This research proposal is an outline of the research with the researcher intends to carry out in the field of criminal justice. The research will address the question that why are there different patterns in relation to victimisation for men and women. The research will also address the question that whether contemporary discourses and theories of risk are useful for the purpose of understanding the nexus of crime and gender. Victimisation related to gender disproportionately concentrated in girls and women. The forms are inclusive of intimate-partner violence, sexual assault, trafficking for sexual exploitation and assault. Patters of victimisation include sexual, physical, mental or all (Ybarra, Mitchell and Kosciw 2014).
Objective and Subjective risks
It has been argued by Sentse, Kretschmer and Salmivalli (2015) that men are a greater risk as they may be victims and they are also perpetrators of crime globally. This is an objective risk. Men are victims of crime as they face significant sexual assault in prison from other men; they are also subjected to physical crime such as grievous hurt more than women. On the other hand as the subjective risk predominant focus is put upon gendered crime. When a crime is carried out in relation to a women it is highlighted more in the society than a crime carried out against a man. This is because there is a perception in the society that men are the preceptors of crime globally and the fact that they may also be victims is often ignored. Different forms of gender violence include sexual assault (including same sex), domestic violence and drug and alcohol related offences.
Theories of Risk
There are various theories of risk related to crime. These include the strain theory which provides that crime is committed because of pressure in the society. There are specific theories which related to victimisation of men and women. The victim perception theory provides that its fault of the victim that they have in the first place being victimised. It provides that women are more prone to violence as they have brought it upon them. The Patriarchal System also is a stimulator of crime against women as they are not provided any role in decision making.
Change over the years
However there have been significant changes over the years in the way in which crime is perceived. This is because there have been increased focus on crime targeted towards the women which have lead to decrease in numbers. However this has lead to ignoring the fact that men are not only preceptors of crime but also victims of crime.
Intersection of gender and risk
It has been stated by Ybarra, Mitchell and Kosciw (2014) that a person becoming a victim largely depends on the fact of the gender of the person a woman is subjected to high risk of being victimized as compared to a man. According to statistics provided by Cascardi and Avery-Leaf (2015) the probability of a women being subjected to the risk of sexual assault is 70 times more than a Man. Thus it can be evidently stated that the gender of a victim is directly related to the probability of their being subjected to a crime.
Outline of approach
According to Boza and Perry (2014) once there is crime in the society there are victims of crime. However not every person in the society is equally subjected to become a victim to crime. Thus there is no even distribution in relation to personal rate of victimisation with respect to the population. It has been found by various researches conducted that many factors known as correlates of crime have the potential of putting an individual to the risk of victimisation. These correlates include gender, race, marital status; age grouped as the demographic factors and other factors like temporal, spatial and neighbourhood factors. Certain groups of demography have more probability of being a victim as compared to others. For instance gender will result in a particular form of lifestyle and thus home life, recreation, work and schooling will have an impact on the individual’s association and exposure to dangerous places, people and time. Activists and theorists have called and named attention with respect to the increase in number of various forms of gender victimisation and crimes related to sexual orientation and harassment. It has been noted by them that there is an overlap between controlling and oppressive behaviour which are not addressed in civil and criminal law but these are a part and parcel of constellations of behaviour which include illegal actions. For instance, hampering the self image of a partner may not be illegal; however the patter of belittling and criticism is mostly connected to physical abuse (Boza and Nicholson Perry 2014). There have been various theories which have linked gender to the fear of crime which even though may be connected to the victimization experience but is a different influence on the life of people. The research will therefore take these factors into consideration to address the research question by taking approach provided by the above discussed theories.
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