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Classification of Hazardous Waste

Question:

Discuss About The Applications Of Re Using Hazardous Wastes?

Late decades have seen a checked upsurge in mechanical and monetary development, adding to an enhanced personal satisfaction and prosperity for residents. In any case, we ought not dismiss the way that each generation framework makes side-effects and waste items which can influence the earth. These impacts may happen anytime in the item's life-cycle, in the case of amid the underlying period of acquiring crude materials, amid the change and generation stage, amid item appropriation or when the end client must discard items which are never again required.

Hazardous waste can be classified into three categories as generalized, exclusionary and inclusionary. Generalized HW affect living things and property adversely, exclusionary HW affect are those wastes excluded by sewage systems and landfills. There are three types of inclusionary HW namely, Generic, Constituents and Characteristics (White and Heckenberg, 2011). Such wastes can be managed in an environment friendly manner by minimizing its generation in a systematic and scientific manner (Saxena and Gupta, 2008). Another method of waste management is by re-using the generated wastes. Wastes can be used to replace construction materials like coarse, fine and cement aggregates depending upon their specific gravity and fineness. The pH value of HW is high thereby increasing its reactivity by varying the temperature. The strength of HW containing pozzolonic properties are high due to plasticity and fineness but reduces the durability.

Civil Engineering development movement is continuously connected with new improvement and ventures. This can be a lodging venture, modern framework control plants, docks and harbor works and so on., expansive amounts of customary development materials like aluminum, steel, wood, stones, sand, earth, bond solid, blocks are utilized (Vigneswaran, 2009). Manageable advancement implies a pledge to finding what's more, utilizing assets that are sustainable, for which there is a critical need to reuse waste materials which are accessible after devastation and recharging of old structures (Zule et al., 2007). Likewise, other mechanical and agro-squander materials could be suitably used in civil development works. Along these lines, the strength of these materials and the monetary suitability of such applications needs further examination.

An imperative clear favorable position is that with reusing of stone, total, blocks and so forth quarrying and digging for stones, and will be diminished. Along these lines the earth surface can be additionally, spared and natural unsettling influences on record of this movement would diminish. For illustration, crude material for blocks fabricating is absolutely earth based. Reuse of blocks implies lesser potential outcomes of expelling fruitful earth, soil grass cover and forestation. This will limit ecological obliteration in finished all terms. With expansive volume of building works, and the urgent need to meet the demands, it is watched that there can be expansive uncontrolled development of block ovens, contributing to ecological decay.

Managing Hazardous Waste in an Environment Friendly Manner

Different types of waste materials namely rice husk ashare, reclaimed asphalt pavement, crushed glass, silica fume, cement kiln dust, steel slag, blast-furnace slag, fly and bottom ash, ground tire rubber and tire shreds used in civil engineering applications (Prezzi et al, 2011). As the usage of these wastes increase the exploitation of natural resources decrease. Some of the industrial wastes that are used for construction purpose are (Ramesh et al, 2014).

  • Silica fumes obtained during the production of silicon alloys and could be used in cement production.
  • Copper slag obtained during smelting and refining of copper could be utilized as a substitute for Portland cement.
  • Red mud produced during the production of alumina powder from Bauxite using Bayer’s process could be used as mortar, bricks and in production of cement.
  • Fly ash produced by thermal power plants which could be used as additives for producing cement.
  • Recycled aggregates could be used in road and building construction, rail projects, flood defenses, geotechnical works and so on (Gagan and Arora, 2015).
  • Generation of new employment opportunities by creating new field of work.
  • Reduction in usage of natural resources.
  • Reduction in the necessity for disposal site for disposing the waste materials.
  • Reduction in emission rates which is generated during the transportation and production and of construction materials.
  • Decrease in environmental damages caused due to the disposal of waste materials.
  • The cost related to the purchase of new raw materials is also reduced.
  • Reduction of global warming and pollution.

There are a few impediments and that's just the beginning investigate is expected to investigate further conceivable outcomes, financial matters related to reuse of these waste materials should be evaluated effectively. The closeness of uncombined bond what's more, different pernicious substances can make issues. The broken surfaces left in blocks and totals may create powerless zones and the sturdiness of such reused material is directly hard to evaluate (Selvam and Gopalakrishna, 2016). Hence, the present uses are restricted to nonstructural application and development works.

The reuse of waste materials could be significantly more confounded than the reuse of items that were not disposed of and gathered in any case, since they cannot be effectively expelled from controls on squander administration if the consequent proprietor discovers them important (Safiuddin et al, 2010). The sensible reuse of waste can be esteemed as an unlawful practice just in light of the fact that the substance was called squander in any case, as exemplified in law contends there is something incorrect regarding any loss as a potential natural risk since items and materials which are hazardous could be treated as potential risks to the environment.

Studies have been carried out on the application of waste rubber aggregates in concrete. The studies focus on the evaluation of mechanical properties and durability of concrete by mixing concrete and rubber and testing specified shapes made from the material. (Ismail and Hassan, 2016).  Crumb rubber was used as the replacement for fine and coarse aggregate. The rubber aggregate could enhance several properties of concrete such as energy absorption, strain capacity, impact resistance ductility and so on (Ismail and Hassan, 2016).

Adding or reusing hazardous wastes in building construction has improved the quality of building construction as suggested by the following works

  • The load carrying capacity of concrete increases with the addition of solid waste fibers (Malagavelli and Paturu, 2011). The properties of aggregates improved by applying a coating of waste plastic over the aggregates.
  • The durability of cement is increased by the addition of fly ash. If fly ash is used properly, then the cost of cement could be saved which would reduce the cost of consumption. Lime-fly ash concrete could be used to construct semi-rigid pavements (Sagar, 2007).
  • The required characteristics of concrete could be achieved by using recycled aggregates (Dhir and Paine, 2010). The performance of Crushed gravel could be reproduced by using recycled aggregates (Marius et al., 2011).
  • The toughness of rubberized concrete was very high but the strength of rubberized concrete decreases with increase in rubber content. As the amount of rubber in concrete increases its strength and modulus of elasticity decreases (Zheng et al., 2008). Addition of rubber in concrete also improves the cube compressive strength density and workability of concrete if it is added as over requirement but beyond a point addition of rubber to concrete would create a negative impact (Mavroulidou et al., 2010).

This is fundamental on the off chance that you need to limit the amounts of materials required for the work. Reuse and recuperation functions admirably on structural designing activities which produce expansive amounts of waste like structures, asphalts and earthworks (Mehta et al, 2014). You ought to consider reuse and reusing of materials on location before bringing in materials with high reused content, for instance:

  • Icy reusing of asphalts.
  • Pounding and screening arising for use as reused totals.
  • In-situ remediation or epitome of polluted land.
  • Utilizing geosystems to empower utilization of material on location.
  • Treating soils with cementitious specialists and utilizing using pressurized water bound materials.
  • Fabricating soils nearby utilizing pas 100 manure.
  • Adjusting cut/fill amounts.
  • Outlining site design to utilize existing geology and highlights.
  • Reusing existing establishments, floor sections, asphalts, structures and waste.

Reuse of Hazardous Waste in Civil Engineering

The evaluation of Crumb rubber as a potential replacement for fine and coarse aggregate indicated a rise in the following properties of concrete namely toughness, flexural stiffness and deforming capacity (Ismail and Hassan, 2016). The only constrain was that the percentage of crumb rubber added should not be greater than 20%. (Ismail and Hassan, 2016). With increase in percentage of crumb rubber the properties named above tend to reduce beyond acceptable limits.

Engineers can work with temporary workers to distinguish regions where squander is probably going to happen and contribute plan choices and activities to lessen squander through acquirement, for instance:

  • preparatory outline organizes - explore alternatives that are easy to develop and limit squander
  • nitty gritty outline arranges - create work successions and material coordination’s designs that will limit squander
  • programming - guarantee work is productive, dodging superfluous waste by over the top modify and accepting the open door to reuse material

Outlindecisions amid the definite plan stage will prompt the era of waste nearby - the determination of work estimate for strengthened cement and the particular of geo-synthetic. You can apply techniques to decrease squander through the accompanying:

  • Design - planning auxiliary components which can be developed effectively
  • Specification - composing more tightly particulars of work techniques to keep away from squander and permit the utilization of reused materials
  • Contracts - empowering early contractual worker inclusion

You ought to empower the consideration of duties regarding diminishing waste in contracts all through the inventory network.

Conclusion

The reuse of hazardous wastes in civil engineering applications is a direct result of the prevention of these wastes from being dumped into landfills, the lower cost contrasted with conventional development materials and appropriate engineering properties of the materials. There are a few issues that emerge with the reusing of waste materials. The natural effects related to the reuse of these materials are of prime concern. A decent dominant part of the materials demonstrating potential for reuse originate from modern waste sources. These materials will ordinarily have some natural concerns related with reusing them in civil engineering applications. The strength of the waste materials could be improved by calcination process. The required properties of normal concrete require proper water content. There are chances that the reused materials reduce the durability of the final product. More work has to be done to evaluate the actual performance of the products.

References

Dhir, R.K. and Paine, K.A. (2010). Value added sustainable use of recycled and secondary aggregates in Concrete. Indian Concrete Journal. pp. 7-26.

Eslamian, S. (2016). Urban Water Reuse Handbook. London: CRC Press.

Gagan and Arora, S. (2015). Recycled Aggregates: A Sustainable Solution of Construction and Demolished Waste. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. pp. 58-63.

Ismail, M.K. and Hassan, A.A.A. (2016). Performance of Full-Scale Self-Consolidating Rubberized Concrete Beams in Flexure. ACI Materials Journal. 113(2), pp.207-218.

Malagavelli, V and Paturu, N.R. (2011) Strength characteristics of concrete using Solid Waste–an experimental investigation. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. 4, pp. 937-940.

Marius, T.M. and Tadu, A. (2011). Use of recycled aggregates in Rigid Pavement construction. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Lasi Bulletin. pp. 70-78.

Mavroulidou, M. and Figueiredo, J. (2010). Discarded tyre rubber as concrete material: A possible outlet for used tyres. Global NEST Journal. 12(4), pp.359-367.

Mehta, G., Mehta, A. and Sharma, B. (2014). Selection of Materials for Green Construction: A Review. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 11(6), pp. 80-83.

Prezzi, M., Bandini, P., Carraro, J.A.H. and Monteiro, P.J.M. (2011). Use of Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Civil Engineering Applications. Advances in Civil Engineering [online]. Available at: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ace/2011/896016/ [Accessed 11 Sept. 2017].

Ramesh, M., Karthic, K.S., Karthikeyan, T. and Kumaravel, A. (2014). Construction Materials from Industrial Wastes – A review of Current Practices. International Journal of Environmental Research and Development. 4(4), pp. 317-324.

Safiuddin, Md., Jumaat, M.Z., Salam, M.A., Islam, M.S. and Hashim, R. (2010). Utilization of solid wastes in construction materials. International Journal of the Physical Sciences. 5(13), pp.1952-1963.

Sagar, A.K. (2007). Use of locally available materials: Fly ash for road construction works. New Delhi: India Infrastructure Report.

Saxena, A.K. and Gupta, Y. (2008). Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems [online]. Available at: https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C09/E1-08-20-00.pdf. [Accessed 11 Sept. 2017].

Selvam, P.N. and Gopalakrishna, G.V.T. (2016). Recycle of E-Waste in Concrete. International Journal of Science and Research. 5(4), pp. 1590-1593.

Vigneswaran, S. (2009). Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies. Oxford: EOLSS Publishers.

White, R. and Heckenberg, D. (2011). What is Hazardous Waste and what makes it hazardous? School of Sociology and Social Work University of Tasmania [online]. Available at: https://www.utas.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/193413/Briefing_Paper_2_What_is_hazardous_waste.pdf. [Accessed 11 Sept. 2017].

Zheng, L., Huo, X. and Yuan, Y. (2008). Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, and Brittleness Index of Rubberized Concrete. Journal of materials in Civil Engineering. 20(11), pp. 692-699.

Zule, J., Cemec, F. and Likon, M. (2007). Chemical properties and biodegradability of waste paper mill sludges to be used for landfill covering. Waste Management & Research. 25(6), pp. 538-546.

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