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Autocratic Leadership Manifest In An Organization Add in library

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Question:

How does Autocratic Leadership Manifest in an Organization (Subway)?
 
 

Answer:

Abstract

The paper talks about the leadership style i.e. autocratic style. How the autocratic style of leadership is manifested in the selected organization called as “Subway”. Leadership is known to be the heart of the organization. It includes taking actions and giving advice to the representatives about what to do. Somebody needs to regulate, lead, oversee, and rouse the workers. In this way leadership includes deciding the course, giving requests and directions, and giving supervision. The more viable the leadership process, the more stupendous will be the commitment of subordinates to hierarchical objectives. The leadership of the organization should accept responsibility for attaining organization’s objectives and, in the meantime, need to assemble a productive atmosphere that is helpful for predominant execution. Along these lines, each association needs capable and compelling leaders at all levels a solid general administrator, as well as solid chiefs and centre directors

Research Purpose/Objectives/Research Questions

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. The research has attempted to answer the following research questions: how effective is the role of leadership in reducing staff turnover; how effective is typical autocratic style of leadership; how effective is typical demographic style of leadership; and how effective is the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles.

Research Design/Method/Data Collection/Analysis

The research design was adopted in this research in the form of inductive. The research method was applied in the form of quantitative. Further the data was collected using questionnaire based survey. Moreover the collected data was analyzed using both simple and standard statistical tools.

Key Findings/Implications

The role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. Further in most cases managers and staff of Subway always think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. Moreover in most cases for managers and staff of Subway encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty. Further in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. In most cases for the managers and staff in Subway, they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization. Further in most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job.

Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Leadership is an important concept and is widely studied across the disciplines. It is an important resource for any group or organization and is displayed though a wide range of talents and abilities (Bláha, 2005). As such, there have been multiple theories proposed to explain the concept. Still, it is very difficult to point at one theory as the best theory for the understanding of leadership. According to Bláha, (2005) this difficulty arises from the complex nature of human behavior which in turn leads to complicated responses from human beings to a given scenario.

As per Bláha (2005), one of the most basic functions of a manager is to lead people. As such, at a basic level a manager is also a leader who has the knowledge of management and who can motivate his team. A manager is also expected to understand that every individual being possesses different set of abilities and skills. Also, they should be able to utilize the traits and habits of their team members in order to mentor them in their career growth and developing their qualifications.

As such, the ability to lead people (i.e., leadership skill) and management are often confused as being the same concept. It is not wrong to say that leadership is a very important aspect in management and also that the high performing managers are also good at leading people. But, equally important is the acknowledgement of the fact that both these concepts are different from each other (Gonos and Gallo, 2013). According to Weibler (2004) the primary objective for the contemporary research on leadership has to concern with defining what precisely is meant by the term “leadership”.

UK has been undergoing economic slowdown since last few years, like other parts of Europe. This has also caused increase in the unemployment rate (Angelis, 2013). Restaurant business is linked with general economic conditions prevalent. So, the Subway restaurants face the challenge of remaining alert as well the issue of managing its demand and inventory. As Ryan and Jones (2009) point out, the employee turnover rates keep fluctuating which affect sales.  As such, the issue of leadership and leadership style is a critical issue for not only the Subway restaurants, but any business in the sector.

According to Angelis (2013), the estimated size of the UK restaurant industry is more than £40 billion. The consumers enjoy the offerings from the food industry through numerous channels. As far as the high-end segment of the industry is concerned, the brand power holds the sway. The casual dining sector faces a target market which is cost conscious and aware about following the best values. This segment does not want to make any compromise regarding quality.

The industry is very diverse in nature. Restaurants can be found to cater to wide range of customers. So there are fine dining restaurants, which boast of high flying clientele, to quick service restaurants and 'takeaway' outlets. Restaurants are categorized on the basis of their clientele or the type of their service, like fine dining, casual dining or quick service restaurants or on the basis of cuisine which they usually serve, like Chinese or Mexican.

Restaurant managers who follow an autocratic leadership style like to take decisions without inviting consultation from other team members (Robertson, 2014).For instance, restaurant manager with inclination towards autocratic style can decide to make a new item as an addition to the existing menu without consulting with his chefs. In certain situations, like dealing with the suppliers, an autocratic manager will be able to take quick decisions, and as such his decision-making skills will be appreciated. However, as per Robertson (2014), subordinates working under an autocratic leader often tend to feel undervalued as well as unappreciated for their efforts. As a result, restaurants having autocratic managers might experience relatively higher staff-turnover rates.

On the other hand, according to Robertson (2014) restaurant managers following a democratic leadership style, like to practice delegation of authority to their subordinates. For instance, a democratic manager might grant freedom to his wait staff on issues regarding handling the discontented consumers. The authority to handle such challenges or situations will instill among the wait staff a feeling of accomplishment with respect to their work. One possible disadvantage is that certain subordinates may get carried away by this empowerment and may act in arrogant manner to the consumers or fellow staff members.

1.2 Aims &Objectives Of The Research

The study undertakes to study how the autocratic leadership manifests in an organization, with special reference to Subway restaurants in the UK.

The main reason for undertaking this research study was to understand the leadership and team work variables in the fast food industry and how do these variables have an effect on the fast food industry.

1.3 Research Questions

In this regard the study will try to examine:

  • How effective is the role of leadership in reducing employee turnover in fast food industry?
  • How effective is autocratic style of leadership in fast food industry?
  • How effective is demographic style of leadership in fast food industry?

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to define the concepts and review the literature relating to three issues as following: how effective is   the role of    leadership in reducing employee turnover in fast food industry; how effective is autocratic style of leadership in fast food industry; and how effective is   demographic style of leadership in fast food industry. The topic that the paper is focused on is concerned with the manifestation of autocratic leadership at restaurants, with special reference to the Subway restaurants in the UK. As such, the literature review would require going through the concept of leadership. This has to be followed by a brief review of various theories and approaches on the concept of leadership like traits theory, other modern theories, leadership styles and the impact of culture on the leadership. Subsequently, the concept of autocratic leadership would be discussed. This discussion has to be followed by the leadership in the fast food industry in the UK.

2.2 Concept Of Leadership 

According to Northouse (2004), leadership can be understood as a process of persuading others and producing visions for change.  Kouznes and Posher (2011) opine that leadership requires skills and abilities which are useful irrespective of a person’s position.

The initial discourse on the leadership, before the turn of the last century, tended to focus on the dimensions of personality of the individual leader.  These theories, in fact, did not concern themselves with any dimension of the relationship that was existent between the leaders and their followers. According to Bass and Stogdill (1990), the Chinese discourses dating as early as 600 B.C. as well as the legends from Egyptian and Babylonian civilizations along with the works of Plato were all concerned with the inherent qualities of great leaders. As such, the leadership was considered as to be emanating from the leader to reach the followers. The theories which fall under this kind of approach are the great-man theory, trait theory and skills theory (Kouznes and Posher, 2011).

In the modern times, as opposed to the conventional theories, there emerged new theories which undertook to study the behavior of the leaders. These theories studied the styles of leadership and proposed that the most effective style of leadership is determined by the circumstances rather than by following a given set of leadership traits and skills emerging under a different situation. Such studies also established that, the leadership style for working inside a given framework was a result of the interaction between the leader and the followers (Kouznes and Posher, 2011).

Fulham (2005) opines that a vast number of researchers have concluded that leadership as a process is social influenced. According to Yulk (1994), leadership refers to influence processes which determine how the followers interpret the events, the choices made by the organization concerning its objectives, the motivation among the followers to accomplish the objectives, maintenance of   cooperative relationships, and the support and cooperation garnered from the people who do not belong to the organization.

Given this background, Perry and Bryman (2006) have listed influence, group and goal as the primary elements in understanding of leadership.

According to Stippler et al. (2011), leadership is a “social phenomenon” which can be found everywhere. According to Peter Northouse (2007), leadership refers to a process through which an individual (leader) can inspire a group of people (followers) to accomplish common objectives. Stippler et al. (2011) agree with the premise that leadership can be considered as a process through which a leader can promote change and that the process includes the actions of the leader combined with those of the followers along with the prevalent situation. According to McGovern (2008), the followers are those who provide support to the vision of the leader and as such, are the main objects of leadership.

2.3. Importance Of Leadership Strategy

Performance of the organization depends upon the strategies adopted by the leaders of the company. Effective leaders would be able to handle the unpredicted changes that can affect the continuity of the business. Changes are mandatory for the successful business performance. Through great vision and mission, it is possible for the companies to adopt and implement the changes that are necessary for the business development. The prepared plan has to be effective, as this would help in implementing the right steps through which the necessary changes can be imposed (Allen and Babbie, 2010)

Strategy associated with the leadership factors is associated with the ability of the company to work towards the goals set by the management. The force that drives the goal achievement differs, and the same is identified through leadership strategies. Objectives of the company have to be related to the methods that have been intended to be followed by the management for the goal achievement (Amabile, et al. , 2004).

In order to accomplish the tasks associated with the goal achievement, the leaders have to analyze the level of product, business units, relationship between different departments, and others. After analyzing the factors, it is essential to analyze the skills and other factors that are required for the execution of the tasks that has been set forth by the management. In this method the competency level, skills, and knowledge base are considered (Austin, 2003). Leadership culture also includes the practices that have been used by the leaders for accomplishing different tasks that has been set forth by the managed.

In a good management practices, the cultural factors associated with the strategy preparation and others are taken into consideration. The leadership position for this has to be analyst. This would encourage the members to adopt the change strategies, encourage the adoption of the innovative strategies, help the staffs in performing well at the organization, and others (Avogio et al., 2004). The goals have been defined with an objective of achieving the same. In this process, the challenges and other factors associated with the goal achievement has to be analyzed. This would help in achieving the desired task, and implement the change procedure that would be useful for the management (Babbie, 2003). 

2.4. Strategies and leadership

Just like the business strategies, leadership skills require analysis of the situation. In this process, the issues and other challenges that are associated with the production activities are analyzed (Bell, 2010). This has been done with an intention of improving the production activities. It is essential to co-ordinate the services rendered by different departments. For this, there has to be an effective plan through which the required changes and implementation of the same can be done (BERA, 2012).

The strategies that drive the forces required for the execution of the tasks has to be analyzed. This would help in implementing the changes that would be useful in accomplishing the task. The number of efficient leaders required for the company, along with the qualities possessed by the leaders needs to be evaluated.  Skills and knowledge based behavior has to be analyzed, as this would help the company in implementing plans that are required for the business execution. In the generic competency level, the behavior of the leaders is analyzed. Specific behavioral factors are associated with the competency level and the functions that have been decided by the management (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). In the general style of leadership factors, the leaders are expected to have the same or similar knowledge and ideas for performing the challenging tasks at the workplace. In this process, the capabilities, skills, and knowledge of the leaders have to be monitored. The leadership skills and other factors that are associated with the uplifting the quality of the services has to be analyzed. The barriers in case any has to be analyzed and sorted out by the management. Through effective strategies, it is possible for the leads and the management to work towards filling the gap that exists between different leadership strategies adopted for the developmental plan. The drafted policy has to be communicated with the members or the teams from different departments (Burnett, 2009).

2.5. Leadership culture and performance

Leadership culture is one of the key attributes that contributes towards the successful business operational activities (Carson, 2007). The leaders play an important role in implementing the changes that are required for introducing the changes. In the degree of independence the dependence or the interdependences are analyzed. The collective behavior of the leaders has to be monitored, as this would help in introducing the changes and implementing the action plan that are required for the successful business conduct. In this case, the leadership style matters a lot, as it would help in the business development and introducing the changes that is required for success business conduct. The leaders are expected to accept responsibility, and grabbing the opportunities that would help in the business development. Through this process, the improvement steps have to be implemented in the right manner. The tasks that are expected to be performed by different members have to be analyzed, and the changes intended to be implemented by the management has to be communicated (Carson et al., 2007).

2.6. Developing plan for implementing leadership strategy

The leadership strategy depends upon the strategy adopted by the company to evaluate the business objective sand strategies that has been decided by the company. Leaders analyze the challenges that are involved in the process of business or evaluated so as to encourage the people to work towards the goal achievement. Leaders are entrusted with the task related to the developing intimacy, through which the business strategy for retaining efficient staffs for the company is retained. The key driving forces or factors are evaluated, as this would help in the business development. Facts collected by the company are analyzed and the leader’s work towards implementing the best steps for achieving the goals that has been set forth by the company (Carte et al., 2006).  

The key driving force has to be identified, as this will help in the leadership strategy construction. Choices for making the decision has to be selected after analyzing the challenges involved in the process. With the required knowledge and information, it is possible for the leader to develop an effective strategy that would help in implementing the right steps that will be useful for the business (Chen et al., 2007). The investment intended to evaluate the organizational outcome, which will help in implementing the growth and profitability strategies. It is necessary for retaining the talent, which will increase the efficiency for the production activities. Recruiting new staffs is quite expensive, and thus plans needs to be introduced for positively influencing the decision making. The factors affecting the business strategies have to be analyzed through which the best policies and steps can be introduced for the people (Creswell, 2012).

Key driving forces

Some of the key driving forces for the business performance have been mentioned below –

  1. Determining the sustainable competitive factors that would be exclusively suitable for the business.
  2. The key value propositions and the critical factors contributing towards the success have to be used by the leaders.
  3. Develop strategies for the present and the future business goals and developmental process (Creswell, 2012).

With the help of the strategies, it is possible for the leaders to make the decision that is necessary for the business development. Companies work towards customer satisfaction and thus, the leaders play an important role in the business development. However, key driving force for customer satisfaction is not the key factor that would contribute towards the business development. In this case, the management needs to take effective steps that would help in implementing the steps that would increase the customer satisfaction level. Through effective strategies, the management work towards lowering the production costs (Dackert et al., 2004).

Implementation of the key development strategies

The companies work towards developing the cultural sensitivity is required to be analyzed by the leaders. In this case, the skills and the leadership factors have to be delayed. This includes understanding the importance of the cross-cultural relationship building process. It would help in the business development, which is requiring for the successful business operations (Dahlin et al., 2005).

The skills and resources required by the company have to be analyzed with the help of the resources that is held by the management. In this case, the talent or experienced staffs for the company has to be analyzed. This would help in implementing the steps that would be useful for the business success. Leaders have to analyze the changes that would benefit the company (Day et al., 2004).

Leadership strategy has to be implied in the right manner, as the company will be able to analyze the opportunities and handle the challenges. The driving forces help in the development of the business. Through the leadership development process, the company attempts to implement collective leadership factors that would benefit the management (DeRue, & Hollenbeck, 2007).

Through high-level strategy implication program, the leadership strategy is defined and communicated with the members. In the next step, the strategy has to be identified and the current and the future situation have to be analyzed. Through this process, the steps that would have to be followed for execution of the tasks can be determined. With an effective leadership skills and practices, the leader can analyze the various factors that can affect the future goals of the project that has been decided to be implemented by the management. Based on the complex situation, the leaders would gather the required data and analyze the same. Variables that can impact the business decision can be evaluated. This is done to analyze the challenges and develop new and better skills through which the changes can be introduced (DeRue et al., 2008).

Data collection

The quality of the data required for execution of the business objectives has to be decided and implemented in the right manner. For this, the quantity of the data collection process like the workforce planning, scenario building, and HRIS data has to be evaluated. This can be done for the department and the whole business. Both the process is quite important as it would help the management in implementing the steps that is required for the execution of the task (Dionne et al., 2004).

The qualities required for assessing the value of the data has to be analyzed. This can be done through the standard process that has been adopted and implemented by the company. The assessment of the data can be done from the assessment centers, which has been introduced by the management. Leadership style for assessing the personality profiles of the management has to be analyzed. This would help in managing the talent, and improving the quality of the production activities (Drach-Zahavy & Somech, 2001).

Skills and behavior helps the leader in introducing the best steps through which the changes required for improving the quality of the production activities can be introduced by the management.  In this process the career profiles like the experience and qualification of the staffs has to be analyzed. The data collected needs to be tested in an effective manner. Also, surveys and interviews can be conducted with the staffs and the managers working with different departments. This will help the leaders to find the loop or the inconsistency with the system. The other challenging task is associated with the process to identify the competency level and implement the best assessment method (Druskat, & Wheeler, 2003)

In the collective analysis, the leaders work in groups, and review the performance. This has been done to analyses the areas that need to be worked upon by the management. Interviews with the staffs have been conducted, to find the exact reason for the delay or improper task performance. Through such a process, it is possible to develop and implement an effective strategy that will help the leaders in developing positive and long lasting relationship with the staffs and the managers of the company (Edmondson, 2003).

In the leadership cultural factors, the leaders are expected to conduct assessments on different factors. This would help in implementing the changes that is required for accomplishing the task that has been determined by the managers. Through the employee survey method, the challenges and opportunities are outlined by the management. The observation is gathered by the leader and it is communicated with the managers. With the help of the focus group interview method, the future goals and the tasks has to be outlined by the management. The document analysis is conducted to find the steps that have to be followed for introducing the changes for introducing the changes that is required for improving the production activities (Einstein, & Humphreys, 2001).

Risks associated with high labor turnover

The biggest challenge for the company is handling the risks that are associated with losing efficient and qualified staffs. Recruiting new staffs is an additional expense for the company. The workforce reduction by 1 per-cent increases up to 30 per-cent increase in the staff turnover. Thus, it is necessary to adopt and implement the best policies through which the retention level can be maintained at the lowest possible extent (Eisenbeiss, van Knippenberg D, & Boerner, 2008).

Motivational factors play an important role in retaining the staffs with the company. With the help of the retention program, the company can improve the insight and creativity for the management. The programs are drafted and implemented in an effective manner, as this will help the company to achieve the target that has been determined by the management. Through this process, the employees and the extensions have to be analyzed. It is essential for encouraging the staffs to perform better at the workplace, and encourage the members to work towards achieving the goal achievement (Easterby et al., 2008).

At the time of implementing the strategies for leadership, it is essential to determine the costs involved in the implementation the same. The time along with the budget has to be analyzed, as this would help in determining the changes that has to be implemented by the management. Some companies don’t feel the necessity for analyzing the budget for introducing the strategy leadership factor. The cost per staffs for introducing the changes or strategy leadership differs for various organizations. Apart from this, the external factors associated with the implementation of the process have to be analyzed. This would help in developing and implementing the steps that are required for introducing the changes. Through this process, it is possible for the companies to introduce the best development practices that would help in the business development (Elenkov, 2002).

Through the policy adopted for development of the strategy, it is possible for the team and the leaders to analyses the reason for introducing the changes required for developing the business. In order to motivate the staffs, the leaders have to constantly work towards building positive team and encouraging the members, to work towards the goal achievement (Eys, Loughead, & Hardy, 2007) For this, it is essential to communicate with the team members and interact about the challenges that are faced by the staffs. Through this process, it is possible for the management to develop and implement effective steps through which the right steps can be introduced by the leaders. Through conversation, the intervention program can be developed and introduced by the management. This is required for developing the values and beliefs of the team efforts. Such a factor would encourage the staffs to work towards the goal achievement and constantly improve the performance. Issues associated with the talent retention have to be analyzed, as this will help in retaining the staffs for a longer period of time (Fridah, 2002).

Unless the company adopts and implements an effective strategy, it is not possible to improve the performance for the company. Retaining the important staffs for the company is a challenge for the leaders and the management.  Based on the complex situation, it is necessary to introduce an effective change program. This would help in motivating the staffs and encourage the members to work towards the goal achievement. The changes have to be introduced, after analyzing the uncertainty and distraction that can affect the business strategies. It is essential for the management to encourage the staffs to increase the production activities, and for this the employee commitment is required (Fiol, & O’Connor, 2005). Developing plans for motivating the staffs is an important factor, and the leaders has to adopted and introduce the best steps through which the required changes can be introduced for improving the performance. Better plans for retaining the staffs, would save considerable cost for the company. Employees work for recognition and work improvement. This is possible by introducing financial incentive plans for the staffs. The rules and policies governing the same have to be communicated with the members. This would help the company in encouraging the staffs to perform better at the workplace. The critical factors associated with the staff performance have to be analyzed. Plan has to be developed with an intention of retaining the staffs and encouraging them to work for the development of the company (Foti, & Hauenstein, 2007) 

The standards adopted by the leaders for identifying the efficient leaders for the company is important for the leaders. Through this process, the management of the company can draft the best policies that would increase the business performance. However, the process that needs to be followed for achieving the provided task is not easy, as it sounds to be. The key players for the company are not equal to the talented staffs working with the company. Thus, the management along with the leaders of the company are expected to analyses the perspective (Galanes, 2003). This would help in developing and implementing the strategies that will be useful for the business development. For this, the company needs to adopt and implement an effective strategy that would help the management to determine the key players. The performance and ability of the key players might not be equal to the best performing staffs of the company. However, it is important to realize the factors that can impact the performance of the staffs. The prime objective of the company is to develop and implement an effective strategy through which the required changes for the business development has to be developed. The key players hold an important position in the company. This also includes the stakeholders for the company. Role played by the key players of the company play a significant role in the business development (Gibson, & Vermeulen, 2003).

Strategies prepared by the company are a combination of the logical factors and other factors that would help in the business development. The number of the leaders is required to be analyzed. Such an examination would help the company in reaching the objectives. Through the straightforward planning and implementation of the workforce plans, the desired tasks can be achieved over the period of time. In this process, the cultural factors and other challenges have to be analyzed (Hackman, 2005). 

The selecting of the method to help the staffs in handling the challenging tasks involved at the workplace has to be analyzed.  For this, the management and the leaders can analyses the future expectations of the company. Through this process, the concept associated with the ‘future perfect’ needs to be developed and implemented. This will help in implementing the projecting the objectives, which can be integrated with the leadership culture of the company. The leadership culture involves analyzing the business strategy and the operational activities that are involved in the business development. Through this process, the behavior of the leader can be observed. The beliefs and the practices followed by the management and the leaders have to be analyzed. This would help in implementing the reinforcement procedure that is required for improving the performance. In this process, the factors that would benefit the stakeholders and the clients can be checked (Hackman, & Wageman, 2005)

Qualities of good leadership depend upon various factors. The experienced and qualified leader needs to understand the challenges that are involved in the execution of the tasks. In this process, the cultural factors of the company and the qualities of the leaders are important. Emotional intelligence is one of the important factors that would help in implementing the steps that are considered to be essential for improving the quality of the tasks. Through the feedback system, the management along with the leaders can introduce experimental process that can be used by the leaders to analyses the impact of the staff behavior on the performance. Leadership strategies can be used for defining the leadership cultural factors through which the tasks can be analyzed, and corrective steps can be introduced. The performance of the staffs can be analyzed, and the steps involved in the process can be analyzed (Harrison et al., 2003).

At the time of introducing new departments at a foreign land, the factors associated with the culture related to new leadership has to be analyzed. The strategies have to be developed have to be developed after analyzing the culture that prevails in the foreign land. Leaders play an important role in developing and implementing the corrective steps that would management in acquiring the determined task. The steps or strategies decided by the company would determine the factors that can either improve the performance or affect the performance for the company (Hiller et al., 2006).

Leadership and evaluation for turnover of labor

Development of an effective leadership strategy would help the management to introduce the required supportive system that would help in improving the performance of the company. In this strategy, the action plan has to be identified and communicated with the team members and the managers. The strategy related to retaining the staffs, and the corrective steps has to be introduced for improving the performance of the company. In this method, the development steps through which the leaders can implement the steps through which the performance can be increased. New leaders are expected to analyses the current situation that prevails at the workplace. The cultural factors has to be understood, as this will help in developing new and better strategies that would help in improving the performance for the company. For this, the individual and organizational assessment method needs to be introduced (Hills, 2007). Through such an assessment program, it is possible for the managers to gain awareness about the tasks that needs to be performed by the members. In this case, the information related to the task performance and the challenges needs to be evaluated. The leaders are expected to analyses or identify the talent that would encourage the staffs to perform the tasks. In the organizational level, the type of assessment has to be determined. The selection process would help the leaders in determining the steps that would have to determine for conducting the task. Leaders of the company play an important role in encouraging the members or the staffs for introducing the best development process that would help in accomplishing the tasks (Horwitz, & Horwitz, 2007).

Development of the individual development plans

This plan requires the leaders to introduce new and improved developmental plan that would be useful for the company. Effective plan for the business development includes comprehensive and covering program through which the labor retention method can be introduced by the management, along with the leaders. In this method, the individual leader analyses the challenges involved in the process of HR representative or the managers needs to be developed. With the help of the learning experiences the leaders can improve the performance through which the tasks can be analyzed and introduced. In this case, the external and internal factors affecting the business performance can be analyzed (Humphrey et al., 2007)

In this process, the retention of the staffs needs to be planned and implemented in the right manner. For this, the leaders can develop and introduce the benefits that are related to improving the performance of the staffs of the company. In this case, the investment and the benefits that are associated with the changes that have been proposed to be introduced by the company have to be analyzed. The staff behavior has to be analyzed, as this will help in introducing the changes that would benefit the company (Humphrey et al., 2009).

The expectations of the key performers of the company have to be analyzed by the leaders. In this process, the best approaches have to be adopted and implemented in the right manner. For this, the relevance of the motivational factor has to be analyzed, as this will help in improving the performance for the company. The challenges related to the execution of the tasks, depends upon the circumstances. Leaders are expected to analyses the challenges and introduce the best steps through which the challenging tasks can be accomplished in the right manner. Thus better benefits and security has to be provided to the staffs. This would help in retaining the staffs and providing the best deals that would motivate the members to work towards the benefits of the company (Fisher, 2010).

The retention efforts drafted and implemented by the management can be associated with the people strategy. This includes analyzing the motivational factors that would help the management in acquiring the tasks that has been set forth by the management. The changes proposed by the management can be introduced by the management after analyzing the expectations and preferences of the clients. People strategy would help in the business development, which would help in improving the people management strategy. This includes analyzing and introducing better methods for recruiting the staffs and implementing the changes for value proposition through which the employee performance can be introduced. In this method, the identification of the key players and design developed for improving the performance for the company has to be introduced. Communication plays an important role in introducing the better steps through which the required changes can be implemented by the company (Gary, 2003). Best practices needs to be analyzed and introduced in the right manner. Through this process, the retention and engagement of the staffs can be improved by the company. In this method, the risks associated with the recruitment and training the staffs has been planned and implemented by the company. The needs and preferences for the company have to be evaluated, as this will help in analyzing the tasks and responsibilities of the staffs has to be communicated with the members or the staffs. The tasks performance has to be evolved and the changes expected to be introduced has to be communicated with the members on a timely manner. Through this method, the changes introduced by the company can be analyzed and the corrective steps can be used for benefitting the company (Harrison et al., 2006).

Changes introduced for improving the performance has to be analyzed, as this includes costs. The benefits associated with the process has to be analyzed, as it would help in developing and introducing better steps through which the changes can be introduced by the management. Retention of the staffs is one of the most important factors, and thus many companies work towards improving the performance that has been decided by the company. For this, the challenges involved in the process of introducing the changes needs to be planned and implemented in the right manner. Leaders are expected to analyses the problem and solve the issue in an effective manner. Through this process, the negative aspects of the policy change can be analyzed and corrective steps can be introduced. This would benefit the company and encourage the leaders to increase the performance for the company (Jackson, Joshi, & Erhardt, 2003).

Steps that needs to be followed for implementing the changes include –

Identifying the key players role

It is necessary to draft and implement an effective policy through which the key player’s role in the development of the company can be identified. The changes intend to be introduced by the company, as this will help in the skills or the knowledge that would play an essential role in uplifting the performance of the staffs. Key players play an important role in the development of the company and introducing the better steps that would help in encouraging the staffs to perform better. The leaders need to analyses the competitive offers that have been provided to the staffs or the key performers of the company. In this process, design for comprehensive retention, motivational programs, and other factors has to be analyzed. The critical skills need to be analyzed, as this would help in improving the performance and the salary trends that would satisfy the customers (Jandaghi,2005).

Motivational program

In this method, the different motivational program through which the staffs can be encouraged to perform better at the workplace. Through this process financial incentives broader engagement process and non-financial measures that needs to be followed by the company has to be analyzed. Through this process, the expected changes have to be determined and the same needs to be implemented in a decided manner. Communication process is quite important, as this will help the management to implement the corrective steps that would help in introducing the changes that are required for improving the performance of the staffs. The designed program has to be communicated in an effective manner as this would help in implementing the steps that would benefit the company and the management (Kaiser et al., 2008).

Monitored the process

The designed program has to be evaluated, as this would help in the implementation of the corrective steps that would help in the improving the performance for the company. Program development has to be done after analyzing the expectations of the company, and the future plans. Through this process, the creative methods can be introduced by the management and the leaders in introducing the required changes. The design needs to be useful for the management, and help in accomplishing the tasks that are associated with the task performance. In this process, the value creation method has to be developed and implemented by the management. Through this method, the design can be evaluated and effective measures can be introduced by the management. The leaders in the human resource play an important role in developing and implementing the steps that would benefit the company. The steps followed by the company have to be analyzed, at every stage (Kane et al., 2002).

Approaches Towards Leadership

The approaches towards leading people can be described in various ways. In the discipline of management, there are three basic approaches towards defining leadership and explaining the impact to the individuals (Bláha, Mateicius &Kaňáková, 2005):

  • define leadership in respect to individual qualities and features, in other words, the approach centered on the features or traits of the leader, and consequent traits or character theories,

  • examining the use of their own influence by the leaders, in other words, the approach based on the leader’s behavior and associated styles of leadership and

  • Examining response given by the leaders to the environment in which they operate, in other words, the situational approach to leadership (Keller, 2001)

 Traits Theory

As discussed above there are several theories associated with the explanation of leadership. To discuss all of them would be beyond the scope of this paper, yet a literature review in this regard calls for a quick glance across these theories. Till the 20th century, most of the discussion on leadership was revolved around “great men”. As such, this led to the development of great man theory. So, according to Stippler et al. (2011) the early literature on leadership like that of Carlyle, were on these lines. So in his essay named as “The Hero as King”, Carlyle was found urging the followers to respect their leaders who were not only able and had noble intentions, but also knew what was best for the followers (Stippler et al., 2011).

Another theory related to the discussion prior to the 20th century, is the ‘trait theory’ of leadership. According to Bass (2008), the supporters of the trait theory were concerned with the desirable and effective traits of a leader. This theory assumes that, the effective leaders are endowed with specific abilities and features which are stable, clearly identifiable, enduring and can work across a range of situations (Stippler et al., 2011). 

Stippler et al. (2011) point out that the review article by Stogdill published in the year 1974, pointed to ten such most clearly identifiable traits which were concerned with traits like assuming responsibility, taking initiative, self-confidence, ability to face the consequences, failures and frustrations associated with the task, etc. Even modern research works have also not totally refuted the trait theory. Some studies have even suggested that there are certain traits indeed, which are shared by the leaders. According to Wegge and von Rosentiel (2004) intelligence, endurance and extraversion are such traits. However, generally the scholars today are more or less not in total agreement with such theories. According to Luhrmann (2004) it is impossible for any researcher to compile an exhaustive list of all the traits required to lead in all sorts of situations. Besides, such theories overlook the role played by the followers and the situation in the success of a leader. These are the two main reasons as to why the traits theory cannot be supported (Luhrmann, 2004). 

Inspirational leadership factors

Inspirational motivational factors help the management and the leaders to handle the complex situation that exists at the workplace. Through this method, the leaders can develop and implement an effective strategy that would help in introducing the changes that would be useful for the management. In this case, the leaders play an important role in encouraging the staffs, after analyzing the suitable behavior of the individuals (Keller, 2006). The transformational changes intended to be introduced by the management has to be analyses, and communicated with the leaders. With the help of the management process and effective leadership skills, it is possible for developing and implementing better ideas through which the required changes can be implemented by the management and the leaders. The process intended to be introduced by the management has to be constantly reviewed. This would help in developing better ideas through which the changes can be introduced by the leaders. Leaders with the transformational skills are expected to behave in an effective manner, as this would enable the leaders to stimulate and take actions in an effective manner. The behavior of the staffs, management and the leaders needs to be optimistic, as this will improve the performance for the company. Through such a motivational factor, the management can introduce better methods that would enable the company to achieve the organizational goals. The leaders are expected to develop better methods through which the insight can be developed by the management. Insight has to be developed and communicated with the members or the staffs of the company (Kent et al., 2003).

 Through this process, it is possible for the company to develop and implement a factual vision through which the leaders can introduce the expected changes. In this method, the expected steps have to be interacted with the members and the corrective process can be drafted and introduced by the management. Such an insight has to be analyzed, as the decision made by different leaders varies from each other. It depends upon the hierarchy level that is involved in the process of execution of the task. In order to introduce the expected steps, the below mentioned steps has to be followed –

  1. Analyzing the future and drafting optimistic plans for  implementing the same
  2. Communicating with the members about the steps that need to be followed by the management (Klein et al., 2006).
  3. Analyzing the alternatives of perspectives through which the stated goals can be achieved by the management.
  4. Revealing the benefits that are associated with the tasks performance
  5. Deciding the steps that would benefit the company and interacting the same with the members (Knight et al., 2001).

Intellectual stimulation is one of the important factors that are associated with the transformational leadership features. Such a feature enables the leaders to analyses the challenges involved in implementing the steps that needs to be introduced for accomplishing the task. In the transformational leadership method, the leaders work towards encouraging the staffs or the followers in adopting creative methods for accomplishing the task. The members are encouraged to adopt and implement innovative strategies (Komaki& Minnich, 2002)

This will encourage the members to adopt and implement innovative thinning process through which the complex problem solving method can be introduced by the management. New and better methods to solve the problem will encourage the members to introduce the best possible means through which the tasks can be accomplished. As per the experts, intellectual motivational factors help in developing positive relationship between the staffs and the management of the company. Through this process the values and beliefs of the staffs are defined, as this will help in improving the performance of the company. The leaders work towards promoting the staff’s capabilities that would help in analyzing the challenges that are involved with the task performance. In this method, the issues has to be analyzed, and the corrective steps that would help in improving the performance (Kozlowski, & Bell, 2003).

Issues can be handled and sorted by the management by introducing better ideas through which the challenges can be analyzed. In the intellectual stimulation process, the below mentioned factors are analyzed –

  1. Analyzing the basic assumptions and reinvestigation the steps that are intended to be followed by the management (Kozlowski, & Ilgen, 2006).
  2. Evaluating the perspectives through which the problem can be sorted by the management.
  3. Selecting the better option through which the problem can be sorted out by the management.
  4. Motivate the introduction of the non-traditional thinking method through which the issues can be sorted out in an effective manner (Kozlowski et al., 2009).

Leaders encourage the staffs to adopt and implement an effective strategy through which the team and the staffs can be encouraged to work towards the goal accomplishment. In this process, the individualized consideration is one of the important factors that would help in developing the transformational leadership features. In this method, the expectations of the members have to be analyzed, as this would help in improving the performance quality of the staffs. Employees of the company needs to be supported by the members, especially by the leaders and the management, for this, the leaders have to analyses the severity of the issue as this would assist in implementing the corrective steps (LePine, 2003).

Leaders with the transformational leadership skills help the staffs to express the needs and challenges that are faced by the staffs. In this process, the talents of the staffs are explored, and plans are drafted to implement the required changes. This is one of the important responsibilities through which the task execution can be simplified. The leader attempt to handle the needs of every staff working with the company and solve the problem associated with the same. In this process, the transactional leader develops a matured and effective problem solving method through which the tasks can be accomplished (Marks et al., 2001).

The features of the individualized consideration basically consists of the below mentioned factors –

  1. Draft plan for coaching or teaching the staffs of the company
  2. Respecting the members of the team, and the members who are the part of the group (Martin, A., & Bal, 2006).
  3. Analyzing the needs of the individuals and implementing the corrective steps through which the preferences can be introduced.
  4. Draft policies to help the staff members to improve the performance of the company
  5. Helping the staffs to develop an effective method through which the individuality can be developed and implemented.

Such factors are required for improving the program that is associated with the team orientation. This is one of the most important tasks through which the challenges can be handled. Through this method, the management can also encourage the members to introduce steps through which creative ideas can be developed and implemented by the company. In this method, the management is encouraged to adopt and implement creative methods through which the challenging problem associated with the problem can be effectively handled (Mathieu et al., 2006).

The leaders are expected to provide the staffs with enough freedom to perform the tasks. At the same time, it is also necessary to introduce the best steps through which the staffs can be made responsible for the tasks that has been performed by the members. For this, it is essential to introduce an effective static style for leadership. The leaders also adopt and implement non-transactional method through which the undifferentiated situation can be easily handled by the management. Strategies adopted by various companies vary and depends upon different factors. Thus, the leader’s role plays an important role. Through this process, the managers and the leaders ensure to follow the corrective steps through which the members can be encouraged to perform the tasks that exist at the workplace. At the time of preparing the strategies for the company, it is essential to analyses the steps that need to be followed by the management. This would help in implementing the corrective steps through which the corrective measures can be introduced by the leaders of the company. The leaders have to interact with the staffs, as this will help in improving the tasks that are expected to be performed by the members (Mathieu et al., 2000)

Leadership thinking

Leaders have qualities that make them different from the others. With the help of the leadership qualities, the leaders can easily handle challenging situation, and navigate the followers to do the right things. Leaders are expected to build confidence with the members, and instruct staffs to work towards the goal achievement set out by the company. Leadership qualities can be also acquired through experience, knowledge, and experience. The acquired skills have to be applied in the executing of the task in the right manner.

Strategic thinking

Leaders are expected to possess the quality of strategic leadership. Through this method, the management of the company along with the leaders develops effective vision and skills. Managers as the leaders of the company are expected to understand the issues faced by the staffs at the workplace. Focus on the achievement of goals decided by the company is drafted by the leaders and communicated with the members of the team. Activities or tasks existing at the workplace have to be aliened. This will help in achieving the task on a timely manner. The success of the company depends upon the long term goals defined by the management. Leader encourages the staffs to achieve the goal that has been decided by the company. Issues associated with the cultural or demographic factors are also handled by the managers of the company. Through strategic thinking process, the managers draft the best policy through which the external factors affecting the business performance is analyzed. This is done to find the best solution, through which the solution to different problem can be found.

Communication skills

Leaders require effective and simple communication skills to interact with the staffs of the company. The selection of the words and sentences at the time of communication is one of the most important factors. Leaders are expected to develop writing and speaking skills, through which different challenges associated with the task execution, can be interacted with the followers. The communication method has to be open and fair. This will help in building trust and confidence with the members. Through effective communication process, it is possible for the leaders to develop mission and vision for the company.  This is also required for sharing the important information, about the goals for the company. Through this process, it is possible to achieve the desired goals and encourage the staffs to do the right tasks at the workplace. The message conveyance method, integrity, and honesty have being reflected through effective communication process. At the time of interacting with the members, it is essential to respect the members and understand the problem faced by the staffs. This will help in building the required trust, which is essential for positive work culture. Leaders need to boost the team efforts and promote the value of team work. Both the factors are quite important for the successful business operational activities. The expected challenges and other limitations can be interacted with the staffs through positive communication process. This will enable the leaders to solve the challenging tasks that exist at the workplace.

Implementing collaborative style

Experienced and qualified leaders work towards developing and maintaining positive and long term relationships with the staffs. This is done through cooperation method. In this case, ethical behavior of the leaders and the staffs of the company are defined and encouraged to be followed by the members. Through collaborative style, it is possible to inform the members about different tasks that need to be performed at the workplace. This will help in improving the decision and solving the complex problem that persists at the workplace.

Setting up of professional standards

Professional standards are one of the most important factors that surround the good leadership model. Through this method, it is possible to upgrade the ethical standards for the business and communicate the practices that are expected to be followed by the members of the company. Leaders guide and navigate the members of the company to follow the instructions imposed by the management. The growth of the company has to be continuous, and for this it is essential to develop and implement right type of strategy through which challenging tasks at the workplace can be easily achieved. Risks involved in the process of business management and execution of the task has to be interacted with the staffs. This will help in improving the quality of work intended to be performed by the staffs and the leaders of the company. This will help in improving the quality of services that is proposed to be rendered to the clients. Through constant interaction process, it is possible for the leaders to take the right decision that would benefit the company.

The leadership quality is not confined to few skills, which is acquired through education. Leaders face different challenges at the workplace, and for this it is essential to adopt and implement strategic thinking process. Through this method, it is possible to handle different challenging tasks existing at the workplace. The communication method adopted by the leader has to be analyzed. In this process, the communication style has to be simple and effective, through which the challenging tasks at the workplace, can be achieved. The communication style has to be 2 ways. In order words, the leaders also have to understand the problem faced by the staffs and find the better methods through which the issue can be handled. The flow of communication has to be simple and fast. This will help in communicating the task and the challenges involved in the process have to be analyzed. Through this process, it is possible to introduce an effective strategy for interacting with the staffs. This will help in solving the problem, without wasting much time on the same. The communication method can be in the written format or verbal format. In both the methods, it is essential to select one of the best methods through which the issue can be sorted out in the right manner. It is necessary to ensure that the message is conveyed to the followers in the best possible manner. This will help in getting the tasks executed on a timely manner.

Modern Approaches

In the modern times, there has been a significant focus on skills and behaviors which are not inherent but can be learnt and developed. It is important to mention Robert Katz in this respect whose article, “Skills of an Effective Administrator”, published in 1955, focused on leadership skills which could be developed. In his opinion, there are three types of skills which are required to be effective as a leader. These are technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills. While the technical skills were concerned with the specific knowledge about performing a task, the human skills enabled the leader to work with other people; the conceptual skills are related to developing and formulating “big-picture” ideas (Northouse, 2007; McGovern et al., 2008). The conceptual skills include logical and analytical thinking, ability to comprehend complex ideas, intuition, creativity, vision etc. (Northouse, 2007; McGovern et al., 2008). Others like Marks (2000) are reformulating the skills theory and stressing on the ability of the leaders to solve conceptual and organizational problems of greater scope and dimensions. Such research works have expanded Katz’s model into a more complex theory which proposes that a leader’s skills and competencies are influenced by his environment and experiences (Stippler et al., 2011).

Another theory of leadership, known as the behavior theory concentrates on the behavioral dimension of an effective leader, or what he “does.” The supporters of this theory believe that leadership does not come by birth nor does it require one to possess set of universally accepted traits (Penn, 2008). However, to become an effective leader one needs to follow the right behavior. Researchers have proposed that to be an effective leader, the behavior must be varying with the changing circumstances. In other words, one can always learn to act like a leader.

According to Hooijberg et al. (2010) there has been a wide ranging collection of theories studied which emphasize upon behavioral aspect of leadership. These theories range from Fiedler’s LPC theory to path-goal theory of House to Quinn’s theory of CVF (competing values framework) and transformational leadership theory by Bass. According to Grojean et al. (2004) the behavior of a leader is powerful exhibition of gestures conveying the expectations and values which determines the organizational climate.

In another progressive approach towards understanding leadership, Contingency theory suggests matching leadership style to the emergent situation. Two commonly known Contingency theories are Path-Goal theory and Situational theory.

Path-Goal Theory suggests that an effective leader helps the subordinates in achieving goals by motivating them. This he does by means of involving the subordinates in rewarding and meaningful tasks matching their skills and ability. The leader acts like coach. He provides them with direction and motivation; and also rewards them.

Situational Theory suggests that different situations require different styles of leadership. As such the leader must change his style accordingly and with the abilities of the subordinates.

The theory of transactional leadership, on the other hand, proposes that the leader and the followers have a contract between them. The follower is required to carry out the orders given to him for performing a task. In return, the leader gives away rewards for following the orders towards completion of the task. Transactional leadership theory proposes that people complete tasks only when they are assured of external rewards. Many people, however, complete the tasks and achieve the goals due to their own internal drive or motivation (Penn, 2008).

On the other hand, the theory of transformational leadership suggests that a leader engages others, creates environment of trust and makes a connection with the subordinates which leads to increased level of motivation and morale among the subordinates along with the leader himself (Northouse, 2001). Such leaders focus their attention on others and their needs to help them realize their potential. It can be said that, transformational leadership is concerned with the ability of a leader to have a vision which has importance for both the leader as well as the follower (Penn, 2008).

A new type of approach towards understanding the leadership emerged in the form of style theories of leadership. The supporters of this approach usually recognized two main classes of leadership behavior. These are task behaviors and relationship behaviors. Task behavior defines structure, identify roles and enable a group in accomplishing its goals. The relationship behavior on the other hand fosters cohesive relationship and enhances self-confidence among the group members by making them feel comfortable and acquainted with the environment (Northouse, 2007). The style approach seeks to understand as to how the two styles can be combined together to achieve optimum output (Stippler et al., 2011).

The later researches adopted an approach which focused on the differences in leadership style (Flaherty, Mowen, Brown, & Marshall, 2009).  According to Worsfold (1989), this type of approach presumed that the followers will work with more motivation for a leader who adopts a specific style of leadership. However, as Clarke, Hartline and Jones (2009) have opined, the identification of the leadership style which is most suitable has till now remained ambiguous. Style of leadership can have different connotations on the basis of concepts being represented (Bosiok, 2013). According to Yan and Hunt (2005), leadership can be defined as the result of the socio-cognitive process which people use to stereotype other people. It also involves the interpretation of the behaviors, traits, and features of the leaders along with the results produced by these leaders.

Leadership and Culture

There have been suggestions by various scholars that leadership is also shaped by the national culture. (Kim and Hancer, 2011)  Some studies have even argued that while there have been various studies to investigate the association between leadership and performance and that between culture and performance have been studied, there have been very few works towards the understanding of the three concepts (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000). A study by Lord, De Vader, and Alliger (1986)  has established that there have been consistencies among the leadership style within a specific culture, which in turn suggests that leadership style may differ significantly across different cultures.. As such on the basis of cultural background, an individual may make suppositions about his leader with respect to leader’s leadership style (Shaw, 1990). According to Hofstede (1993), societies having difference in cultural profile would exhibit difference in leadership styles (Kim and Hancer, 2011). Javidan and Carl (2004) held the opinion that culture is a valuable determinant in determining leadership effectiveness as it is not necessary that something which works in one culture, may not be effective in other culture.

Some scholars, however, are of the opinion that the term leadership style encompasses a spectrum of terms.  According to them, a leadership is style can be understood as a blend of traits, skills and behavior used by the leaders during their interaction with their subordinates (Lussier & Achua, 2010). According to Northouse (2008), the analysis of leadership from the perspective of leadership styles signifies that this approach concentrates solely on what the leaders do and how they tend to behave. When the core idea for understanding leadership is concerned with the leader’s behavior, leader’s influence on the employees and his actions, then the definition for leadership style would refer it to as the leader’s behavior in a group which is typical of him and is exhibited in the same as well as in various situations (Francesco, 2003).

There have not been too many studies undertaken to point out differences in the perceived style of leadership and results when the leaders and followers have either different or identical national origins (Testa, 2007). Further, there is even lesser number of research papers on this aspect in the context of restaurant industry (Testa, 2007).

2.7. Leadership Styles

In the existing research literature, we find a number of leadership styles. However, it is not worth here to mention and discuss all those leadership styles. In this context, it is notable here that Lewin describes three styles of leadership (Kippenberger, 2002):

  • The autocratic or the authoritative style– the predominant aspect of this model is the implementation of the resolve of the leader irrespective of the opinion of the subordinates. There is no place for the opinion of the subordinates. It is contingent upon the leader’s power. The leader has absolute power in the organization. So, they themselves take decisions, which are communicated to the subordinates. The leaders take all the decisions regarding remuneration etc., to motivate the subordinates.

  • The democratic or the participative style – This model involves a two-way flow of communication. Leader has a friendly attitude towards his subordinates. He consults with his subordinates and considers their opinions carefully. Such leaders also involve subordinates in evaluations and reward management.

  • The liberal style – Here, the leader gives considerable freedom to his subordinates to let them perform as per their job. He rarely uses powers vested in him. He depends on the subordinates to themselves determine their objectives, the ways to accomplish those objectives, as well as the implementation process. He helps his subordinates in procuring required information and also ensures that they interact with their external environment (Koontz, 1993).
According to Gonos and Gallo (2013), all these leadership styles can be understood as basic categorization of the leadership concepts. Practically, a leader does not remain confined to one style, rather chooses to adopt a style as the situation may require him to do so. 
 

The choice as to which style of leadership should be followed is contingent upon various factors like the personal goals of the subordinates, their personal characteristics as well as the work situation too (Krumm, 2001). Depending upon such circumstances, for example, in case of vague work instructions with an unmotivated employee, the leader will decide whether he has to be directive, supportive, participative or result oriented. .

Daft (2014), has pointed out that the early work leadership were limited in their approach towards understanding the concept of leadership in the sense that they were classifying the leadership approach in either autocratic or democratic framework. However, this, approach was abandoned by Tannebaum and Schmidt when they indicated that leadership behavior exhibited by different leaders were actually spread across a continuum, which in a sense was reflective of the different amounts of participation exhibited by the employees(Daft, 2014).

Some scholars have opined that there is some similarity between the leadership shown by concerned stakeholders and the team work regarding accomplishment of some objectives (Holt, 1992). Yet, the manner in which stakeholders assume leadership roles for the achievement of their goals and the methods employed by teams to accomplish their objectives are different. According to Holt (1992), the basic similarity between these is that both require some leadership. Even a team needs a member to assume leadership to achieve its objectives. According to Montes (2004), if the leader of a given team is unable to achieve the goals defined for the team, it can lead to a situation of disappointment and low morale among the team member despite possessing requisite skills and talents.

2.7.1  Democratic Leadership

The democratic style of leadership is connected higher employee productivity, higher job satisfaction, better involvement as well as commitment (Hackman & Johnson, 1996). According to Bass (1990) and Stogdill (1974) this style of leadership enhances member satisfaction and proposals for leadership. According to Denhardt & Denhardt, 2003, this style increases participation and thereby increases productivity, despite suffering from serious disadvantages like time-taking procedures and long lasting debates. According to Luthar (1996) participation is the fundamental feature of democratic leadership. So the model of democratic leadership style is based on a friendly, cooperative, and encouraging participation.

According to Kuczmarski and Kuczmarski (1995)  the chief features of a leader who follows democratic style are that he is knowledgeable, persuasive,  stimulating,  effective, encouraging,  a good listener, and he ensures cooperation etc. According to Gastil (1994) the features of democratic leadership are distribution of responsibility among the subordinates, empowering the subordinates and aiding by the decision-making process of the team.

Hersey and Blanchard (1984) argue that to be an effective leader, the leader adapts his leadership style according to the capacity of the subordinates to realize the task objectives (Langton &Robbins, 2007).  As such, the leader will select a type of leadership as per the maturity of the subordinates.

2.7.2  Autocratic Leadership Style

Various studies (Daft, 2005; Jogulu& Wood, 2006; Blau and Scott, 1963) have described an autocratic leader as very stern, directive (or instructive), and who can use his authority to control the reward system and coerce the followers to obey his commands. Such leaders tend to dominate all the decision making processes. They instruct and command their subordinates regarding what they are required to do and the manner in which they should be doing it. This often leads to the strangulation of the creativity among the subordinates. Some studies however, have found the autocratic leaders to be quite effective (Ansari et al., 2004).

Some of the advantages cited in the favor of autocratic leadership are that it enables fast decision-making, close supervision, streamlined work processes and complete control (Joseph, n.d.).

Autocratic leadership is characterized by four important features – important decisions are taken by the leader; the leader is mainly concerned with achieving the task objectives and has no concerns for the happiness or satisfaction of the subordinates; the leader does not prefer social interaction with the subordinates and lastly, he resorts to either punishment or threats of punishment to keep the subordinates motivated. The autocratic leader is focused on achieving the organization’s objectives “through” people which is in contrast to democratic leader who “achieves” the same with the people (Bosiok, 2013). According to Daft (2014), a democratic leader an autocratic leader believes in centralizing authority and draws power by virtue of his position, coercion and control of rewards. On the other hand a democratic leader believes in delegating authority, encouraging participation and depends on knowledge of the subordinates for accomplishing the tasks and their respect for influence.

In this section of the literature, the strengths and weaknesses of two specified leadership styles in the forms of autocratic and democratic or transformational are critically discussed. Both the leadership styles have positive and negative features and effects. However, both the styles cannot be effectual in every situation. In a task oriented working environment, it is autocratic style that may well be suitable; whereas in a people oriented working environment democratic or transformational leadership style may well be comparatively more suitable.

2.8 Leadership In Fast Food Industry

Fast food industry is characterized by high rate of employee turnover, where positive leadership role might effectively control employee turnover in a fast food organization. However this is possible only in the case suitable leadership style is adopted. However, it is unlikely that a particular leadership style would be suitable for every fast food company. In the obtainable literature there is found several old and new studies regarding the suitability of various leadership styles.

Daft (2014) opines that autocratic style of leadership works smoothly in the business of fast-food restaurants. He cites the example of Jack Hartnett, the president of the franchise owner of Sonic drive-in restaurants. According to Daft, Hartnett tells his employees in the restaurant to work as they are told to work and also that they are not expected to bring any suggestions. Daft (2014) suggests that fast food industry suffers from high employee turnover and also that most of the employees in the industry are either low on skills or very young. So this requires an autocratic style of leadership.

According to Montes (2004), a transformational leadership style is most suited for the firms which are dependent more on manual labor than the automated labors, and operate in an economy which lacks stability. But, Chuang and Judge (2012) feel that transformational leadership cannot help a firm in tiding over such scenario.  The fast food industry is heavily employee centered and is dependent vastly on its employees instead of automatic machineries for majority of its operations. However, it has been reported by several studies and reports that (the fast food industry faces a high rate of labor turnover (Gartensteinn, 2014; Brox, 2012; Katz, 1992). The chief reason behind this scenario is that the firms operating in this sector are heavily reliant upon the manual work of the employees who are not so well paid and do not get much benefits (Brox, 2012).

From the above findings it becomes apparent that in some cases it is autocratic style of leadership whereas in the other cases transformational style of leadership. In fact there is no uniformity in this regard. Considering this limitation in the current literature, this research attempts to make contribution in the current literature focusing on the issue as how effective is the autocratic leadership for Subway restaurants in the UK in relation to creating a constructive environment for   employees to work.

2.9 Summary

Both the autocratic and democratic or transformational leadership styles have positive and negative features and effects. However, both the styles cannot be effectual in every situation. In a task oriented working environment, it is autocratic style that may well be suitable; whereas in a people oriented working environment democratic or transformational leadership style may well be comparatively more suitable. Fast food industry is characterized by high rate of employee turnover, where positive leadership role might effectively control employee turnover in a fast food organization. In some cases it is autocratic style of leadership whereas in the other cases transformational style of leadership. In fact there is no uniformity in this regard. Considering this limitation in the current literature, this research step attempts to make contribution in the current literature focusing on the issue as how effective is the autocratic leadership for Subway restaurants in the UK in relation to creating a constructive environment for   employees to work.  In some cases it is autocratic style of leadership whereas in the other cases transformational style of leadership. In fact there is no uniformity in this regard. Considering this limitation in the current literature, this research attempts to make contribution in the current literature focusing on the issue as how effective is the autocratic leadership for Subway restaurants in the UK in relation to creating a constructive environment for   employees to work.  In the light of these propositions, it is examined in this research as how effective is leadership role in reducing employee turnover in fast food industry. The empirical research is conducted examining following three research questions: how effective is   the role of    leadership in reducing employee turnover in fast food industry; how effective is autocratic style of leadership in fast food industry; and how effective is   demographic style of leadership in fast food industry.

 

Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

In general research means search for knowledge (Fisher, 2010).It is also described as scientific and systematic search for relevant information on a particular issue or topic. Research can be referred as an art of investigating scientifically. For systematically solving research problem a proper Research methodology is needed for the research work like research papers, articles, dissertation and thesis. Research methodology describes the way to conduct a research scientifically. It covers several steps adopted by the researcher in the course of studying his research problem as well as the logic behind adopting them. Only knowing research methods or techniques is not sufficient for the researcher, he should know the methodology too. This report gives a comprehensive view of all the aspects of research methodology and its various types.

3.2 Research Design

3.2.1 Deductive

The focus of Deductive approach is on testing a concept or theory while inductive approach is aimed at generation on novel concepts and theories from the collected information and data (Saunders et al., 2012).He posited that it is mainly concerned with development of hypothesis on the basis of prevailing theory and then planning a research strategy to test this hypothesis. Deductive approach generally starts with a hypothesis whereas inductive approach generally constricted the scope of study by using research questions.

Figure 3.1: Deductive Approach

Source: Saunders et al. (2012)

It is also known as reasoning from the particular to the general. In case in a causal relationship appear to be implied in a particular theory it can be true in several cases and deductive approach test to verify if this linkage had been achieved on general settings (Saunders et al., 2012).

3.2.2    Inductive

The emphasis of inductive approach is on exploring new phenomena or earlier studies phenomena from different viewpoint. It is commonly associated with qualitative research whereas deductive method is generally associated with quantitative research but this is not mandatory. In this the researcher look for certain patterns form observations and generation of explanation as well as theories for describing those patterns by means of series of hypothesis (Bryman, 2011).

Figure 3.2: Inductive Approach

Source: Bryman (2011)

The purpose of the research and the taken research method determine the type of research design to be used.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. Furthermore, the research was focused to answer the definite research questions: how effective is the role of leadership in reducing staff turnover; how effective is typical autocratic style of leadership; how effective is typical demographic style of leadership; and how effective is the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles. These imply that, in this research rather than testing the theories or hypotheses, the purpose of was to make explorations as regards a given phenomenon which was the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. Considering this, the researcher found no difficulty in deciding to adopt inductive research design. Hence, adopting inductive research design, firstly the literature was reviewed and research issues were identified based on which first hand research was conducted, and finally the research questions were answered and recommendations were made for the case firm.

3.3 Research Method

In general all the methods and techniques used for conducting a research study can be referred as research method. It can be also said that while studying a research problem all the methods that are employed by the researcher can be termed as research methods. It can be of two types: Quantitative and qualitative (Creswell, 2012).

In quantitative research the quantitative data is collected which is further subjected to tough quantitative analysis which follow a formal and firm structure. It can be further divided into three subcategories- inferential, experimental and simulation research approaches. Qualitative approach to research involves subjective assessment of approaches, attitudes, opinions and behavior (Creswell, 2012). It is a derivative of researcher’s understandings and impressions. The outcome of this approach is generally in non-numeric form. For conducting research form qualitative approach generally focus group interviews, in-depth interviews and projective techniques are employed. The most useful feature of qualitative research is its flexibility which allows it adapts to different situations accordingly (Rugg and Petre, 2007).

Whilst achieving the purpose of the research and answering the research questions, the researcher had choice to put into application both qualitative and quantitative research methods. However, considering the limited time and difficulty in accessibility it was not feasible for the researcher to put into application both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Hence, the researcher had option to choose from qualitative and quantitative. Considering the nature of research questions and people to be involved, it was imperative to apply quantitative method, if one method was to be selected. Therefore, the researcher selected quantitative method to collect first hand data and answer the research questions. The quantitative data was collected using questionnaire survey.

3.4 Data Collection

Data collection is an integral part of any research study as without this any research cannot get complete, no matter whatever research design the researcher follows. It is a rigorous job which can be completed successfully only when done through systematic planning, dedication, patience and determination (Burnett, 2009). The process starts with defining the type of data required then selecting a sample out of the targeted population and finally by using certain tools and techniques collection of data is done from the selected sample. Collected data can be of two types- qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative data is in numerical form which can be statistically calculated. On the other hand qualitative data is usually in the form of words and sentences and are non-numerical in nature (descriptive or nominal). Sources of data can also be of two types- primary and secondary. Data gathered form primary sources are called primary data and data collected form secondary sources are known as secondary data (McNeill and Chapman, 2005). Primary data are directly collected from the source itself and secondary data are taken from secondary sources like reports, journals, magazines, online sources etc…  Data collection can be done through several methods and is mainly dependent on chosen research design and research method. Few of the common techniques for data collection are – questionnaire, interviews and observations. Questionnaire consists of a set of questions and other prompts which are designed in a way to collect required information form the respondents. It is extensively used in both types of research methods- qualitative and quantitative. In observation researcher take note of behavior pattern of people, objects and happenings without communicating with them in any manner. Observations can be done in two ways- participative and non-participative observation (Rugg and Petre, 2007).

The data collection was conducted in this research into two phases. In the first phase, secondary data was collected, whereas in the second phase primary data was collected. The secondary data was collected using main sources in the forms of books, journals and other published reports relating to the research topic. The secondary data assisted the researcher to find gap in the research and develop research issues relating to the research questions, based on which questionnaire was designed and primary data was collected. The primary data was collected using questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included total 12 questions, where 3 questions were related to the demography of the research participants, 6 questions were related to opinion of the research participants, and the remaining 2 questions were 7 scales based. The survey was conducted by the researcher personally visiting Subway and involving the target people in different group in various stages.

3.5 Sampling  

One of the very basic definitions proposed by Webster (1985) says that a sample is a certain part of a statistical population which is studied to infer knowledge and information about the complete population. Sampling is a procedure or technique of choosing a suitable sample which can be considered as a representative of the entire population for determining features and characteristics of the entire population. For drawing conclusions from samples about the whole population researcher uses inferential statistics through which it is possible to determine characteristics of the entire population by directly observing a sample taken out of it (Easterby- Smith et al., 2008). Benefits of sampling are: it is cost efficient, time saving and more accurate. It makes the study of very large population possible as well as study of partly accessible population possible. In case when the studying observation is destructive in nature then the population can be studied through sample only (e.g. - checking the quality of bulb fuses). On the basis of the way sample units are chosen sample can be of three types (Fridah, 2002):

Convenience sample- when the more convenient elements of the observed population are chosen for the purpose of studying the population then it called convenience sample.

Judgment sample- when a sample is chosen depending upon the discretion of a person who is aware of the relevant characteristics of the targeted population then the obtained sample is called judgment sample.

The random sample or probability sample - it is considered as the most important type of sample. In random sample is obtained when each element of the targeted population have equal and known chances of getting selected in the sample.

Sample selection was not very tricky for the researcher, as the researcher knew some of the manager’s senior staff working in Subway. In other words, the researcher was quick to decide that probability sampling method was appropriate for selecting the sample from the target sample. The target sample in this research was managerial people and senior staff working in Subway. The researcher selected 35 in the midst of them randomly and conducted the survey dividing then in 5 groups (7 people in every group).

3.6 Pilot Study

Pilot studies can be referred as feasibility study of a full scale study which is conducted as trial run before carrying out a full-scale study (Bryman and Bell, 2011). Pre testing of a specific research tool or instrument like questionnaire or interview program also come under pilot testing. It is an important part of a good study design and it cannot guarantee the success of the main study but definitely increase the chances of success. Wilson (2010) has posited that instead of taking risk it is advisable to pilot test first. Some of the major advantages of pilot testing are: it work as an advance warning system to inform where the main research could go wrong, where it is not possible to follow research protocols, and whether the planned methods and instruments are appropriate or not for conducting the research successfully. It is also instrumental in raising funds for the main research study by convincing the funding bodies about the research success (Allen and Babbie, 2010).

Pilot study required in this research to be conducted into two phases. In the first phase a pilot study was conducted in the form of involving experts for finagling the questions to be included in the questionnaire. In the second phase, pilot study was conducted to conduct a preliminary survey involving friends and seniors.

3.7 Data  Analysis

Data analysis is the process of describing and illustrating, condensing and recapping and evaluating data by systematical application of logical tools and techniques. Data analysis is done to draw inductive inferences out of collected data and it assist in deducing the relevant material form the vast pool of collected data (Saunders et al., 2012). To ensure data integrity correct and proper analysis of collected data is essential. Wrong data analysis would result into distorted research findings, misinform casual readers (Babbie, 2012) and can adversely impact the public perception of the research. This integrity issues as relevant for non-numeric data as well. In case of qualitative research data analysis can contain statistical techniques and mostly analysis turn out to be a continuous iterative procedure where data collection and data analysis happens simultaneously. In the whole data collection phase researcher mostly analyze for patterns and symmetries in observations and findings. The particular qualitative approach (field study, ethnography content analysis, oral history, biography, unobtrusive research) and form of data (field notes, documents, audiotape, videotape) taken determines the form of the analysis.  Data mining, text analytics, business intelligence and data visualizations are some of the data analysis methods (businessdictionary, 2014).

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. The central research question in this research was to investigate how effective is autocratic leadership style in motivating and retaining mangers and staff in Subway, though the research as well investigates the effectiveness of democratic leadership style and as well as mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles. In order to fulfill the purpose of the research and answer the research questions, the data was collected through questionnaire survey including demographic questions, opinion based questions and scale based questions. In this chapter the data collected is analyzed accordingly. The collected data was analyzed using both simple and standard statistical tools. In simple statistics, mean and standard deviation is used. On the other hand, Pearson correlation method is used as standard statistical method. For measuring and analyzing data SPSS software is used.

3.8 Reliability And Validity

Reliability denotes the extent to which a measurement tool produces firm and reliable results. For a research study to be successful reliability is essential but only reliability is not sufficient. A study would only be reliable when it is valid too (Allen and Babbie, 2010). Validity denotes the degree to which a study measures what it is intended to measure. The concept of reliability emphasize that any research outcome should not be just one-off findings rather it should be essentially repeatable (Shuttleworth, 2014). Reliability reinforces the outcomes of the research and ensures a wider acceptability of the hypothesis in the scientific fraternity. As per Shuttleworth (2014) validity covers the whole experimental concept and validate that the whether the obtained results are consistent with all the necessities of the scientific research method.     

The findings of this research largely represent the opinions of lower level manager and senior level staff working with Subway. Further the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having industry experience of 5-10 years, followed by above 10 years and 2-5 years. Moreover the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having organization experience of 2-5 years, followed by 0-2 years and 5-10 years.

3.9 Ethical Issues

The most common definition of ethics is norms for conduct that differentiate acceptable form not non- acceptable. Ethical issues are very important in research field also. There are several reasons- it reinforce the aims of the research like knowledge, truth, averting errors etc.; promote the values which are required to work as team (Trust, mutual respect, non-biasness, accountability); held the researcher accountable to public; garner public support for the research work; and finally promotes other significant moral and social values like social responsibility, human rights and welfare etc. (Resnik, 2011). Universally accepted ethical principle is as follows: minimal harm, respecting autonomy, protection of privacy, offering reciprocity and treating people equally and respectfully (BERA, 2012). 

The main ethical issues faced by the researcher whilst conducting the research and duly addressed are: conducting the research in accordance with the research plan; use only relevant sources in secondary data collection; frame realistic and unbiased questions; and keep up the confidentiality of the researcher as per consent.

3.10 Summary

Adopting inductive research design, firstly the literature was reviewed and research issues were identified based on which first hand research was conducted, and finally the research questions were answered and recommendations were made for the case firm. The researcher selected quantitative method to collect first hand data and answer the research questions. The quantitative data was collected using questionnaire survey. The data collection was conducted in this research into two phases. In the first phase, secondary data was collected, whereas in the second phase primary data was collected. Probability sampling method was appropriate for selecting the sample from the target sample. The target sample in this research was managerial people and senior staff working in Subway. The collected data was analyzed using both simple and standard statistical tools. In simple statistics, mean and standard deviation is used. On the other hand, Pearson correlation method is used as standard statistical method.

 

Findings And Analysis

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. The central research question in this research was to investigate how effective is autocratic leadership style in motivating and retaining mangers and staff in Subway, though the research as well investigates the effectiveness of democratic leadership style and as well as mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles. In order to fulfill the purpose of the research and answer the research questions, the data was collected through questionnaire survey including demographic questions, opinion based questions and scale based questions. In this chapter the data collected is analyzed accordingly.

4.2 Analysis Of Findings

4.2.1  Demographic Data

Designation of Research Participants

In this research, the research participants were involved in the forms of middle level manager, lower level manager and senior level staff working with Subway. However the main research participants were lower level managers (54%) and by senior level staff (40%), followed by little middle level managers (6%). This is shown in table and figure 4.1. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of lower level manager and senior level staff working with Subway.

Table 4.1: Designation of Research Participants

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Middle level manager

2

5.7%

5.7%

Lower level manager

19

54.3%

60.0%

Senior level staff

14

40.0%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0


Figure 4.1: Designation of Research Participants

Industry Experience of Research Participants

Further the research participants involved in this research had industry experience of 0-2 years, 2-5 years and above 10 years. However the main research participants were found having industry experience of 5-10 years (57%), above 10 years (23%) and 2-5 years (20%). This is shown in table and figure 4.2. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having industry experience of 5-10 years, followed by above 10 years and 2-5 years.

Table 4.2: Industry Experience of Research Participants

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

0-2 years

--

--

--

2-5 years

7

20.0%

20.0%

5-10 years

20

57.1%

77.1%

Above 10 years

8

22.9%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0


Figure 4.2: Industry Experience of Research Participants

Current Organization Experience of Research Participants

Further the research participants involved in this research had Subway experience of 0-2 years, 2-5 years and above 10 years. However the main research participants were found having Subway experience of 2-5 years(43%), 0-2 years(29%), 5-10years(20%) and above 10 years(9%). This is shown in Table 3. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having organization experience of 2-5 years, followed by 0-2 years and 5-10 years.

Table 4.3: Current Organization Experience of Research Participants

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

0-2 years

10

28.6%

28.6%

2-5 years

15

42.9%

71.4%

5-10 years

7

20.0%

91.4%

Above 10 years

3

8.6%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0


Figure 4.3: Current Organization Experience of Research Participants

4.2.2    Opinion Based Data

Effectiveness of Leader in Motivation

The research literature establishes that that a vast number of researchers have concluded that leadership as a process is social influenced (Fulham, 2005). Leadership refers to influence processes which determine how the followers interpret the events, the choices made by the organization concerning its objectives, the motivation among the followers to accomplish the objectives, maintenance of cooperative relationships, and the support and cooperation garnered from the people who do not belong to the organization (Yulk, 1994). Stippler et al. (2011) agree with the premise that leadership can be considered as a process through which a leader can promote change and that the process includes the actions of the leader combined with those of the followers along with the prevalent situation. According to McGovern (2008), the followers are those who provide support to the vision of the leader and as such, are the main objects of leadership. The theory of transactional leadership, on the other hand, proposes that the leader and the followers have a contract between them. The follower is required to carry out the orders given to him for performing a task. In return, the leader gives away rewards for following the orders towards completion of the task. Transactional leadership theory proposes that people complete tasks only when they are assured of external rewards. Many people, however, complete the tasks and achieve the goals due to their own internal drive or motivation (Penn, 2008). In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as how effective is the role of leaders in Subway in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. The data collected in this context reveals that the role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. These data is shown in table and figure 4.4.

Table 4.4: Effectiveness of Leader in Motivation

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Highly effective

--

--

--

Reasonable effective

20

57.1%

57.1%

Ineffective

15

42.9%

42.9%

Total

35

100.0

100.0


Figure 4.4: Effectiveness of Leader in Motivation

According to the data shown in the above table: the larger part of the research participants (57% out of the total 35) opine that the role of their leader in motivating to perform is just reasonably effective; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (43%) opine that the role of their leader in motivating to perform is ineffective. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that the role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best.

Leadership and Staff Turnover

Furthermore the research literature establishes that Chuang and Judge (2012) feel that transformational leadership cannot help a firm in tiding over such scenario. The fast food industry is heavily employee centered and is dependent vastly on its employees instead of automatic machineries for majority of its operations. However, it has been reported by several studies and reports that (the fast food industry faces a high rate of labor turnover (Gartensteinn, 2014; Brox, 2012). Fast food industry is characterized by high rate of employee turnover, where positive leadership role might effectively control employee turnover in a fast food organization. However this is possible only in the case suitable leadership style is adopted. However, it is unlikely that a particular leadership style would be suitable for every fast food company. In the obtainable literature there is found several old and new studies regarding the suitability of various leadership styles. Fast food industry is characterized by high rate of employee turnover, where positive leadership role might effectively control employee turnover in a fast food organization. In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as whether staff in Subway is thinking to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases managers and staff of Subway always thinks to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. These data is shown in table and figure 4.5.

Table 4.5: Leadership and Staff Turnover

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Always

22

62.9%

62.9%

Very often

10

28.6%

91.4%

Sometimes

3

8.6%

100.0%

Never

--

--

--

Total

35

100.0

100.0


Figure 4.5: Leadership and Staff Turnover

According to the data shown in the above table: the larger part of the research participants (63% out of the total 35) opine that they always think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (38%) opine that they either very often or sometimes think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that in most cases managers and staff of Subway always thinks to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role.

Leadership Role and Loyalty

Moreover the research literature establishes that UK has been undergoing economic slowdown since last few years, like other parts of Europe. This has also caused increase in the unemployment rate (Angelis, 2013). Restaurant business is linked with general economic conditions prevalent. So, the Subway restaurants face the challenge of remaining alert as well the issue of managing its demand and inventory. As Ryan and Jones (2009) point out, the employee turnover rates keep fluctuating which affect sales. As such, the issue of leadership and leadership style is a critical issue for not only the Subway restaurants, but any business in the sector. As per Robertson (2014), subordinates working under an autocratic leader often tend to feel undervalued as well as unappreciated for their efforts. As a result, restaurants having autocratic managers might experience relatively higher staff-turnover rates and as a result reduced loyalty. However, leadership might increase the level of loyalty. In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as whether encouraging leadership role increases staff and manager’s performance and loyalty in Subway. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases for managers and staff of Subway encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty. These data is shown in table and figure 4.6.

Table 4.6: Leadership Role and Loyalty

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Always

25

71.4%

71.4%

Very often

10

28.6%

100.0%

Sometimes

--

--

--

Never

--

--

--

Total

35

100.0

100.0

 

Figure 4.6: Leadership Role and Loyalty

According to the data shown in the above table: the greater part of the research participants (71% out of the total 35) opine that encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants(29%) opine that encouraging leadership role very often increases their performance and loyalty. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that in most cases for managers and staff of Subway encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty.

 

Style of Leadership

In the existing research literature, we find a number of leadership styles. However, it is not worth here to mention and discuss all those leadership styles. In this context, it is notable here that Lewin describes mainly the styles of leadership in the forms of autocratic and demographic. The autocratic or the authoritative style– the predominant aspect of this model is the implementation of the resolve of the leader irrespective of the opinion of the subordinates. There is no place for the opinion of the subordinates. It is contingent upon the leader’s power. The leader has absolute power in the organization. So, they themselves take decisions, which are communicated to the subordinates. The leaders take all the decisions regarding remuneration etc., to motivate the subordinates. Further the democratic or the participative style – This model involves a two-way flow of communication. Leader has a friendly attitude towards subordinates. Such leaders also involve subordinates in evaluations and reward management (Kippenberger, 2002). According to Gonos and Gallo (2013), all these leadership styles can be understood as basic categorization of the leadership concepts. Practically, a leader does not remain confined to one style, rather chooses to adopt a style as the situation may require doing so. In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as which style of leadership is practiced by the leader in Subway. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. These data is shown in table and figure 4.7.

Table 4.7: Style of Leadership

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Typical autocratic

5

14.3%

14.3%

Typical demographic

5

14.3%

28.6%

Mix of autocratic and demographic

25

71.4%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0

 

Figure 4.7: Style of Leadership

According to the data shown in the above table: the greater part of the research participants (71% out of the total 35) opine that the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by their leader in the organization; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (28%) opine that either typical autocratic or typical demographic leadership style is practiced by their leader in the organization. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway.

Leadership Style and Satisfaction

On the other hand, the research literature establishes that the democratic style of leadership is connected higher employee productivity, higher job satisfaction, better involvement as well as commitment (Hackman & Johnson, 1996). According to Bass (1990) and Stogdill (1974) this style of leadership enhances member satisfaction and proposals for leadership. According to Denhardt & Denhardt, 2003, this style increases participation and thereby increases productivity, despite suffering from serious disadvantages like time-taking procedures and long lasting debates. According to Luthar (1996) participation is the fundamental feature of democratic leadership. So the model of democratic leadership style is based on a friendly, cooperative, and encouraging participation. Autocratic leadership is characterized by four important features – important decisions are taken by the leader; the leader is mainly concerned with achieving the task objectives and has no concerns for the happiness or satisfaction of the subordinates; the leader does not prefer social interaction with the subordinates and lastly, he resorts to either punishment or threats of punishment to keep the subordinates motivated. The autocratic leader is focused on achieving the organization’s objectives “through” people which is in contrast to democratic leader who “achieves” the same with the people (Bosiok, 2013). In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as whether managers and staff of Subway are satisfied with the leadership style of leaders. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases for the managers and staff in Subway, they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization. These data is shown in table and figure 4.8.

Table 4.8: Leadership Style and Satisfaction

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Yes

5

14.3%

14.3%

No

30

85.7%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0


 

Figure 4.8: Leadership Style and Satisfaction

According to the data shown in the above table: the greater part of the research participants (86% out of the total 35) opine that they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (14%) opine that they are satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that in most cases for the managers and staff in Subway, they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization.

Leadership Style for Motivation

To end with, the research literature establishes that fast food industry is characterized by high rate of employee turnover, where positive leadership role might effectively control employee turnover in a fast food organization. However this is possible only in the case suitable leadership style is adopted. However, it is unlikely that a particular leadership style would be suitable for every fast food company. In the obtainable literature there is found several old and new studies regarding the suitability of various leadership styles. Daft (2014) opines that autocratic style of leadership works smoothly in the business of fast-food restaurants. He cites the example of Jack Hartnett, the president of the franchise owner of Sonic drive-in restaurants. According to Daft, Hartnett tells his employees in the restaurant to work as they are told to work and also that they are not expected to bring any suggestions. Daft (2014) suggests that fast food industry suffers from high employee turnover and also that most of the employees in the industry are either low on skills or very young. So this requires an autocratic style of leadership. In the light of these propositions, it was investigated in this research as which leadership style would managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. These data is shown in table and figure 4.9.

Table 4.9: Leadership Style for Motivation

Variable

Frequency

Percentage of Response

Cumulative Percentage

Typical autocratic

2

5.7%

5.7%

Typical demographic

28

80.0%

85.7%

Mix of autocratic and demographic

5

14.3%

100.0%

Total

35

100.0

100.0

 

Figure 4.9: Leadership Style for Motivation

According to the data shown in the above table: the greater part of the research participants (80% out of the total 35) opine that typical demographic leadership style would they recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants(20%) opine that either typical autocratic leadership style or mix of autocratic and demographic style would they recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. Taken as a whole, these data conclude that in most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job.

4.2.3  Scale Based Data

Effectiveness of Autocratic Leadership Style

In order to investigate the effectiveness of autocratic leadership style on scale based, four factors were put before the research participants in this research in relation to communication independent variable. These factors are: always like one-way communication; very often like one-way communication; sometimes like one-way communication; hardly like one-way communication. The data collected in this context reveals that the research participants give low score to factors: always like one-way communication (mean-2.83, standard deviation-.875); very often like one-way communication (mean-3.29, standard deviation-.622). These data is shown in Table 4.10.1. Further the correlation is found not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). These data is shown in Table 4.10.2. These data taken as a whole manifests that autocratic leadership is not effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remain loyal with the organization.

Table 4.10.1: Descriptive Statistics - Effectiveness of Autocratic Leadership Style

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Variance

Skewness

 

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Error

Always

35

2.83

.857

.734

.645

.398

Very often

35

3.29

.622

.387

-.270

.398

Sometimes

35

4.43

.917

.840

.223

.398

Hardly

35

4.31

.993

.987

.264

.398

Valid N (listwise)

35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.10.2: Correlations - Effectiveness of Autocratic Leadership Style

 

 

Always

Very often

Sometimes

Hardly

Always

Pearson Correlation

1

.371*

.134

-.004

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.028

.444

.982

N

35

35

35

35

Very often

Pearson Correlation

.371*

1

-.324

-.102

Sig. (2-tailed)

.028

 

.057

.560

N

35

35

35

35

Sometimes

Pearson Correlation

.134

-.324

1

.300

Sig. (2-tailed)

.444

.057

 

.080

N

35

35

35

35

Hardly

Pearson Correlation

-.004

-.102

.300

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.982

.560

.080

 

N

35

35

35

35


*. Correlation is not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).  

Effectiveness of Demographic Leadership Style

In order to investigate the effectiveness of demographic leadership style on scale based, four factors were put before the research participants in this research in relation to communication independent variable. These factors are: always like two-way communication; very often like two-way communication; sometimes like two-way communication; hardly like two-way communication. The data collected in this context reveals that the research participants give low score to factors: always like two-way communication (mean-3.54, standard deviation-.701); very often like two-way communication (mean-3.71, standard deviation-.710). These data is shown in Table 4.11.1. Further the correlation is found not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). These data is shown in Table 4.11.2. These data taken as a whole manifests that demographic leadership is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remain loyal with the organization.

Table 4.11.1: Descriptive Statistics-Effectiveness of Demographic Leadership Style

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Variance

Skewness

 

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Error

Always

35

3.54

.701

.491

-.161

.398

Very often

35

3.71

.710

.504

.480

.398

Sometimes

35

4.80

.868

.753

-.447

.398

Hardly

35

5.14

.879

.773

-.843

.398

Valid N (listwise)

35

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.11.2: Correlations - Effectiveness of Demographic Leadership Style

 

 

Always

Very often

Sometimes

Hardly

Always

Pearson Correlation

1

-.270

-.348*

-.321

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.116

.040

.060

N

35

35

35

35

Very often

Pearson Correlation

-.270

1

.048

.256

Sig. (2-tailed)

.116

 

.785

.138

N

35

35

35

35

Sometimes

Pearson Correlation

-.348*

.048

1

.154

Sig. (2-tailed)

.040

.785

 

.376

N

35

35

35

35

Hardly

Pearson Correlation

-.321

.256

.154

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.060

.138

.376

 

N

35

35

35

35


*. Correlation is not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

4.3 Summary

The findings of this research largely represent the opinions of lower level manager and senior level staff working with Subway. Further the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having industry experience of 5-10 years, followed by above 10 years and 2-5 years. Moreover the findings of this research largely represent the opinions of managerial people and staff working with Subway having organization experience of 2-5 years, followed by 0-2 years and 5-10 years.

The role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. Further in most cases managers and staff of Subway always think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. Moreover in most cases for managers and staff of Subway encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty. Further in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. In most cases for the managers and staff in Subway, they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization. Further in most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job.

Autocratic leadership is not effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remains loyal with the organization. Furthermore demographic leadership is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remains loyal with the organization.

 

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This research has investigated the effectiveness of leadership in fast food industry, with reference to the case of Subway restaurants in the UK. The research has answered the following research questions: how effective is the role of leadership in reducing staff turnover; how effective is typical autocratic style of leadership; how effective is typical demographic style of leadership; and how effective is the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles.

5.2 Summary of Findings

To begin with it was investigated in this research as how effective is the role of leaders in Subway in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. The data collected in this context reveals that the role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. Further it was investigated in this research as whether staff in Subway is thinking to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases managers and staff of Subway always thinks to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. Moreover it was investigated in this research as whether encouraging leadership role increases staff and manager’s performance and loyalty in Subway. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases for managers and staff of Subway encouraging leadership role always increases their performance and loyalty. in addition, it was investigated in this research as which style of leadership is practiced by the leader in Subway. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. As it was investigated, the research was done to find the performance of the managers and the staffs of Subway are satisfied with the leadership style of leaders. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases for the managers and staff in Subway, they are not satisfied with the leadership style of leaders in their organization. Further it was investigated in this research as which leadership style would managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. The data collected in this context reveals that in most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway would recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. Autocratic leadership is not effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remains loyal with the organization. Further demographic leadership is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remains loyal with the organization.

5.3 Research Questions

How effective is the role of leadership in motivating staff and reducing staff turnover?

The role of leaders in Subway is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff to perform their best. As the data manifests that the larger part of the research participants (57% out of the total 35) opine that the role of their leader in motivating to perform is just reasonably effective; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (43%) opine that the role of their leader in motivating to perform is ineffective. Furthermore, in most cases managers and staff of Subway always think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role. As the data manifests that the larger part of the research participants (63% out of the total 35) opine that they always think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (38%) opine that they either very often or sometimes think to leave the organization due to discouraging leadership role.

How effective is typical autocratic style of leadership?

The data collected reveals that the research participants give low score to factors: always like one-way communication (mean-2.83, standard deviation-.875); very often like one-way communication (mean-3.29, standard deviation-.622). Further the correlation is found not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). These data taken as a whole manifests that autocratic leadership is not effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remain loyal with the organization.

How effective is typical demographic style of leadership?

The data collected reveals that the research participants give low score to factors: always like two-way communication (mean-3.54, standard deviation-.701); very often like two-way communication (mean-3.71, standard deviation-.710). Further the correlation is found not significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). These data taken as a whole manifests that demographic leadership is not so effective in motivating the managers and staff in Subway for performing their best and remain loyal with the organization.

How effective is the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles?

In most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. As the data manifests that the greater part of the research participants (71% out of the total 35) opine that the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by their leader in the organization; at the same time as the remaining considerable part of the research participants (28%) opine that either typical autocratic or typical demographic leadership style is practiced by their leader in the organization.

5.4 Recommendations/Implications

In most cases typical demographic leadership style managers and staff of Subway recommend to their leaders for their motivation and not leaving the job. However, Daft (2014) opines that autocratic style of leadership works smoothly in the business of fast-food restaurants. He cites the example of Jack Hartnett, the president of the franchise owner of Sonic drive-in restaurants. According to Daft, Hartnett tells his employees in the restaurant to work as they are told to work and also that they are not expected to bring any suggestions. Daft (2014) suggests that fast food industry suffers from high employee turnover and also that most of the employees in the industry are either low on skills or very young. So this requires an autocratic style of leadership.

However, on the other hand, in most cases the mix of both autocratic and demographic leadership styles is practiced by leaders in Subway. The fast food industry is heavily employee centered and is dependent vastly on its employees instead of automatic machineries for majority of its operations. However, it has been reported by several studies and reports that (the fast food industry faces a high rate of labor turnover (Gartensteinn, 2014; Brox, 2012; Katz, 1992). The chief reason behind this scenario is that the firms operating in this sector are heavily reliant upon the manual work of the employees who are not so well paid and do not get much benefits (Brox, 2012). As according to Gonos and Gallo (2013), all these leadership styles can be understood as basic categorization of the leadership concepts. Practically, a leader does not remain confined to one style, rather chooses to adopt a style as the situation may require doing so such as in the form of mixing autocratic and demographic leadership styles.

 

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Relationship Between Knowledge Management, Organization Learning And HRM

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