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Manual Gearbox System

Question:

Discuss about the Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles Classroom.

Manual gearbox system is a transmission type that uses the operated clutch driver disengaged and engaged by a pedal foot or the lever hand for the torque transfer regulation to the transmission from the engine. The standard equipment in a model base vehicle is usually a 5-speed conventional manual transmission whereas the most expensive vehicles are normally equipped with a speed transmission of 6. An automatic gearbox system is a type of transmission in the motor vehicle that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, hence enables the driver to have the gear shifts manually (Alma Hillier, 2013, p. 102). It also allows the engine of combustion which is made to relatively run at a rotational speed to give necessary output torque and speed for the vehicular travel.

Manual transmission normally features the operated driver clutch and a gear stick that is movable. Most of them enable the driver to select the forward ratio of gear anytime although some such as the ones equipped in the motorcycles and some of the cars used in racing which only allows the driver to select the next lower or higher gear. In the manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the crankshaft of the engine and pins beside it. The disk clutch is located between the flywheel and the pressure plate and is held against the flywheel under the high pressure which comes from the pressure plates (Alma Hillier, 2013, p. 200). When the clutch is engaged and the engine is running, the clutch plate is span by the flywheel and hence transmission, as the pedal clutch is depressed, the activation of the throw out bearing occurred, which enables the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk, and stops the power to the clutch plate from the engine, so that shifting of gear can occur without damaging the transmission. When the clutch plate is released, the bearing throw out is deactivated, and the clutch disk is held again against the flywheel, enabling it to start getting power from the engine (Erjavec, Automatic Transmissions, 2010, p. 69).

The earliest manual form of transmission is believed to have been invented by Emile Levasseur and joy clulow in the late 19th century, this gear types gave the multiple ratios of gear and mostly, reverse. The gears were engaged typically by sliding them on the shafts which need the throttle manipulation and the careful timing when shifting, so the gear would be spinning at the same speed when engaged, else the teeth would not mesh. These transitions are called crash boxes or the sliding mesh transmissions because of the changing gear difficulties and the grinding loud sound that normally accompanied, the constant mesh transmissions are newer manual transmissions on the vehicles of 4+wheels which have gears mesh all the time (Erjavec, Tech Manual for Erjavec's Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach, 5th, 2011, p. 113).

Automatic Gearbox System

In all types, a combination of a particular gear can only occur when the parts to engage are at the equal speed.to shift to a higher gear, the transmission is neutrally put and the engine is enabled to slow down until the part of the transmission for the next gear are at an appropriate speed to engage. When in neutral the vehicle and the transmission slows which depends on the wind, grade and other factors. To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is neutrally put and the throttle is used in engine speeding and consequently, the relevant parts of the transmission, to speed match for the engaging the next lower gear (Hadfield, 2014, p. 89).

The designs of non-synchronized transmission are used for many reasons, the materials for friction, like brass, in synchronizers is more prone to breakage and wear than gears that are forged steel, and the mechanisms simplicity reduces costs and improves the reliability. Also, the shifting process of the non-synchromesh transmission is higher than the shifting of the synchromesh transmission. Correspondingly most the modern motorcycles use the transmission of the unsynchronized, their higher strength and low gear inertias mean that forcing the gear to alter speed is not damaging, and the selector of the pedal operator on the modern motorcycles, without the neutral position in between the gear, is not conducive to having the longtime of shift of the synchronized gearbox (Harald Naunheimer, 2010, p. 191).

Most vehicles with modern transmission are equipped with the synchronized gearbox. The gear transmission is always rotating in the mesh. But the gears on one shaft can be locked to the shaft or freely rotate. The mechanisms of locking for the gear comprises a color on the shaft which slides sideways for the inner surface to bridge the two circular rings; one attached to the hub and another to the gear. To correctly match the gear speed to that of the shaft, the force is applied to the brass clutch of a con shape attached to the gear, which brings the speed to match before the color locking in the place (Horst, 2011, p. 120).

Modern automatic transmission can trace their origin to the early gearbox that was developed in 1904 by the Sturtevant brothers of Boston and the gearbox was known as the horseless carriage. Another phase of development happened in 1908with the introduction of the Model T by the Henry Fords. The model T was reliable and cheap featured a simple and was controlled manually by using pedals (Jack Erjavec, 2015, p. 162).

The Earliest Manual Form of Transmission

The automatic transmission was invented by Alfred Munro Horner of Regina Canada and Saskatchewan in 1921 and was patented in 1923 under Canadian patent. Being the engineer of the steam, Munro designed his system to use the compressed air instead of hydraulic fluid, and so it never found the commercial because it lacked the power. The first transmission of the automatic using the hydraulic fluid was developed in 1932 by the two engineer from Brazil, Fernando Lemos, and Jose Braz Araripe.The plans and the prototype were sold to general motors who introduced it in 1940 Oldsmobile as the hydromantic transmission. They were incorporated during World War 2 into the GM built tanks, and after the war, they were marketed by the GM as being battle-tested (Hussain, 2010, p. 170).

It is operated hydraulically using the torque converter and the fluid coupling and also a set of gear sets of planetary to provide the gear ratio range (Hadfield, 2014, p. 213). This transmission comprises of the three main parts:

  • Torque converter: This is a type of coupling fluid connecting the engine to the transmission hydraulically.it decouples and transmit the power engine to the planetary gears enabling the vehicle to stop with its engine still running. It provides amounts of multiplication torque that varies at a low-speed engine and increase the breakaway acceleration
  • Planetary train gear: comprising the bands, clutches and the planetary sets gear. These are mechanical systems that give the various ratios of gear, altering the rotation speed of the shaft output depending on which the gear planetary are locked.
  • Hydraulic controls: it uses the special fluid of transmission under the pressure by the pump of oil to control clutches and bunds modifying the speed of the output depending on the running condition of the vehicle.

The hydraulic and the lubricating oil provides the lubrication, prevents corrosion and the hydraulic medium for the mechanical power conveying.

This type of transmission can steeples sly and smoothly alter its ratio gear by varying the chain or belt diameters of the linked wheels cones or pulleys. Some also use the hydrostatic drive comprising the pump of variable displacement and the hydraulic motor for power transmission without gears. Some early form like hall system used a pump of fixed displacement and a motor of variable displacement and were made to give the variable robust transmission for the early heavy motor vehicle for commerce (Erjavec, Today's Technician: Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, 2014, p. 312). Their design is normally fuel efficient. Some of the hybrid motor vehicles have the continuous variable transmission controlled electronically, in these systems, the transmission has fixed gear and the wheel speed ratio to the speed of the engine can vary continuously by controlling the third input speed using the motor generator to a differential.

This is a type of semi-automatic transmission that is modern and also the manual transmission of electrohydraulic. It uses two clutches that are separate for even and odd sets of gears. They normally work in a fully automatic mode and also enable the driver to shift the gear manually in semi-automatic mode (Erjavec, Automatic Transmissions, 2010, p. 187).

Comparisons between manual and automatic clutch system

Manual clutch system

Automatic clutch system

The clutch is used in engine separation and transmission because the combustion internal engines must run when using although some can shut the engine when the vehicle is at immobile

The clutches in this transmission can be described a complex work is a spring is to make sure that the clutch release pressure when reduced. Four clutches are present and every clutch is actuated by hydraulic fluid with pressure that enters the piston in the clutch,

The mechatronic module is placed between front seats, for linkage mechanically between the gearbox and gear stick. This design enables driver to appropriately select the gears

The mechatronics module is a computerized control section of the dual clutch system. It's hard and complex to troubleshoot when things go in a wrong way. It is housed in the gearbox surrounded by DSG oil.

In this transmission, the clutch band lies in the same line and the input and output can be locked together to create ratios of gear causing the flow of power.

Clutch bands: in this transmission, there are two bands, the steel bands that cover around the section of the training gear and connects to the housing. They are actuated by the cylinders of hydraulic inside the transmission case.

It is easier to build and operate a strong manual transmission because it has only one clutch to operate

It is difficult to build since it has many clutches to operate

The manual transmission doesn't require active cooling since no much power is released through transmission

The automatic transmission requires an active system for cooling because more power is released through the transmission

The gear shift of the manual transmission is more fuel efficient,

The gear shift of the automatic transmission is less fuel efficient

It  needs less maintenance because it is made of fewer components

It needs proper maintenance since it’s made of many components and a breakdown of one component may break the system completely.

The vehicles with manual transmission are difficult to use since they need good driving skills

The vehicle with automatic transmission is easier to use for the driver who is not experienced

Manual vehicles are not easy to operate when climbing steep areas.

Automatics vehicles re able to control the traction when climbing hills

A manual transmission requires an alert and well-coordinated driver.

Automatic transmission needs less concentration and attention because the gears function automatically

Learning curve and complexity: there is a slight curve of learning for many people with the manual transmission which may be unappealing and intimidating for the driver who is not experienced. If the gears are selected inappropriately loss of control and damage of components can occur if not quickly rectified (Erjavec, Automatic Transmissions, 2010, p. 230).

Designs of Non-synchronized Transmission

Speed shifting: manual gears can shifts ratios slower that the automatic transmission because of the time needed for the driver to push the pedal clutch to the floor and move gearstick to a different position (Hussain, 2010, p. 190).

Ease of use: the manual transmission requires more concentration because it needs extra pedal and keeping the vehicle all the time to correct gear more so in the situation of the heavy traffics.it also have greater load of work to the driver, while the automatic transmission simple need the driver to slow down or speed with the vehicle doing the work by choosing the appropriate gear (Erjavec, Automatic Transmissions, 2010, p. 216).

Stopping on hills: the clutch undergoes wear because moving the vehicle from the standstill requires great friction at the clutch. The automatic transmission is best suited for the application of climbing hills because they have the convector of hydraulic torque which cools extremely mot like the clutch.  The torque materials also lack friction that rubs off every time like the clutch (Jack Erjavec, 2015, p. 181).

To reduce wear in a manual transmission, they should have a very low gear which gives the power to move a vehicle with ease at a low speed, this prevents the clutch from wear because the transmission needs less torque input. Most of the vehicles use the brake for parking to prevent the rolling of vehicle backward hence saves the life of the clutch. Modern design transmission system. The hydraulic actuator of the electromechanically can be used to do the disengaging and engaging of the clutch. It is capable of relieving the effort of the driver, improving the comfort and also making the gearshift to become easier as far as manual transmission is concerned.

The innovation of the automatic gear identification that is controlled electronically, cars can experience smooth operations, save the amount of fuel consumed, decrease friction and reduce the jerk shift in a clutch to the limit that can be controlled (Alma Hillier, 2013, p. 311).

There has been the development of many types of transmission over the last fifteen years. They include conventional automatic, manual, automated manual, split power, continuously variable, transmission of pure EV and the dual clutch. Many manufacturers are now developing hybrid conventional and electric vehicles. Consumers of the modern day are habituated to expect more power constantly better performance, smaller footprints of carbon, more features, and also less cost (Erjavec, Today's Technician: Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles, 2014, p. 201).

Modern Automatic Transmission

The dual clutch is employed to replace the traditional automatic gearbox.it has two clutches, odd and even numbered gear. Changing the clutches takes around 200 milliseconds, which, makes them becomes faster, there are two types of the dual clutch, wet and dry clutch. Dry clutch is more efficient but is restricted to the amount of torque and power they can contain. The modern clutch uses the organic resin compound with ceramic materials or copper wire in wet clutches, the material of composite paper are common, they use bath oil to keep the disc lubricated and cooled (Horst, 2011, p. 103).

In the continuously variable transmission, the internal engine of combustion produces their maximum torque and power over the range that is narrow. They are efficient and simple because its engine to operates at a maximum efficiency. The hydraulic actuator of the electromechanically can be used to do the disengaging and engaging of the clutch. It is capable of relieving the effort of the driver, improving the comfort and also making the gearshift to become easier as far as manual transmission is concerned. The innovation of the automatic gear identification that is controlled electronically, cars can experience smooth operations, save the amount of fuel consumed, decrease friction and reduce the jerk shift in a clutch to the limit that can be controlled (Erjavec, Automatic Transmissions, 2010, p. 297).

Conclusion

This report is about the different types of gear systems which include the manual gear system and automatic gear system. Manual gearbox system is a transmission type that uses the operated clutch driver disengaged and engaged by a pedal foot or the lever hand for the torque transfer regulation to the transmission from the engine. An automatic gearbox system is a type of transmission in a motor vehicle that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, hence enables the driver to have the gear shifts.

References

Alma Hillier. (2013). Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology. new york Oxford University Press.

Erjavec, J. (2010). Automatic Transmissions. Toledo: Cengage Learning.

Erjavec, J. (2010). Manual Transmissions. London: Cengage Learning.

Erjavec, J. (2011). Tech Manual for Erjavec's Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach, 5th. Michigan: Cengage Learning, 2009.

Erjavec, J. (2014). Today's Technician: Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles. Colorado: Cengage Learning,

Hadfield, C. (2014). Today's Technician. Paris: Cengage Learning,

Harald Naunheimer, B. B. (2010). Automotive Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design, and Application. new york Springer Science & Business Media,

Horst, K. N. (2011). Electrohydraulic Manual Transmission. Paris: Design Press.

Hussain, D. M. (2010). Wireless Networks Information Processing and Systems. Pakistan: Springer Science & Business Media,

Jack Erjavec. (2015). Today's Technician: Automatic Transmissions and Transaxles Classroom Manual and Shop Manual. Toledo: Cengage Learning,

Lucas, G. G. (2010). Road Vehicle Performance: Methods of Measurement and Calculation. Toledo: Taylor & Francis.

Mellard, T. (2014). Automotive Electronic Systems. new york Elsevier,

Owen, C. (2011). Today's Technician: Automotive Brake Systems Classroom and Shop Manual. Paris: Cengage Learning.

Publishing, D. (2014). Certain Automated Mechanical Transmission Systems for Medium-Duty and Heavy-Duty Trucks and Components. Michigan: DIANE Publishing.

Robert Huzij, A. S. (2013). Modern Diesel Technology: Heavy Equipment Systems. Toledo: Cengage Learning.

Terano, T. (2014). Fuzzy Engineering Toward Human-Friendly Systems. Michigan: IOS Press,

Uwe Kiencke. (2015). Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle. Michigan: Springer Science & Business Media.

Victor Albert Walter Hillier, P. C. (2013). Hillier's Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology, Toledo: Nelson Thornes,

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