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Applications Of Artificial Intelligence And Associated Technologies

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Questions:

1. What's going on?
 
2. What are the facts?
 
3. What are the issues?
 
4. Who is affected?
 
5. What are the ethical issues and their implications?
 
6. What could have been done about it?
 
7. What are the options?
 
8. Which option is the best and why?
 
 

Answers:

Introduction:

The AI or Artificial Intelligence is one of the significant and highly ambitious approaches in the field of science and technology since last six months ("Top 9 ethical issues in artificial intelligence", 2017).

The risks associated with AI have been needed to be considered noticing its outstanding reach and capability.

In this study the rise in queries about AI regarding the ethics are answered. They are put into the DET or “Doing Ethics Technique” format with proper analysis.

1. Various tools have been utilized by ICT, for human thinking. These have been capable to amplify the human brainpower. The power possesses a distant impact on human society. This is because it could manage different human operations. Thus smart machines and gadgets are given birth that is made “artificially intelligent” ("How Powerful AI Technology Can Lead to Unforeseen Disasters", 2017). The basic building phenomenon of these types of machines lies on uninterrupted interaction among various objects. Since AI has been intruding everyday life of human beings, arguments has been rising about the benefits and potential risks.

2. AI has been progressing dramatically in the present era. It includes various programs doing extraordinary activities in difficult scenarios. It has given birth to “self-driving” cars with specific records of safety. The software could indentify activities of human beings. It recognizes faces and speeches through wide sets of data ("Ethical Issues In Advanced Artificial Intelligence", 2017). It has been becoming integral portion of this society as it has been entering into everyday lives. Thus various factual and ethical questions are arising. Apart from all these, there have been various structures of reasoning utilized to determine proper answers. This possess in depth coherence with basic and previous enquiries of ethics.
 
3. The society prospect working with the AI creates different questions. Lots of them are determined under the lens of traditional ethics. The primary query has been regarding AI’s conduct in human society. There has been an allegation that it has been taking away jobs of people. This would result in finding ways to do away with the job supply shortage for people (Pistono & Yampolskiy, 2016). AI has been creating worries regarding super intelligence. There has been also problem about singularity. AI machines could be designed in such a way that it can take away others lives. The method in which AI would treat the human beings is also a subject of concern.

There have been various non-ethical issues that has originated. The first problem is about the inequality. There has been a requirement to measure the way in which AI could distribute wealth. There has been a problem about the safeguarding process as AI does any blunder. This scenario is referred to as the “artificial stupidity”. The AI biases should also be eradicated. Hence methods should be found out regarding this. The AI exerts requirements to keep it protected from adversaries. The approach to secure AI from the outcomes that were not desired is another non-ethical area to think.

4. The suffering mitigation has created various obstacles regarding the ethics in AI. Other problems have risen about the risks of the negative consequences. All these impacts has imposed effects on everybody’d life in overall. The AI has indulging the privacy rights of individuals. It has got the freedom in accessing data. Many jobs at present are been getting overthrown by AI due to its rise. This has affected the “bread-and-butter” of many doctors, accountants and lawyers. Reallocation of jobs is found by the low-skilled workers that has no acceptance by computerization (Strong, 2016). The “data expertise” has become more significant in exponential manner. Various companies are imposing cyber securities in their defence sectors and areas that need the intelligence priorities. The AI has been expected to deliver opportunities throughout the world on technological parities. Further AI would also be seen to create contents as its primary concern (Nilsson, 2014).

 

5. Thus it was seen that the AI would be capturing the professions of people. For example let the self-driving trucks be considered. This has the capability to choose the methods to decrease the accident risks more efficiently. Conversation and relationship of human beings could be modelled better through the AI bots. The attention and kindness delivered by the human beings is been limited by the experience they have gathered throughout the life. Infinite resources could be channelled by the AI bots to build relationships virtually. The human beings are staying at the zenith of the food-chain because of its ingenuity and intelligence (Luxton, Anderson & Anderson, 2015). As the similar benefits are been provided by AI, the traditions of human civilization has been facing shattering. This instance is identified as the “singularity” when the human species would fall short of the entitlement that they are the most intelligent animal on this earth. The secrets underpinning to the conscious experience has been a serious area for research for the neuroscientists. The humans only make sense of the primary ground to get aversion and rewards (Eran Abramson, 2017). Thus an inferiority complex has been originating in the mind of humans as the AI is been seen to surpass them different fields.

6. To make sense of the world by AI, appropriate approaches of ethics are to be imposed as principles. There have been many school thoughts. These ideologies differ in answering and formulating the fundamental queries. The “Normative” determination of the ethics tries to resolve the expected behaviour of human beings (LaFollette, 2014). This has been depending on the “Descriptive” logistics to a wide extent. The descriptive arguments have been important like the normative principles. The researchers and the designers must impose AI in such a way that it could acquire the ability to describe different scenarios regarding ethics. Further it should perform the rendering of judgements.

7. In order to compromise with the problems 3 important orientations are been required to be endorse for AI. There have been the “Utilitarianism” or “Consequentialism”, “Virtue Ethics” and “Deontological Ethics” (Burton et al., 2017).

8. The utilitarianism is the most effective option to be chosen. It is a modern approach originated from the mind of “John Stuart Mill” and “Jeremy Bentham”. It claims that the maximum good should be done for maximum number of people.       In the “computer science” this “utility” is used as the proxy term from the “wellness of people”. The theory also forms the fundamental foundation for the “Game Theory” (Cohen & Feigenbaum, 2016). It basically selects the activities that has been maximising the desired utility. At the primary level, the nature of the game theory is “consequentialist”. This is utilized for different insights and benefits for algorithms that are used in the webs or the everyday lives.

Conclusion:

The machines designed with AI perform various tasks in the real world. It can work as software agents and perform decision making very quickly. It maintains large provender of finance in everyday life. However, there has been rise in concern about its empathies and judging of ethical conflicts. The problems are sought by different online researches.  In the field of ICT or “Information and communication technology”, AI has been a subject of debate for the rising ethical dilemmas. The livelihood of humans under the management of this complex intelligent system is proved to an important ethical issue. The theory of utilitarianism could be further adopted for representing upgraded preferences in different levels of affairs.

 

References

Burton, E., Goldsmith, J., Koenig, S., Kuipers, B., Mattei, N., & Walsh, T. (2017). Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence Courses. arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.07769

Cohen, P. R., & Feigenbaum, E. A. (Eds.). (2016). The handbook of artificial intelligence (Vol. 3). Butterworth-Heinemann.

Eran Abramson, K. (2017). Ethical dilemmas in the age of AI. VentureBeat. Retrieved 3 May 2017, from https://venturebeat.com/2016/12/15/ethical-dilemmas-in-the-age-of-ai/

Ethical Issues In Advanced Artificial Intelligence. (2017). Nickbostrom.com. Retrieved 3 May 2017, from https://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/ai.html

How Powerful AI Technology Can Lead to Unforeseen Disasters. (2017). Fortune.com. Retrieved 17 March 2017, from https://fortune.com/2017/02/06/artificial-intelligence-ethics-disasters/

Luxton, D. D., Anderson, S. L., & Anderson, M. (2015). Ethical Issues and Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Behavioral and Mental Health Care. Artificial Intelligence in Behavioral and Mental Health Care, 255.

Nilsson, N. J. (2014). Principles of artificial intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann.

Pistono, F., & Yampolskiy, R. V. (2016). Unethical Research: How to Create a Malevolent Artificial Intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1605.02817.

Strong, A. I. (2016). Applications of Artificial Intelligence & Associated Technologies. Science [ETEBMS-2016], 5, 6.

Top 9 ethical issues in artificial intelligence. (2017). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 17 March 2017, from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/top-10-ethical-issues-in-artificial-intelligence/

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