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Audit Committee Effectiveness And Fees

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Discuss about the Audit Committee Effectiveness and Fees.



The research is about gender and audit committee effectiveness and fees. The study will discuss the research topic in detail along with the views of other authors regarding the research topic. Apart from that, research questions are set for the research topic, which is considered as the base of the research process. The research proposal will describe a detailed conception about the gender representation in the audit committee effectiveness in controlling audit fees. The research methodologies that will be used in conducting the research are mentioned in the research proposal. A section of ethics is done so that the research maintains the ethical considerations. Data collection methods and data analysis methods that will be used in conducting the research process will be mentioned in the research proposal. The research outcomes are important while proceeding the whole research so that the conclusion can be derived easily.

Research topic

The research topic is gender representation in audit committee effectiveness and fees. It is an important topic for research, that has vital significance in the corporate world. Audit committee is present in every big multinational company. The role of audit committee is to control the internal functions of the company and management activities. The audit committee effectiveness depends on successful controlling the practices and policies that are used in controlling accounting, operations and regulatory compliance of business entity. The topic has significance because it is seen that if female corporate executives are included in the audit committee, then the result of the audit is more effective. There are many positive implications of female representation in the audit committee as it is related to produce a quality audit report in order to protect the auditors from reducing audit fees and audit time. However, it is seen that female audit committee representation has impacted on the audit fees and audit quality.


Literature review

According to Harjoto et al. (2015), corporate governance in terms of audit has extensive impact on the determinants of the audit delays and audit fees as it focuses on the board diligence, characteristics and expertise. However, the authors support gender diversity in the effectiveness of the audit quality and the firms in Australia. The journal article suggests that ethnicity diversity and gender diversity influence the firm’s audit delay and audit fees. Female CEOs are more sensitive than male CEOs in the corporate executive board and in the audit committee. Therefore, it is responsible for women in some sensitive cases of market pressure and audit delay.

As per Beck and Mauldin (2015), there are many regulations that are responsible for negotiating and determining the audit fees. The article illustrates that CEOs and other members of the audit committee irrespective of gender are in charge of controlling the regulations of the audit report formation. In the time of recession, it is seen that the audit fees are seem to be reduced in larger amount. CEO of a company and the audit committee members has more or less same power regarding the power of negotiation of audit regulations and audit fees. However, CEO has more power in some aspects in the perspective f rules and regulations (Sun and Liu 2014).

As stated by Huang et al. (2014), the female CEO and higher executives that are associated with the audit committee of the organizations are recognized in terms of higher audit fees. It can be seen that CEO controls the implication of the policy in the effectiveness of the audit committee. However, female CEOs are though sensitive in many issues but are efficient in many activities of communicating with the employees before making an audit report. Many employees of the organizations support female executives in the audit committee for efficient audit report.

According to Xiang et al. (2015), women who are associated in the audit committee and board of directors of Chinese organizations have significant impact on reducing the audit fees. The relationship of the gender diversity and the audit fees has a direct relationship that has a positive impact on the different activities of management. It is seen that when the management of the company is weak, then the gender diversity is associated with very less amount of fees. It can be said that audit committee is formed in a voluntary process that is different from that of developed countries of United States and United Kingdom. The cultural difference is a perspective where the developing countries are different from that of developed countries. There is a condition that the Chinese business women faces some issues while dealing with the internal business issues with the developed countries (Pucheta?Martínez and García?Meca 2014).

There are some limitations related to the research. The literature gap of the research is that the women in the business world face some issues in the audit fees in some aspects. However, the different views of the authors related to the gender biasness in the CFO level and in the CEO level are not sufficient to describe the fact of the equality in the audit committee. On the other hand, it can be said that the audit are important for multinational companies so that they can correct the wrong steps or the ineffective steps in the formation of audit committees.


Research questions

The research questions of the research are as follows:

What is the impact of gender diversity in audit committee effectiveness?

What is the impact of the female inclusion in enhancing the audit quality?

What is the role of gender diversity in reducing the audit fees in the big multinational companies?

Research Methodologies

Research methodology is defined as the theoretical analysis, systematic methods that are applied in the particular field of study. Research methodologies usually encompasses the analysis of principles of methods postulates and rules that are employed in the course of discipline of a research (Buckley and Waring 2013). There are different kinds of research such as applied research, basic research, problem solving, problem-oriented research, quantitative research, and qualitative research. In this research, quantitative research methodologies will be used for conducting the research regarding the gender inclusion in audit committee effectiveness (Coleman and Ringrose 2013). Quantitative research methodology is the best method of research that will yield to most effective result in this situation. Quantitative research methods include simple calculations, statistics of the data collected from different types of sources regarding the research topic. Inclusion of mathematical theories in the research methods will develop a relation between the empirical observations and the mathematical representation (Jonker and Kosse 2013). The use of statistics will increase the validity of the research outcomes that will be gained after conducting the data analysis and research process. Apart from that, secondary research methods will be used for completion of the research. It is seen that implementation of the proper research methodology will enhance the enrichment of the research outcomes (Takhar-Lail and Ghorbani 2015).

Research Process

Research process is defined as the process adopted the conductor of the research while conducting the whole research. Research process is a vital aspect that illustrates the way of completing the steps chosen for proceeding the research. After choosing the research topic, then the research methodology is selected. The research methodology suggests the process of data collection and analysis of the research. The data will be collected from secondary sources. It is very important to determine the research process so that the whole research can be checked in the process. There are four stages of research processes. They are inquiry, collection, organization and presentation (Buckley and Waring 2013). The process of searching the actual methods of research methodology is included in the category of inquiry. Collection includes the methods of data collection whereas the organization represents the data analysis process that is a vital aspect of the research process. It has to be kept in mind that there should be no errors in the process of analyzing the data so that the research outcomes satisfy the purpose of the research and answer to all the questions of the topic. The last stage is presentation. It represents the presentation of the completed tasks in the whole research (Lewis 2015).


Data Collection and Analysis

Data collection is defined as the process of collection of data for conducting the research. There are many types of data collection methods that are used by the observers in order to collect credible sources. The quality of the research outcomes depend on the quality of the data collected for the research. In this research, secondary data collection methods will be implemented. Secondary data includes scholarly articles and journals. The research topic that is being chosen has immense importance in business research topic (Creswell 2013). However, conducting primary methods of data collection will be a constraint while proceeding with the research. Secondary data will provide credible data that will help in analyzing the data in order to reach at a conclusion. However, data collection will be conducted at a regular interval that can serve the management purpose. Primary research methods are also included so that it can validate the secondary data that is being collected from the different executives associated in the multinational organizations of Australia (Cohen et al. 2013).

Apart from the data collection methods, data analysis of the research will be done by using the methods of quantitative analysis such as standard deviation, median and descriptive statistics. However, a new form of data analysis can also be used. The McKinsey consultants have developed an approach known as MECE principle or hypothesis testing can also be used for getting the answers of the research questions (Åkerlind 2012).

Expected Research Outcomes

The expected research outcomes will support the intervention of female executives in the audit committee effectiveness. Apart from that, the quality of the audit will also be enhanced if females are included in the audit committee in the big multinational organizations. If the research methodologies are implemented in the research process properly then it is expected that the research will provide an enriched analysis of the research topic regarding gender diversity in audit committee effectiveness and in audit fees (Sultana et al. 2015). The research process that is explained in the research process section is a vital aspect that will validate the research result. However, the expected outcomes of the research will support the gender diversity in formulating audit reports quality.

The primary mentor or supervisor of the research is the teacher or guide in the university. The supervisor has chosen the research topic that will help the readers in order to gain an idea regarding the audit committee effectiveness and role of the female corporate executives in the audit committees of multinational organization. Apart from that, the supervisor has provided an ethical checklist that will maintain all the ethical considerations of the research process (Nicol?escu 2013).



The research proposal for gender diversity is the in terms of audit committee effectiveness and audit fees are explained in detail. Various types of research methodologies that is present, among them quantitative research methodology is being selected for obtaining an enriched data regarding the topic. It is mentioned in the research proposal that the research will be conducted using the data collected from both primary and secondary sources. The credibility of the data depends on the sources that have been collected from trusted sources like Google Scholar. However, an ethical checklist is being filled so that they can fulfill the ethical considerations that are compulsory for conducting the research. It will be filled in the Appendix section of the study.



Åkerlind, G.S., 2012. Variation and commonality in phenomenographic research methods. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(1), pp.115-127.

Beck, M.J. and Mauldin, E.G., 2014. Who's really in charge? Audit committee versus CFO power and audit fees. The Accounting Review, 89(6), pp.2057-2085.

Buckley, C.A. and Waring, M.J., 2013. Using diagrams to support the research process: Examples from grounded theory. Qualitative Research, p.14.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K., 2013. Research methods in education. Routledge.

Coleman, R. and Ringrose, J. eds., 2013. Deleuze and research methodologies. Edinburgh University Press.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Harjoto, M.A., Laksmana, I. and Lee, R., 2015. The impact of demographic characteristics of CEOs and directors on audit fees and audit delay. Managerial Auditing Journal, 30(8/9), pp.963-997.

Huang, T.C., Huang, H.W. and Lee, C.C., 2014. Corporate executive’s gender and audit fees. Managerial Auditing Journal, 29(6), pp.527-547.

Jonker, N. and Kosse, A., 2013. Estimating cash usage: The impact of survey design on research outcomes. De Economist, 161(1), pp.19-44.

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, p.15.

Nicol?escu, E., 2013. Developments in corporate governance and regulatory interest in protecting audit quality. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, (2), pp.198-203.

Pucheta?Martínez, M.C. and García?Meca, E., 2014. Institutional investors on boards and audit committees and their effects on financial reporting quality. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 22(4), pp.347-363.

Sultana, N., Singh, H., der Zahn, V. and Mitchell, J.L., 2015. Audit Committee Characteristics and Audit Report Lag. International Journal of Auditing, 19(2), pp.72-87.

Sun, J. and Liu, G., 2014. Audit committees’ oversight of bank risk-taking. Journal of Banking & Finance, 40, pp.376-387.

Takhar-Lail, A. and Ghorbani, A., 2015. Market Research Methodologies: Multi-Method and Qualitative.

Xiang, R., Qin, M. and Peterson, C.A., 2015. Gender Diversity of Audit Committees and Audit Fees: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 7(2), pp.239-254.

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