1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.
1.2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.
2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors
2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods.
3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern.
3.3 Explain how disability may affect development.
3.4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern
4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition.
4.2 Explain how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication.
4.3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication.
5.1 Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development.
5.2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition.
1.1 Child development is a process, which involves mastering and learning new skills like sitting, talking, walking, eating, and holding objects (Feldman, 2009). Children learn all these skills within a specific period, known as developmental milestones.
- Birth-1year-suck and swallow
- 1-3 years-communicate by babbling and understand the world around them
- 7-12 years- tell jokes, solve problems
- 16-19 years- have mood swings, high level of skills in some areas
1.2 Sequence of Development is a definite pattern of development in a child. Even if some parts of the development are missed and involves development - both negative and positive.
Rate of Development is a period, which is linked to the age of the child development.
It is important to know the difference between these two, as it helps to recognize the Child's requirements during the stages of their development, and is essential to plan efficiently according to the child’s need.
2.1 Personal factors are intrinsic to the child influencing the development at an early stage. Other factors are,
- Genetic Influence can trigger a disability.
- Children with a physical or mental disability are mostly discriminated at school, which will shape their self-confidence and affect their learning capability and maturity.
- Learning Difficulties influences a child’s growth because children with learning difficulties require extra support (Henry, 1994).
2.2 External factors have extensive effects on a child's growth. Some of the factors are,
- The child’s family needs to provide him with an inspiring and motivating atmosphere for better growth.
- Friendship assists a child to learn and resolve divergence, assist efficiently and subtle relationships.
- Peers influence a child's decision, morals, likes and dislikes.
- Nutrition is needed for child’s proper growth, like calcium, protein, fats and important minerals.
2.3 There are quite a few Theorists that gave us diverse types of experiments and factors regarding the growth of the children’s behavior, reactions and habits of learning.
The theory of physical development explains that most physical skills are not taught, but is automatic in our inheritance, which means that child will gain knowledge of different physical dexterity when his/her body is prepared to. In current practice, we maintain this by encouraging the child, but not forcing him to expand his physical skill.
3.1 Assessment of development in children and young people helps psychologists, to see why a child or young person is not budding as expected which might be due to impairment. Assessment framework by observation on a daily basis and an improved check when the child is aged amid two and three.
Different professionals use a variety of standardized dimensions to observe and measure the children's growth. Like Growth assessments, Reasoning assessments, auditory assessments, and Cognitive aptitude assessments.
3.2 Children come across issues in their lives, which can have a constructive or depressing influence. Some reasons are,
- Physical factors
- The social, economic and cultural factors.
- Poor parental care
- Learning needs
- Health status and Disability
- Personal choice (living in a particular place, travelling)
- Ethnic beliefs (might feel isolated and discriminated)
- Housing and Community
- Educational upbringing
- Bereavement and loss
- Religious beliefs and customs
- Communication skills
3.3 The similar impairment can influence each child in a different way. Disability may affect development in following ways,
- The society we live in should alter to provide the children with disability a chance to connect with the society.
- Cultural differences
- Low opportunity for children and young people with disability,
- Deprived of the opportunities.
- Low in self-confidence and self-worth due to the stereotyping and bias.
3.4 To ensure that children and young people achieve their full potential, some of the interventions are given below,
- Behavioral Support Service (BEST) to promote good behavior and provide support, to improved educational outcome .
- Speech and language therapists, to assess and treat speech, language and communication problem and to allow children to communicate to the best of their ability.
- Psychologists to offer advice and giving counsel to children.
4.1 Early recognition includes the assessment and healing provided to children who have risk of a disability. A child can swiftly fall behind if verbal communication and language learning is deferred. Early recognition increases the probability of recovering communication skills (Catts, 1997). Children identified as at-risk or high-risk, should be tested early and at regular intervals. Other risk factors include:
- Diagnosed therapeutic conditions
- Natal factors
- Genetic defects
- Neurological defects
- Developmental disorders
4.2 The brunt of poor verbal communication goes crossways a child’s growth and impacts on their capacity to communicate feelings and desires (Heaslip and Hewitt-Taylor, 2014). Therefore, multi-agency teams are organizing children to be ready for such situations. They are using some techniques,
- Assessment commenced by the skilled Speech psychotherapist.
- The Speech and Language Drop for a full evaluation
- I-CAN assessment tool (to review communication levels),
- Speech and Language Therapy (SALT) assessments
4.3 Play enlarges the capability to envisage and prepare the child for afterwards life when playing out actual life events. Play allows children to enlarge their perception, skill, approach and realization (Irwin, 1975). Play assist to develop speech, language and communication as it helps;
- Making preferences and a conclusion
- Using one’s individual ideas and thoughts
- Practicing skillfulness and learning new
- Developing and coordinating body, mind and brain
- Acclimatizing knowledge and skills
5.1 A transition is a transformation from one stage to another.Children and young individuals naturally pass through numeral stages as they develop and grow. They also deal with changes like association from kindergarten to primary school and from primary to secondary school. Such changes are normally referred as transitions.
Transitions influence all areas of the growth of children and young people:
- Personal experiences
5.2 Children and young people can have positive and constructive effects due to optimistic and therapeutic relationships throughout periods of transition (Roberts, Fenton and Barnard, 2015). Like;
- Experience affectionate, protected, unwavering and safe associations
- Value opportunities, construct positive and significant interactions
- Helping them handle the burden of transition
- Directed to enhanced long-term outcomes
- Easiness in the situations that was difficult earlier.
Catts, H. (1997). The Early Identification of Language-Based Reading Disabilities. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 28 (1), p.86.
Feldman, R. (2009). The Development of Regulatory Functions From Birth to 5âÂ€ÂƒYears: Insights From Premature Infants. Child Development, 80(2), pp.544-561.
Guyon, A. (2007). Assessments: Speech and language therapy. Nurse Residential Care, 9 (10), pp. 486-489.
Heaslip, V and Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2014). Vulnerability and risk in children living with a physical disability. Nursing Children and Young People, 26 (10), pp. 24-29.
Henry, L. (1994). The Relationship between Speech Rate and Memory Span in Children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17 (1), pp. 37-56.
Irwin, E. (1975). Facilitating children's language development through play. The Speech Teacher, 24 (1), pp. 15-23.
Roberts, J., Fenton, G. And Barnard, M. (2015). Developing effective therapeutic relationships with children, young people and their families. Nursing Children and Young People, 27(4), pp.30-35.
Sanders, J., Munford, R. And Maden, B. (2009). Enhancing outcomes for children and young people: The potential of multi-layered interventions. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(10), pp.1086-1091.