulgaria in their home country and the research findings indicate the following:
The above findings clarifies that there are 25 such respondents that have indicated that they would never return back to Bulgaria and they are likely to remain in UK for their lifetime. But there are five other respondents that have indicated that they would likely to return back to their home country and this is mainly because they have indicated about their association with the home country.
Analysis of Responses to Question 10: Finally, the respondents were asked to explain their overall experience in UK and to share their views with respect to UK as compared to their home country. On the basis of performance of analysis, it has been evaluated that the respondents have indicated that they are highly satisfied from the environment in UK. Majority of them have indicated their satisfaction and they have opined that they get accessibility to all those things which are not there in their home country. Apart from this, as compared to their home country, they have indicated that UK has broader scope for achieving success because of availability of larger resources in it.
Overall, the findings above have been highly significant from the point of view of ensuring that the main research aim and objectives are positively accomplished.
On the basis of data as collected and their analysis as performed above, it has been evaluated that there has been higher level of preference within respondents for immigrating into UK for a number of reasons. However, the above analysis of the responses of the respondents lead to identification that majority of them have migrated to UK mainly in search of employment conditions. This has been the most significant driving factor for the people visiting UK, and as a result, this aspect is considered as the main purpose of their visit into UK. Secondly, the purpose of getting accessibility to educational system of UK is also an important factor that drives people in coming into UK, and this has been evident in respect to significant number of Bulgarians as analysed above. Apart from this, there are certain other purposes being evaluated for the immigration of Bulgarians into UK such as some people expecting to get better healthcare accessibility and undergoes their treatment while others got married which leads to their immigration from different country into UK. Overall, the evaluation of the collected data suggests that there are various important reasons being identified for the Bulgarians in entering into the UK economy.
On the basis of analysis as carried out above, it has been recommended that the future areas of research should specifically focus towards analysing the how the migrated people are making use of their decisions of migrating into UK, and is it likely that they would encourage their other family members to come and migrate into UK on permanent basis.
The expectations from doing this research initially was to find out various nature of purposes that have been evident within the Bulgarian Migrants in entering into UK and the conduct of the research has resulted into the successful identification of the important reasons for which Bulgarians are immigrating into UK. The research findings have indicated that there are various such reasons that have become the primary factor behind the immigration of Bulgarian into UK and this leads to conclusion that what has been expected has been completely accomplished from doing this research.
This research is mainly focused towards analysing what has been the major reason behind increasing number of immigrants into UK and the researcher has carried out the research by way of performing the collection of primary data in the form of interviews with Bulgarian immigrants and secondary data in the form of literature review. The collection and analysis of data has resulted into identification that Bulgarian immigrants are mainly because of getting accessibility to Jobs, and also because of experiencing the educational system that have been prevalent across the economy. There are various other reasons that have also been noted including the accessibility to good healthcare system across UK and also their marriage which makes them to shift on permanent basis in UK.
Barrett, D. (2014). Romania and Bulgaria migrants reach record high [Online]. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/immigration/11225190/Romania-and-Bulgaria-migrants-reach-record-high.html [Accessed: 24 January 2015].
Barrett, D. (2014). Number of Romanian and Bulgarian workers in Britain hits new high [Online]. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/immigration/11030392/Number-of-Romanian-and-Bulgarian-workers-in-Britain-hits-new-high.html [Accessed: 24 January 2015].
Bulgarian and Romanian migration to the UK, (2014) [Online]. Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/migration-statistics-quarterly-report/may-2014/sty-bulgaria-and-romania.html [Accessed: 25 January 2015].
Berg, K.E. and Latin, R.W. (2007), ‘Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise science, and recreation Point. (3rd ed.), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Creswell, J.W. (2003), ‘Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2nd ed, UK: Publisher SAGE.
Ehrenberg, B. (2015). Why do immigrants want to come to the UK? It's not to get benefits or steal British jobs [Online]. Available at: https://www.cityam.com/1415106077/why-do-immigrants-want-to-come-to-the-uk-its-not-to-get-benefits-or-steal-british-jobs [Accessed: 25 January 2015].
Muijs, D. (2010), ‘Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. (2nd ed.), SAGE Publications Ltd.
Newman, I. and Benz, C.R. (1998), ‘Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: exploring the interactive continuum. SIU Press.
Scruggs, T.E. and Mastropieri, M.A. (2006), ‘Applications of Research Methodology. Emerald Group Publishing.
Taylor, R.H. (2006), ‘Research Methodology: A Guide for Researchers in Management and Social Sciences’, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
UK Border Agency, (2015) [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/uk-border-agency [Accessed: 25 January 2015].
Walsh, M. and Wigens, L. (2003), ‘Introduction to Research’, UK: Nelson Thornes.
Wilson, J. (2010), ‘Essentials of Business Research: A Guide to Doing Your Research Project. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Warner, J. (2014). Here’s why migrants want to come to Britain [Online]. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/immigration/10680905/Heres-why-migrants-want-to-come-to-Britain.html [Accessed: 25 January 2015].
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