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Discuss about the Bakery and Pastry.


  1. The palatability of food varies according to the ambiance. The evidence suggests that there are major impacts of ambiance and table-setting on food choice and food intake. Alterations in palatability can be identified with different levels of eating locations, table-settings, ambient temperatures, lighting, and sounds(García-Segovia, Harrington, & Seo, 2015)
  2. Primarily, garnishing increases the visual appeal of the food. People experience foods with their eyes before tasting it, and garnishing adds a splash of colours, especially in monochromatic foods. Secondly, garnishing helps in dish identification as some dishes cannot be identified just by looking (Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014).
  3. Explanation of tastes with suitable examples:
  4. Umami is meaty or brothy taste which specific to glutamate-rich savoury foodstuffs, for example, meaty broths and fermented foods. Umami is a mild and persisting taste related with salivation and a perception of fluffiness on the tongue, stimulation of the throat, the back and the roof of the mouth. (Fleming, 2013). Foods that contain a high amount of L-glutamate, GMP and IMP such as fishes, meats, shellfishes, mushrooms and fermented products like fish sauce, cheese, shrimp paste, soy sauce have umami taste.
  5. Numbness is the loss of ability to taste foods. Numbness may consequence from sensitivities, allergies, intolerance to certain foods, for example, soy, nuts, egg, shellfish, monosodium glutamate etc.
  6. Mouthfeel is the way a food item or drink feels in the mouth, distinctive from its own taste. Mouthfeel can be described by the example of eating a peach or other juicy fruits. When eating a peach the consumer experiences a number of sensations such as juiciness, sweetness and different other textures which collectively called mouthfeel. Mouthfeel is an important part of wine tasting.
  7. Studies have found microscopic channels responsible for different taste perception at various temperatures in the taste-buds called TRPM5. The reaction between TRPM5 and foods is much stronger in increased temperature which sends strong signals to the brain and consequences in enhanced taste perception. A perfect example is the taste of ice-cream. Ice-creams do not tastes sweet when consumed frozen but only tastes sweet when it is melted in the mouth (Amerine, Pangborn, & Roessler, 2013).
  8. Characteristics of the following wines and appropriate foods for pairing with them:
  9. Red wine gets its colour from the black grape varieties. Dry red wines often contain near about 0.9 g/L of residual sugar. Beef and lamb dishes are appropriate with red wine.
  10. White wines have a high acidity value and distinct aromas which are appropriate with chicken, and prawns.
  11. The principal flavours of rosé wine are red fruits, flowers, citrus with pleasant crunchy aromas best suited with light pasta and seafood (Davidson, 2014).
  12. Guidelines for tasting wines with food:
  • Matching and complementing the characteristics of foods to the wine, or contrasting and counterbalancing overpowering characteristics, for example, sweeter wine with spicy food.
  • Understanding important aspects when evaluating the affinity of a wine with the food is vital.It is also essential to seek a balance in the components of the wine.
  • Taking a mouthful of wine and rolling it inside the mouth is desirable before swallowing. Next is to try the food in small pieces for judging the appropriateness of the wine with the food.
  • Recognizing the saltiness,acidity, bitterness, sweetness, and umami is essential for tasting wine with food (Koone, Harrington, Gozzi, & McCarthy, 2014).

  1. Criteria to be noted while examining the wines for pairing with food:
  • Acidity in wine is a good pair with sweet foods with fat content.
  • Tannic wine is balanced well with sweet foods.
  • High alcoholic acidic wines require fatty foods for pairing.
  • Saltyfoods should not be paired with acidic wines (Harrington & Seo, 2015).
  1. Difference between digestifs and aperitifs



Digestifs are mainly alcoholic beverages served after a meal.

Aperitifs are also alcoholic beverages served before any meal.

The main purpose of digestifs is to help in digestion. They are usually sweet tasting beverages with a higher alcohol percentage.

The main purpose of aperitifs are to promote appetite, that’s why they are generally very dry in nature rather than being sweet.


Common choices of digestifs are brandy, fortified wines like sweet sherry, sweet liqueurs such as fernet, distilled liqueurs, herbal liqueurs, liquor cocktails etc.

Classic examples of aperitifs are dry white wine, dry vermouth, champagne, gin, pastis, 

rak?, fino, dry sherry etc.

  1. Recent studies showed that plate selection, mainly the colour of the plate impacts the sensory perception of food. The colour of the plate affects the perception of the consumers primarily for the qualities created on visual appraisals. Several studies have revealed that similar dishes served on different colored plates are frequently perceived differently at both sensory and hedonic levels. According to a study, the attributes of the desserts, for instance, the flavour and intensity of the sweetness were affected not only by the category of dessert but also affected depending on the plates as well. The results of these studies explained that the consumers possess association between certain colours and flavours (Piqueras-Fiszman, Giboreau, & Spence, 2013).
  2. Astringency can be explained as a dry, crumpling mouthfeel caused by some polyphenolic compounds mainly tannins. Tannins are found in some red wines (Soares, Brandão, Mateus, & De Freitas, 2017), teas and several fruits like persimmon, aronia, sloe berries etc. The tannin binds to the salivary gland proteins, making them to aggregate and precipitate which result in the dry sensation and rough sandpapery fillings inside the mouth. Two common examples are witch hazel and calamine lotion.

Pungency is the form of a strong, sharp taste and smell that is often so robust that it becomes unpleasant. Pungency is the technical term used by researchers to describe the characteristic of food commonly referred to as hotness and spiciness, which is found in certain foods, for example, chili peppers, mustard, strongly flavoured tomatoes etc. The secondary metabolite capsaicin found in chili peppers is highly pungent in its pure form (Srinivasan, 2016).

  1. Six “S” in tasting wines:
  2. See
  3. Swirl
  • Smell
  1. Sip
  2. Savour
  3. Shallow


Amerine, M. A., Pangborn, R. M., & Roessler, E. B. (2013). Principles of sensory evaluation of food. California: Elsevier.

Davidson, A. (2014). The Oxford companion to food. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fleming, A. (2013). Umami: Why the Fifth Taste Is So Important. The Guardian.

García-Segovia, P., Harrington, R. J., & Seo, H. S. (2015). Influences of table setting and eating location on food acceptance and intake. Food Quality and Preference, 39, 1-7.

Harrington, R. J., & Seo, H. S. (2015). The Impact of Liking of Wine and Food Items on Perceptions of Wine–Food Pairing. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 18(5), 489-501.

Koone, R., Harrington, R. J., Gozzi, M., & McCarthy, M. (2014). The role of acidity, sweetness, tannin and consumer knowledge on wine and food match perceptions. Journal of wine research, 25(3), 158-174.

Piqueras-Fiszman, B., Giboreau, A., & Spence, C. (2013). ssessing the influence of the color of the plate on the perception of a complex food in a restaurant setting. Flavour, 2(1), 24.

Soares, S., Brandão, E., Mateus, N., & De Freitas, V. (2017). Sensorial properties of red wine polyphenols: astringency and bitterness. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 57(5), 937-948.

Srinivasan, K. (2016). Biological activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and its pungent principle capsaicin: a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 56(9), 1488-1500.

Zellner, D. A., Loss, C. R., Zearfoss, J., & Remolina, S. (2014). It tastes as good as it looks! The effect of food presentation on liking for the flavor of food. Appetite, 77, 31-35.


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