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Behavior Based On Theories Of Personality

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Consumer buying behaviors involve the different attitudes and preferences customers make when purchasing products or services. Customer buying behavior is influenced by elements such as social situations, the reason for purchase, costs, and other personal factors such a gender, age, marital status and even stage of life (Brosekhan & Velayutham, 2014). For renting preferences, customers in their working class prefer houses relatively close to the market centers, with little attention to the renting costs. However, students or young people prefer cheaper rentals with little attention to the distance from market centers. This paper reviews customer renting preferences for three correspondents subject to three people, a female student, married male accountant aged 59 years and a housewife aged 48 years.

Personality refers to the unique qualities of each person (Udo-Imeh & Festus, 2015). Personality theories are a set of theories developed to explain unique characters, behaviors, and preferences of customers in relation to real life situations, such as choosing rental housing. Also, personality theorems seek to establish commonalities among a group of people (Anderson, 2009). For example, what are the similarities between introverted and extroverted? An idiographic view relates people with certain psychological states, that is, some habits are owned by one person.  The nomothetic view, however, explains of traits as possessing the same psychological structures. However, it explains that people's position differs in relation to certain habits, or rather traits. Theories of personality explain personality as influenced by biological factors such as genetics, and nurture, such as the environment and upbringing (Gibler & Nelson, 2008). This theory of personality also influences the customers buying behavior.


Freud’s Theory

Freud’s theory explains personality development in terms of early childhood influences, that is, personalities in adulthood can be traced to early childhood years. Freud's theories explain factors such as unconscious processes, early childhood influences, and instincts as influences to personality development. According to Bray (2014), Freud's theory is developed from their attributes, that is, Id, Ego, and Superego. It involves unconscious processes, while ego deals with inner expressions such as practical thinking (Bagozzi, 2010). The Freud’s theory influences customer buying since Respondent A, a female student at the university is more inclined to purchase a house based mainly, on the rent. This explains Freud's theory in terms of practical and rational thinking since her family’s household pretax income last year was low ($27,000). As such Respondent A prefers option 3, which is cost effective and is relatively close to the city center.

Erikson’s Theory

The Erikson’s theory explains personality development as a lifetime process (Bay, 2013). Distinct stages depending on age groups are explained by this theory. Stages such as infantry, childhood, play age, school age, adolescence, early childhood, adulthood, and mature adulthood. The age – groups listed influence a customer’s buying since customers at different ages have different demands, for instance, a customer in adulthood is likely to purchase a cheaper house as compared to a customer in mature adulthood.  In the survey, Respondent A is in the early childhood stage, that is, 20 years old. However, Respondent 5, is at the mature adulthood stage. The choice of buying for Respondent 5, is influenced by rent, bedroom, bathroom and kitchen, parking, and renovations and furnishing. This preference if influenced by the fact that Respondent 5, is married. The choice for Respondent A is influenced by the rent, and proximity to the city center, because she works part time at the grocery store.

Sheldon’s Physiognomy Theory

This theory explains personalities based on classifications for body shapes such as mesomorphs, ectomorphs, and endomorphs (Blackwell, 2011). Endomorphs have body shapes which are soft and spherical with huge fat accumulation, and often, a large frame. These people are desire affection, and comfort besides eating a lot.   These factors influence buying preferences of customers. Fr instance, Respondent 3, is kind and sympathetic, besides being open to new experiences. Her preferences for option 6, such as rent, bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen can be attributed to the fact that she has a family (husband and children). Mesomorphs, have a hard physique. These people have power, a low body fat, and wide shoulders. Ectomorphs are people with a fragile body, little body fat and a delicate body. Character traits include anxiety, ambition, and dedication.

Analysis of the Three Respondents Behavior on Demographics Theories

Demographics involves studying characteristics relating to population (Ellen, 2012).  Factors such age, gender, occupation, religion are considered in demographics.  Demographics influence customer is buying with factors such as proximity to the marketplace, education levels and religion (or culture) influencing products and services that a particular customer can purchase (Bray J., 2011).  For example, products such as pork cannot be purchased by members of the Muslim community. Demographic theories explain population patterns in relation to a topic under study, for instance, renting a house. This segment reviews theories of demographics such as Malthus theory, Neo-Malthusian theory, and the Demographic Transition theory.


Malthus Theory

The Malthus theory explains a general relationship between population and factors such as social change. In this theory, Malthus, analyses attraction between two sexes, explaining that population increases by multiples (Carrigan, 2010). As such, he proposed that with increased population, food supply would be reduced. However, population grows faster compared to subsidence.

As per Malthus theory, Respondent 1 is 20 years, in terms of age. Therefore, her preference to option three can be related to her age. At lower ages, basic renovations, full furniture are ideal choices. Also, at this age, 20 years, Respondent 1, can afford to have one bedroom and sharing a kitchen with housemates. For Respondent 3, who is at 48 years, her preference on Option 6 is based on the bedroom, bathroom & kitchen, and renovations & furnishing. Also, Option 5, the preference for Respondent 5, is based on bedroom, bathroom & kitchen, as well as parking and renovations & furniture. As such, age influences buying preference of the respondents, that is, older respondents consider factors such as bedroom space, bathroom, and kitchen while younger customers prefer basic renovations and furniture.

Demographic Transition Theory

Demographic transition theory involves a change in population trends such births, and deaths. This theory postulates factors influencing populations to change in terms of population size and structure. Demographic transitions depend on birth and death rates and are classified into stages such as pre-transition stage, stage I, stage II and stage III, depending on a balance between birth and death rates (Ellen, 2012). For example, for urban populations, birth and death rates have fallen. Also, education levels are very high. Demographic transition stages influence customers buying since, at different stages, population demand for particular products or services is considered. Under the Demographic transition theory, education levels can be used to analyze choices for renting houses for respondents 1, 3, and 5. Respondent 1, is a college student, her buying preference will be influenced by her educational status.  According to research by (Bloom, 1976), customer education affects customer behavior. For instance, Respondent 1, a female student prefers proximity to the city center when renting a house. Therefore customer levels of education raise the expectations, attitudes and hence preferences to certain products or services.


Optimum Population Theory

This theory discusses population growth, that is, population grows up to a certain level, after which, further growth is hazardous to the natural resources, capital resources, and even production. The highest population with maximum income or productivity is the optimum population. The optimum population influences customer buying since factors such as population size, diversity is considered. Population growth can be explained in terms of social factors such as family. According to (Lautiainen, 2015) family member’s influence, the customer’s buying. For example, respondent 3, prefers renting on criteria based on the bedroom, bathroom, kitchen and renovations and furnishing. This could be influenced by her husband and children. Therefore, the family is the environment which allows customers to develop opinions relating to a particular topic/area. This influences the decision making, for example, for Respondent 5, housing decisions are made by his wife. And his preference for option 5, is based on considerations about his family



Recommendations are the suggestions offered to a customer when purchasing a particular product or service. Recommendations influence the customer's decision process and can base on costs/ rent, furniture and renovations, distance from city centers, bedroom, parking and bathroom & kitchen. Based on the discussions above, costs influence buying patterns of customers. Customers seek the best products or services, with the best pricing. As such, renting costs influence a customer's purchasing behavior. For example, the pretax income for Respondent 1, is $27,000. Therefore, her housing preference criteria are based mainly on the costs. For Respondent 5, the household pre-tax income was $117,800. Therefore, his preference housing criteria are not based entirely on costs but also on proximity to the city center.

Renovations and furniture also influence the customers buying behavior. Renting a furnished place means the customer will not purchase beds, carpets, and other furniture. From the above discussion, furnished houses are preferred for renting, than unfurnished houses. However, personality traits, body shapes and parenting influence the decision process for Respondents 1, 3 and five hence influencing the choice of house. Demographic factors such as age, gender and education levels also influence the customer’s habits, attitudes, and expectation which determines the decision criteria for Respondents 1, 3 and 5 when choosing a hous.



Anderson, A. (2009). The Big Five and brand personality: Investigating the. Journal of Brand, 16(2), 234-247.

Bagozzi, R. (2010). Cultural and Situational Contingencies and the Theory of Reasoned Action: Application to Fast Food Restaurant Consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 92(2), 97-106.

Bay, D. (2013). The Theory of Trying and Goal-Directed Behavior: The Effect of Moving Up the Hierarchy of Goals. Psychology & Marketing, 20(8), 669-684.

Blackwell, R. (2011). Consumer Behavior. Orlando: Harcourt.

Bloom, P. N. (1976). How Will Education Affect Customer Buying? Advances in Customer Research, 3, 208 - 212.

Bray, J. (2011). An Exploratory Study of the Factors Impeding Ethical Consumption. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(8), 597-608.

Bray, J. (2014). Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models. Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models, 1(2), 1-33.

Brosekhan, A. A., & Velayutham, M. (2014). Consumer Buying Behaviour – A Literature Review. Journal of Business and Management, 1(2), 08-16.

Carrigan, M. (2010). The myth of the ethical consumer - do ethics matter in purchase behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(7), 560-577.

Ellen, Q. (2012). The influence of the Big 5 personality traits on young people’s political consumer behavior. Young Consumers.

Gibler, K. M., & Nelson, S. L. (2008). Consumer Behavior Applications to Real Estate. Atlanta: Mercer University.

Lautiainen, T. (2015). Factors affecting customer's buying decision in the selection of a coffee brand. Lappeenranta: Faculty of Business Administration, Lappeenranta.

Udo-Imeh, P. T., & Festus, N. (2015). Personality and Consumer Behaviour: A Review. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(18), 98-106.


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