Discuss about the Applications Single Case Research Methodology.
As rightly put forward by Benoliel & Somech (2014), leaders who necessarily use participative style achieve better employee performance than the ones who do not. Essentially, analysis of literature also reflects that path-goal leadership styles can help in predicting commitment of diverse subordinates and consequently lead to enhanced performance of employees. Lam et al., (2015) reflected that participative leadership behaviour can be considered to be effectual for attainment of high level of performance of employees as the leader checks with diverse subordinates in the process of illuminating, clarifying and achieving higher goals. Prior academic evidences also reflect that there is considerable correlation between four different styles of path goal leadership and performance of employees. However, the current study intends to critically analyse the overall impact of participative leadership style on the overall performance of employees operating with special reference to hospitality industry in Australia.
As correctly mentioned by Miao et al., (2014), performance of employees is primarily affected by the style of leadership and exerts impact on the capability of employees in attaining corporate objectives as well as goals. As such, a specific leadership style that can motivate employees can be considered to be critical for attainment of high-quality performance as noted by (Ghaffari et al., 2017).Sougui, Bon, & Hassan, (2016) mentioned the fact that the four path goal theory of style of leadership that is to say directive, supportive, participative as well as achievement-oriented essentially had a considerable effect on performance of employees particularly in Telecom Engineering Companies operating in Chad. Again, in Kenya, Newman et al., (2016) examined the fact that the path goal theory leadership style also directed the way towards better engagement of employees that again in turn gave way to superior performance of employees in the horticulture industry in Kenya. Finally, Hwang et al., (2015) found out that style of leadership of a specific manager affects the job performance of diverse employees either in a negative or else a positive manner.
The problem of poor level of performance of employees can be perceived as the inability to performing different defined duties, meeting specific deadlines, attainment of employee competency and effectiveness and efficacy in executing work (Northouse, 2015). Different business concerns require strong styles of leadership that can stimulate the performance of employees. However, some corporations such as tractor factory encounter issues namely poor level of innovation, low level of productivity, incapability to meet performance objectives (Iqbal et al., 2015). In essence, this problem occurs owing to inadequate strategic interventions of particular leadership styles to the specific situations was also forecasted as the problem was constantly affecting performance of employees.
Participative leadership can be indicated as the independent variable for the study. According to Choy et al., (2016), the participative leadership essentially possess counselling behaviour namely imploring assistants for specific ideas before arriving at final decisions, even though they retain final judgment authority. Essentially, the participative leadership also shares different duties with assistants by encompassing them in the process of preparation, formulating decisions and implementing diverse phases. Saleem et al., (2015) asserts that employees who are properly motivated also tend to become self-directed and generate an enthusiastic team, in that way bestowing a more consistent team as well as ownership among members of team. In effect, the participative style can be regarded to be suitable at the time when different subordinates replicate a non-subsistence of judgement or the time when procedures are not followed. Basically, this particular leadership style is also regarded as the most effectual at the time when diverse subordinates can be considered to be highly trained and engaged in the work. de Poel et al., (2014) found out the fact that participative leadership style also has higher degree of discussion between particularly a leader and their followers. Particularly, this can be chiefly observed when followers are engaged in the process of decision making by their specific leaders. In itself, this engagement can be viewed to be crucial for the attainment of higher level of performance that subsequently leads to higher level of commitment as specifically followers.
As rightly indicated by Hoch (2013), the primary emphasis of this particular style is mainly on consultation process of management with different followers prior to arriving at important organizational decisions. However, at the time when corporations enter into decision making procedures, the upshots from specific decisions made can highly impact the overall stability of the company and that of the firm’s employees. Choy et al., (2016) asserts that bringing different members of the staff on board at the time of arriving at decisions as regards the future of the corporation assists in strengthening the present association between them and company’s leadership. In this way, leaders of a business concern can gain respect from their sub ordinates and essentially instil a specific sense of liability in the entire workforce at the time when they let members of the staff to present their opinions and viewpoints.
de Poel et al., (2014) mentions about the advantages associated to this particular tactic takes in enhanced belief in the leaders by their followers. As such, leaders also make resolutions whilst keeping employees in the dark might lose the confidence of the subordinates. There are also certain members of the staff that might believe that that the corporation is keeping decisions regarding the future plans secrets as those plans secret as these plans consist of adverse outcomes for members of the staff. Again, this might in turn have a negative influence on performance of employees. Engaging employees in the corporation’s decision making procedure enable diverse leaders to bring transparency to the place of the work. Essentially, participative leadership also indicates towards employee motivation as particularly a building block to superior performance of employee. In addition to this, motivation of employees also plays a crucial role in effectiveness of leadership that leads to superior productivity.
As noted by Hoch (2013), the efficacy of leadership also rests on the procedure of influence, and in this case, members of the staff are stimulated to work towards specific goals, not through threats, but through individual encouragement. As rightly mentioned by Brinkmann (2014), motivation can be regarded as one of the most significant factors that can assist a corporation to attain organizational objectives. Motivation essentially can be defined as the degree to which relentless effort can be directed towards a specific goal. Again, Flick (2015) noted that motivated members of the staff characteristically believe that they are undertaking certain valuable activity and hope that their participation becomes valued. As rightly indicated by Choy et al., (2016), the Theory X and Theory Y are necessarily the theories on human motivation designed and formulated by Douglas McGregor in the year 1960. Essentially, they illustrate two different contrasting models on motivation of workforce.
In essence, the early motivational theories namely Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory observe corporations as complicated social systems in which behaviour of the members of the staff need to be under strict control as well as secluded from other facets. As such, Theory X and Theory Y deals with perceptions managers mainly hold as regards their workers but not the way behave (Saleem et al., 2015). It is essentially the attitude and not the characteristics. McGregor’s work is mainly founded upon Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in which he classified the hierarchy needs into both lower order (theory X) and higher order (theory Y). In essence, these two different opinions primarily theorized the way individuals view behaviour of human beings at work and organizational life. The management style is influenced by beliefs as well as assumptions regarding what inspires diverse members of their team. Again, in case if managers consider that members of the team dislike working and then managers might adopt an authoritarian management style. On the other hand, if managers suppose that members of the staff take pride in undertaking a specific job, managers tend to undertake a participative style. Northouse (2015) asserts that Theory X supposes that management style is 2 extensively accepted as poor to many, however it is considered to be beneficial in diverse large scale production operation as well as unskilled production-line operation. In itself, Theory Y management style is best suited to specific knowledge work as well as professional services. In essence, diverse specialized service corporations can naturally develop Theory Y type exercises by the nature of operations, while principles of Theory Y inspire sharing of knowledge and continuous upgrading (Iqbal et al., 2015). Again, leaders of successful, high growth corporations comprehend that innovations is what drives the overall growth. Hwang et al., (2015) consider that innovation is attained by remarkable individuals with a shared relentless growth attitude and shared enthusiasm for problem solving and for transforming ideas into actualities.
As rightly indicated by Newman et al., (2016), every corporation is essentially established with the aim to achieve certain aspects. Essentially, these aims can be necessarily attained by using resources such as man, machines, money as well as materials. Particularly, all the resources can be considered to be important, however, manpower can be regarded to be the most significant. In itself, this plays a significant role in undertaking specific tasks for accomplishment of the predetermined organizational objectives. In this case, the question arises in this matter that how the available resources of organizations can be utilized by the manpower.
In particular, the performance of employees on diverse jobs in close coordination is obligatory for the success of the entire business unit. However, employees undertaking diverse jobs in a specific corporation depend upon nature of operation in a corporation (Miao et al., 2014). Primarily, all the actions in a specific business are inter-related to attain the targets. In effect, these activities have the need to be performed by all the employees properly so that they can deliver the optimum output. Ghaffari et al., (2017) asserts that this can have great effect on the overall production, total sales, company profit, and progress as well as market position of the entire corporation in the market. Different facets such as skills, professional training, employee motivation, keenness and dedication, welfare, policies of management, diverse fringe advantages, promotion, and methods of communication along with salary are necessarily responsible for inspiring workers to work sincerely and deliver the best output. As correctly mentioned by Lam et al., (2015), the significance of performance of employees need to be understood by the company’s management and sincere efforts need to be put in that particular direction. In itself, the management of the corporation takes suitable steps in a specific direction that can help in developing and motivating individuals to undertake the tasks. In the end, the corporation might take a leading position in the market and grab the requisite opportunities available in the specific market. Appropriate performance management can take care of proper management of performance of members of staff of organization by maintaining, developing as well as motivating individuals at work to deliver better results.
Benoliel & Somech (2014) mentions that path goal theory is necessarily a notion based on specification of style of leadership or else behaviour that matches best with the members of the staff and work environment in a bid to attain the organizational goal. In essence, the path goal theory can help in understanding the task as well as environmental features, employee characteristics and path goal leadership. As per the path goal theory, members of the staff of a specific corporation can interpret the behaviour of the leaders based on the needs/requirements, namely the degree of structure required by the employees, nature of affiliation suitable for the employees, perceived abilities along with desire for control. For instance, in case if a specific leader delivers more framework than what is required, they tend to become less enthusiastic and motivated. Therefore, a specific needs to comprehend all the employees in order to understand the way that can inspire them best.
As rightly put forward by Lam et al., (2015), style of leadership essentially exerts an immense influence on performance of employees and lead to growth and positive attitude. Essentially, performance of employees is essentially influences by the style of leadership implemented and exerts influence on the overall capability of employees in attaining corporate goals. Miao et al., (2014) mentions that path goal styles of leadership counting directive, supportive, achievement oriented as well as participative styles exerts considerable influence on performance. However, participative style of leadership essentially a higher degree of consultation between leaders and the respective followers. The involvement can be considered to be important for achievement of superior performance of employees.
Examination of literature reflects the fact that path goal style of leadership can help in forecasting commitment of subordinates and subsequently lead to enhanced performance of employees. Ghaffari et al., (2017) discovered that a considerable positive correlation mainly between path goal leadership tactics and effectiveness of group of workers culminating into superior performance of members of the staff.
As rightly put forward by Newman et al., (2016), innovation can be founded on the capability of the corporation to detect market opportunities and subsequently build sustainable innovation organization from this. As per Hwang et al., (2015), there is presently an extensive agreement on the notion that a participative leadership style is essentially more probable to inspire innovation. Iqbal et al., (2015) argue that participative decision making is expected to inspire innovation. According to Northouse (2015), there is presently participative decision making style can be regarded as the suitable tactic for managers as many individuals participate in the procedure of decision making and a large number of employees thereby feel dedicated to the decision. Essentially, this can direct the way towards emergence of novel ideas and tend to do away with objections during the process of execution. Particularly, wide participation also makes certain that few features are disregarded and tends to lessen the trauma of major transformations. Assessment of associated literature also specifies the fact that employee engagement as well as participative decision making is not linked to but also essential for innovation. Newman et al., (2016) argues that participative decision making can be regarded as a base or foundation that can shape and organize the entire innovation team. As said by Ghaffari et al., (2017), innovation can be observed and executed as a prospect that leads to creation of novel or else different products/services. In the past decade several scholars have associated participative leadership with mainly innovation. Ghaffari et al., (2017) asserts that there exists positive correlation specifically between participative style of leadership and innovation and between participative leadership with team innovation. This in turn is anticipated to augment the overall performance of the organization.
Interrelationship between dependent and independent variable
Examination of the interrelationship between dependent and independent variable refers to study of the impact of participative leadership on particularly employee performance behaviour. Prior research studies as conducted by Miao et al., (2014) also replicate the fact that there subsists a significant association between participative leadership and performance of employees in a specific business concern. Essentially, leadership thus has considerable impact on worker’s performance and growth of corporations in general. Lam et al., (2015) also emphasizes about the specific correlation between independent variable (participative style of leadership) and dependent variable (employee performance). Participative management is said to directly exert impact on performance of employees that again contains contextual behaviours demonstrated by members of the staff in organizational framework. Newman et al., (2016) asserts that the path goal theory is necessarily a theory that is founded on specifications of style of leader else wise behaviours that goes well with both the employee as well as organizations.
Performance behaviour of diverse employees also indicates towards behaviour that is revealed by employees whilst they involve in organizational actions and jobs. The jobs can be associated to different efforts of attainment of organizational aims in terms of quality, efficacy as well as other criteria of effectiveness. Majority of business corporations utilize this terminology since this system of rating is used to determine diverse abilities, behaviour of work and employee output. Essentially, four different tactics can be detected in a bid to enumerate efficiency of a specific business concern. Accomplishment of different goals, acquirement of goals, internal procedures as well as personnel satisfaction can be regarded as the four important components of effectiveness. As correctly mentioned by Lam et al., (2015), participative management can be regarded as an important approach that can help in incorporation of primarily global as well as individual demands with corporations.
Choy et al., (2016) found out that impact of the participative style of management on augmented organizational efficacies is necessarily supported by diverse evidences. Several findings derived from both empirical as well as meta evaluation have stated the fact that the participative style of management necessarily enhances the performance of employees along with the level of satisfaction of job among the employees in their place of work. Founded on different studies, various scholars have registered evidences of the influence of participative management on performance behaviour of different employees particularly from the perspective of organizational commitment, overall quality of company’s customer service together with withdrawal behaviour of members of the staff. However, on the other hand, several studies have deciphered the fact that participative management has a strong association with the probability of augmented work attitude of workers. Essentially, there was also substantiation that self-autonomy, meaningful actions, secured feelings, and satisfaction of job might also become mediators of the impacts of the participative system of management on the performance behaviour of the employees. Again, it can be hereby mentioned that impact of participative leadership style on performance can also be mediated by way of fulfilment of positive attitude of work (de Poel et al., 2014). The alterations in the overall extent of self-autonomy, job security and feelings of satisfaction of job also direct the way towards enhanced performance of members of the staff in the place of work.
Based on the prior academic evidences on influence of participative leadership style on performance of employees, it can be hereby mentioned that high level of performance of employees can be attained when leaders engage in the process of decision making through constant consultation. The main emphasis of this particular participative style of leadership is on involvement of employees. The current study helps in understanding the fact that the important components of participative leadership style and management that include leadership, communication, decision-making, goal establishment, motivation and controlling. Again, the work attitude of employees includes self-autonomy, connotation of various tasks, feelings of security as well as satisfaction in job. Further, performance behaviour of members of the staff also included commitment of organization, customer service quality as well as withdrawal behaviour of employees.
Thereafter, the prior literature helps in understanding the nature of association between participative leadership pattern as an exogenous variable and different endogenous variables such as work attitudes as well as performance behaviour of members of the staff of business concerns. Therefore, it delivered a distinct explanation of the way participative management and leadership style can influence employee performance behaviour, accounting for a specific situational facets assessed both at the organizational as well as the individual level. In addition to this, the findings of the previous studies also suggest the direction of relationships among diverse variables mentioned in the study. The present study also registered strong evidences for reliable and considerable impacts of participative management in attaining higher levels of performance of employees in the work environment. Again, the impact was attained by both direct as well as indirect ways. Thus, by way of reviewing the literature the association between styles of leadership and performance can be observed. Majority of the studies also verified that style of leadership has a crucial association with employees along with performance of corporations.
The current study intends to present the research design, research approach and methods, process of collection of data, purpose of acquirement of data for arriving at business decisions taking into consideration rationale of the study. In addition to this, the current section elucidates in detail the entire population of the study, techniques of sampling, population and sample along with the process of analysis of data. Again, the research methodology might also include publication of research, research interviews, and surveys as well as other research techniques and that can include current along with historical information.
The current study includes both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods for the study. Therefore, for the identified purpose of the research study, a mixed method (that is both quantitative as well as qualitative) was utilized for the purpose of examination of associations between independent variable (participative leadership) and dependent variable (performance of employees) identified on the study. Particularly, this research design is defined as a specific process of collection and analysis of both quantitative as well as qualitative data of the present study in a bid to answer the identified problem of the study (Mackey & Gass, 2015). .
The adoption of the mixed research methodology can be said to be justified as this can assist researchers can help in gaining higher level of reliability of diverse responses and present objective conclusions regarding the causality of identified researched variables of the study. Essentially, in the present case, the learner can utilize quantitative data for the purpose of predicting the nature of association between the specified variables of the study (Taylor et al., 2015). In addition to this, the qualitative data can be collected by means of using qualitative research approach for the purpose of obtaining a realistic comprehension of the entire phenomenon.
Population, Sampling technique, Population sample (characteristics)
The target population of the study includes the number of respondents operating as managers and members of the staff of hospitality industry in Australia. The current study refers to a target population that is selected for the current study taking into consideration the rationale of the present study (Brinkmann, 2014). Essentially, the research population is also referred to as a well-defined collection of specific individual else wise objects that are also known to have certain similar characteristics/features (Glesne, 2015). Again, for the purpose of the present study, the learner has selected 100 employees from 10 firms operating in the hospitality industry. Therefore, the sample size of the study is selected to be 100 by means of simple random sampling where in a particular statistical population each of the members of has equal likelihood of getting selected.
The data utilized for the current study includes both primary as well as secondary sources of data. In this study, primary data is acquired by the learner of the study for the particular research purpose directly from the field of study. The learner has distributed survey questionnaire containing pertinent questions to target population and has conducted interviews for the purpose of collection of primary data (Flick, 2015). However, the investigator has also collected secondary data for the current study that refers to the data collected by previously by other users beforehand. However, the general sources of the secondary data collected for the study include organizational records, information from government departments, books, journals, official websites, company literatures and many others (Panneerselvam, 2014).
The learner utilizes both quantitative as well as qualitative data analysis technique for the study. The quantitative data analysis essentially refers to a process of systematically implementing statistical and logical techniques to elucidate, condense, recap and analyse data. Essentially after the process of collection of requisite data, it needs to be processed as well as evaluated. The process of analysis includes editing data, coding, categorization and tabulation (Silverman, 2016). Fundamentally, quantitative data analysis mainly involves diverse techniques by which the investigator converts specific data to different numerical forms and undertake statistical analysis. For the purpose of the present study, the learner uses both descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics for analysis of data. Descriptive statistics can help in describing else wise summarizing a particular set of data that essentially can be a representation of the entire population or else a sample of the same. In essence, the study uses descriptive statistics that in turn help in describing data by means of statistics (such as measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion), graphical description (graphs as well as charts) and statistical commentary (detailed discussion of results) (Gast & Ledford, 2014). In addition to this, the current study also uses inferential statistics that includes t-test, correlation and regression analysis, analysis of variance (ANNOVA) as well as analysis of covariance (Panneerselvam, 2014).
Brinkmann (2014) asserts that different analytic procedures used for the study include library research that includes analysis of different historical records and evaluation of documents. However the techniques include recording of important notes, analysis of contents of the notes and analysis of themes. Intrinsically, this can help in development of important notion that can assist in understanding specific social phenomenon, understanding context, comprehending people and comprehending interaction (Glesne, 2015).
Ethical consideration can be regarded as an important segment of research. As per Glesne (2015), learner adheres to ten different principles that include ethical considerations as a consequence of evaluating ethical guidelines. Essentially, research participants necessarily need not be subjected to any kind of harm in any manner. The learner also needs to have reverence for particularly all the participants of the research and full consent need to be obtained from all the participants before the conduction of the study. In addition to this, the investigator also needs to ensure protection of privacy of all the participants of the research. Furthermore, sufficient level of confidentiality of the requisite data also needs to be ensured. Again, anonymity of diverse individuals as well as corporations participating in the research also has to be maintained. Panneerselvam (2014) asserts that the leaner also needs to keep in mind that any kind of deception or else exaggeration a regards the aims as well as objectives need to be averted. The affiliations of any sort, different sources of financing along with any probable conflicts of interests have the need to be pronounced distinctly. Any kind of communication in association to research also needs to be carried out by the investigator with integrity and transparency.
The total number of respondents of the study selected for the study from 10 firms operating in the hospitality industry is very small. Therefore, this might limit the overall coverage of the entire findings of the current study. In addition to this, the study excluded different academic leaders, thereby limiting the scope of the study. In addition to this, all the variables of management are also not included in the study for the purpose of investigation (Glesne, 2015). As a consequence of the above mentioned limitations, the outcomes/results of the current study are not particularly intended to be generalised into wider perspective for reform of the management.
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