$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
$20 Bonus + 25% OFF
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!
Add File

Error goes here

BIO 1121 Human Anatomy And Physiology I

tag 0 Download4 Pages / 967 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT

Questions:

Accurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and adjusting the pH of solutions are routine procedures in a working laboratory environment.  This assignment is designed to provide you with an overview of the general skills and knowledge you would need to perform such tasks.
Before completing this assignment you should ensure you have read chapter 2 of your text book – particularly the section entitled pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases.  Answers should be concise and well written.  Make sure you correctly explain your thought process and provide all the necessary information.
The questions are available on the following worksheet:  
 
Question 1:  The pH of a solution describes its acidity or alkalinity: Describe how pH and H3O+ concentration are related and explain why diluting an acid raises the pH, but diluting a base lowers the pH.
 Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) is a commonly used buffer for experiments in biology, because its pH and ion concentrations are similar to those in mammalian organisms.  It works in a similar fashion to the blood plasma buffer mentioned in the textbook, but using dihydrogen phosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions for buffering.  
 
Question 2: Based on the equation below, which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion donor (acid) and which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion acceptor (base) in PBS?
H2PO4-(aq) H+(aq) + HPO42-(aq)
The composition of PBS is 0.137M NaCl,  0.012M Phosphate,  0.027M KCl,  pH 7.4.  Below is the protocol to make 1 liter of 10x concentrate PBS.
 Combine the following:
80g NaCl
2g KCl
14.4g Na2HPO4 (dibasic anhydrous)
2.4g KH2PO4 (monobasic anhydrous)
?800mL distilled H2O
 
1.Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl
2.Add H2O to 1L
3.Autoclave for 20 minutes on liquid cycle. Store at room temperature.
 
Question 3:  Which ions are being produced by this process, assuming that each of the chemical compounds dissociate into their constituent parts once they are dissolved in water?                                                                  
 
Preparation of the correct buffer is key to any good biological experiment and it is important that you understand how to calculate the mass of each chemical required to make that buffer and what the resulting concentration of those constituents will be in moles per liter.
Your text book explains that moles are just a way to express the amount of a substance, such that one mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance.  These particles can be can be atoms, molecules, ions etc, so 1 mole of water is equal to 6.02 x 1023 water molecules, or 1 mole of Na+ is equal to 6.02 x 1023  Na+ ions.  Since different chemicals have different molecular weights (based on the number of protons and neutrons each atom contains) 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of oxygen (O) will have a mass of 16g whereas 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of sodium (Na) will have a mass of 23g
You can read more about the definition of moles here if you wish https://www.britannica.com/science/mole-chemistry
 
Although you may sometimes see it written as g/liter, the concentration of solutions is more often described in term of molarity since it better defines the chemical properties of a solution because it is proportional to the number of molecules or ions in solution, irrespective of molecular mass of its constituents.  However, it is not possible to measure moles on a laboratory balance, so in the first instance chemicals are measured by mass (milligrams, grams, kilograms etc) and the number of moles is calculated using the known molecular mass (often called molecular weight and abbreviated to M.W.) of the chemical.  As indicated earlier, the molecular mass of a chemical is based on the number of protons and neutrons that is contained in each atom (eg NaCl is made up of one molecule of Na, M.W. = 22.99g and one molecule of Cl, M.W. = 35.45g, so the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g).  These values can be found in the periodic table however the molecular mass of chemicals is generally provided by any vendors of the products and so can also be found on various suppliers’ websites.
 
When the concentrations of solutions are as described as ‘molar’, this refers to number of moles per liter eg a 3 molar solution of NaCl will contain 3 moles of NaCl in 1 litre of water.  As indicated above, the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g, so in 58.44g there are 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules ie 1 mole.  So for 3 moles of NaCl you would need to dissolve 175.32g in 1 liter of water (175.32/58.44 =3) whereas If you only dissolved 29.22g of NaCl in 1 liter of water this would result in a 0.5 molar solution (29.22/58.44= 0.5)
 
Question 4:  Using periodic table found in your textbook, calculate (to 2 decimal places) the molecular mass for each of the compounds used to make PBS.
  
Create the following table and fill it in with the mass of each component required to make 1 liter of 10 x PBS (the recipe for 10x PBS is below question 2) and their final molar concentration in the buffer calculated as described above.
 
Compound formula    Molecular mass (in g/mol)    Mass of compound per liter of 10x PBS (in g)    Molar concentration (in mol/l)
NaCl              
KCl              
Na2HPO4              
KH2PO4  
Question 5:  As previously stated, the concentration of NaCl, KCl and Phosphate in working strength 1 x PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.027M KCl,  pH 7.4   How do they compare to the concentrations you calculated for 10x PBS?
 Watch the following videos
"Using an Electronic Balance" from Bio-Rad tutorials:  http://www.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/html/lse/support/tutorial_electronic_balance_wndw.html
“Using a pH Meter" from Bio-Rad tutorials: http://www.bio-rad.com/webroot/web/html/lse/support/tutorial_using-a-ph-meter_wndw.html
"Making a PBS solution" from Community College Consortium for Bioscience Credentials: https://youtu.be/S6XspSNnhWg
Question 6:  What is the first thing to do after putting a weighing boat on the balance?
 
Question 7:  If you have excess reagent on the weighing boat, what should you avoid doing and why?
 
Question 8:  If you had the choice between a 1 liter beaker and a 1 liter graduated cylinder, which one should you use to measure volumes with maximal precision when making 1 liter of PBS? (you can perform an internet search to find this if you are not sure of the answer)
 
Question 9:  What should be done before measuring an unknown pH of a solution using a pH meter?
 
The recipe for PBS says to dissolve compounds in 800 ml of water, adjust the pH to 7.4, then add water up to 1 liter.  The final pH should still be 7.4, because the pH of buffer solutions remains stable when they are diluted as long as the concentration of its constitutive acid and base is not too low.
 
Question 10:   Why do you think the protocol does not say to dissolve compounds directly in 1 liter of water?
 
Question 11: The PBS protocol above says to adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl. What does this imply on the pH of 10x PBS before adjusting the pH, would it be greater or smaller than 7.4?
 
Question 12:  The last step in the protocol is to autoclave the 10x PBS solution. Why do you think this step is important? Look up the definition of autoclave if you are unsure what it means.
 
Question 13: Taking into account your response to question 5, now that you have made a 10x PBS solution, describe how you would prepare 1 liter of 1x working solution PBS, including which glassware you would use. Will you need to adjust the pH again?
Download Sample Now

Earn back the money you have spent on the downloaded sample by uploading a unique assignment/study material/research material you have. After we assess the authenticity of the uploaded content, you will get 100% money back in your wallet within 7 days.

Upload
Unique Document

Document
Under Evaluation

Get Money
into Your Wallet

Total 4 pages, 1 USD Per Page

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help (2021) Human Anatomy And Physiology I [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bio-1121-human-anatomy-and-physiology-i/principles-and-applications-of-electrochemistry.html
[Accessed 18 April 2021].

My Assignment Help. 'Human Anatomy And Physiology I' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bio-1121-human-anatomy-and-physiology-i/principles-and-applications-of-electrochemistry.html> accessed 18 April 2021.

My Assignment Help. Human Anatomy And Physiology I [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 18 April 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bio-1121-human-anatomy-and-physiology-i/principles-and-applications-of-electrochemistry.html.


MyAssignmenthelp.com is the perfect solution to render quality solution for all sort of academic issues. We have hired professionals from different fields of study to provide assistance with different subjects. We successfully have provided different types of assignment solutions on 100+ subjects. We have hired industry experts to deliver nursing assignment, hr assignment and finance assignment help. To offer quality content with IT assignments, we have hired IT professionals to render programming language assignment help and IT assignment help for other types of IT assignments as well.

Latest Biology Samples

BIOL W4065 Molecular Biology Of Disease

Download : 0 | Pages : 7

Answer: Human pathogens are very much endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and it is transmitted through bug biting and contaminated food substances. Various pathogenic diseases affect the people and that is one of the major cause of mortality in sub- Saharan Africa. In this essay, various pathogenic diseases, causative agents of African sleeping sickness, identifying tests for pathogenic diseases, their defense mechanism, immunity procedures, develo...

Read More arrow

BIOL21242 Immunology

Download : 0 | Pages : 4

Answer: Introduction ELISA or Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay is an assaying technique for the detection of antibodies and antigen presence in blood serum. The test is primarily used for the detection for the antibodies related to infectious disease. ELISA or Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay can be used to diagnose many different disease such as Lyme disease, Zika virus, Syphilis, rotavirus, HIV, squamous cell carcinoma and pernicious an...

Read More arrow

ADE2102 Objective Study 3

Download : 0 | Pages : 2

Answer: Compound Leaf A compound leaf refers to the leaf in which the leaf blade is anatomized in to a various small parts named leaflets. The anatomized portion of the compound leaf are positioned on the rachis or axis or midrib.  The leaflets are arranged either on the both side of the rachis imaginatively or may be placed terminally on the rachis. Compound leaf can be divided into two categories. The first one is pinnately compound le...

Read More arrow Tags: Uganda Kampala Management University of Kampala 

B410 Dietetics

Download : 0 | Pages : 6

Answers: Introduction The following paragraphs of the essay, aim to shed light on the key dietary issues presented by the given scenarios, followed by consequences of consuming and imbalanced diet and recommendations concerning required dietary improvements. Discussion Dietary Scenario 1 Consequences It can be observed that Michael’s consumption of carbohydrates derived from sugars as well as saturated fats are in excessive amounts ...

Read More arrow

PY3002 Biology

Download : 0 | Pages : 4

Answer: Introduction The animal cell is the smallest unit of an organism. Animals have different types of cell structures and cell components. These cell structures are observed and studied using cell biology techniques. These techniques include microscope, staining techniques and Cell fractionation (Gennis, 2013, p6). A microscope varies from each other with different sizes and it’s appropriate. The two common microscopes utilized in ...

Read More arrow
Next

Save Time & improve Grade

Just share requirement and get customized Solution.

watch
question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

Add File

Error goes here

1,652,205

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,121

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat. If you are unable to calculate word count online, ask our customer executives.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

529 Order Completed

95% Response Time

Ivan Blank

PhD in Functional Human Biology

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

440 Order Completed

99% Response Time

Jack Arens

MBA in HRM

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

1692 Order Completed

98% Response Time

Alfred Dodd

PhD in Computer and Information Science with specialization in Database

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

752 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Hugh Cleave

Masters in Human Resource Management (MMgt, HRM)

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

It is a good source of help for any assignment. My order completed before the deadline, and rework have done for the assignment. It is quite expensive for the students. wishes for better deal regards roh

flag

User Id: 663837 - 17 Apr 2021

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great help and great service! I was concerned it wouldn't get to me on time, but sure enough, it was on time! This saved my rear. Thanks, you guys are awesome

flag

User Id: 665469 - 17 Apr 2021

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Great paper. It was very detailed and everything was what was necessary for the paper.

flag

User Id: 647604 - 17 Apr 2021

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

seems ok to me, but once you forward the assignment it take 2 weeks for the feedback, then I will know if they are ok, so please do all the rest as well, if some answer are not ok they will ask to do it again

flag

User Id: 656331 - 17 Apr 2021

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Order on the go!

Say hello to our new app

callback request mobile
Have any Query?