1. Describe the principle of homeostasis.
2. Outline a process controlled by a feedback mechanism such as blood sugar control.
3. Describe in detail the two molecular processes in steroid and pepticle action.
4. Outline the need for specificity and relate this to the action of the above.
5. Explain the need for different mechanisms for fat-soluble and non-fat soluble hormones and relate to named examples.
Understand homeostasis and feedback mechanisms
Homeostasis is a kind of process in which the body maintains a stable internal environment and it is the very significant approach for the body to control the function of the cells (Blau, et al., 2015). It is observed that it has the potential to control and manage the stable internal environment and there are many things which require to be regulated which are described below:
The temperature of the human body system: If the temperature were permitted to increase out of control, protein and therefore enzyme, construction would be exaggerated.
The quantity of water within the body system: it is observed that the level of water can impact on human metabolism and osmosis.
The quantity of glucose in the body system: this level can also impact the osmosis of the human body.
The percentage of nitrogenous waste in the entire body system: it is identified that nitrogenous waste can become toxic in the body and it is very this level does not get too high. The homeostasis contains main four steps in their principle, for example, excess, corrective, norm, and deficiency.
Figure: homeostasis process
(Source: Dibb, et al., 2007)
Feedback is a kind of condition when the output of a loop impacts or influences in applied signals or input value. There are main two kinds of feedback system used in the field of homeostasis, for example, positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops.
In such kind of feedback system, the change in a given direction causes an additional change in the same way. For example, improve in the concentration of a substance causes feedback which also produced continued improvement in concentration. Mainly, such kind of systems is unstable because a change in the input signal can produce a change in the same direction. It also increases the issue of runaway condition and in a few cases the positive feedback system is more harmful (Turrigiano, 2012).
Figure: a positive feedback system
(Source: Humphrey, Dufresne, and Schwartz, 2014)
In such kind of system, a change in the given direction causes a change in the opposite direction. For example, improve in the concentration of a substance causes feedback which also affects the concentration of the substance. It is observed that negative feedback systems are more stable as compare to the positive feedback system and it affects the variables which oscillate around the set target. For example, negative feedback system includes insulin and glucagon which can help for controlling of blood sugar in the human body system (Turrigiano, 2007). A recent study observed that, if the glucose levels get too high then the human body releases insulin into the bloodstream and if it gets too low then the body system releases glucagon that causes the release of glucose from few of the body’s cells. Blood sugar control is one of the best examples of the negative feedback system in which the control centre secretes insulin into the blood more effectively.
Figure: a negative feedback system
(Source: Pozo, and Goda, 2010)
Two molecular processes
There are two kinds of hormones occur in human body systems which are described below:
- Steroid hormones
- Peptide hormones
Steroid hormones are lipophilic which can diffuse across the plasma membrane of a cell and it can be divided into main two classes, for example, sex steroids and corticosteroids. It has the potential to control and manage the metabolism, immune functions, development of sexual characteristics and inflammation (Nair, Verma, and Singh, 2017). It is observed that such kinds of hormones are transported with the help of blood which bound to carrier proteins and enhance the hormones in water. There are many examples of steroid hormones such as sex hormone binding globulin, albumin, corticosteroid globulin and many more. A recent study identified that any group of hormones which belong to the class of chemical compounds called as steroids and they are secreted through main three glands cortex, ovaries and testes (Neeb, et al., 2015).
A peptide hormone is also called as protein hormones that molecules are peptides and it also impacts on the endocrine process of animals. It is observed that such kinds of hormones are synthesized in cells from amino acids according to MRNA transcripts. It is a part of the protein which is bound by receptor and it has the potential to enable or disable the pathway of a biological system. they have a very short life which breaks very quickly and it allows organisms to utilize peptide hormones to direct processes more effectively. The peptide can be initiated in pests, all vertebrates, and many other mortals and few hormones are identified in extracellular systems. There are numerous examples of peptide hormones such as insulin, protein kinases, NO, and many more.
Oestrogen is one of the best examples of steroid hormones and in the field of peptide oxytocin is a very common example which uses the functions of peptide hormones (Porcu, et al., 2016). It is identified that oestrogen is a woman sex hormone that plays a significant role in the human body system. Having too little and too much oestrogen can cause the range of various medical situations and both men and women produce oestrogen hormone in their body system. In the body of the female such kind of hormone is required for puberty, pregnancy, bone strength, and menstrual cycle and it also impacts on the human skin, heart and brain system. The recent survey evaluated that the level of oestrogen changes according to the menstrual cycle and also depends on the stage of life and it is very lowest at the time of period in the female body.
Oxytocin is a part of peptide hormone which is produced through the periventricular of the hypothalamus and it released with the help of posterior pituitary. It plays a significant role in the area of sexual reproduction, social bonding and at the time of childbirth. Such kind of systems are released into the bloodstream for stretching of the cervix and uterus at the time of labour and it provides a platform to control and manage the birth and bonding with the child and milk construction. It is mainly developed in the hypothalamus and released at the time of sex and it affects the social behaviour and emotion of women and men.
Non-fat soluble is also called as water soluble hormone which is a part of the hydrophilic system and it is mainly dissolved in water as compared to oils or fats. It is discussed that such kind of soluble hormones are formed from amino acids which can be easily dissolved in water (Shahjahan, Doi, and Ando, 2016). It also affects the cells of body system through binding to receptors on the edge of the board cell and design of the receptor must match the shape of the signalling molecule. Adrenalin is one of the best examples of water soluble hormones that secreted through the adrenal medulla. The impacts or adrenalin are very similar to the impacts of noradrenalin and it also makes the human body system for the fight. The actions of adrenalin involve:
- Metabolic rate enlarged
- The action of heart amplified
- The rate of breathing augmented
Fat soluble hormones are also called as lipid soluble which are lipophilic and mainly dissolve in fats as compared to the water. Generally, such kinds of hormones are produced with the help of cholesterol molecules and it can easily transfer by cell membranes. Progesterone is the very best example of fat soluble hormones which is a part of steroid hormone which is secreted through the ovaries. It has the potential to control and manage the female sexual development and progressions and it is manufactured by the corpus luteum of the ovaries. The actions of the progesterone involve:
- Making the inner lining
- Preserving the uterus
- Avoiding further release of spawns from the capsules throughout gravidity
Blau, J.E., Abegg, M.R., Flegel, W.A., Zhao, X., Harlan, D.M. and Rother, K.I., (2015) Long?Term Immunosuppression After Solitary Islet Transplantation Is Associated With Preserved C?Peptide Secretion for More Than a Decade. American Journal of Transplantation, 15(11), pp.2995-3001.
Dibb, K.M., Graham, H.K., Venetucci, L.A., Eisner, D.A. and Trafford, A.W., (2007) Analysis of cellular calcium fluxes in cardiac muscle to understand calcium homeostasis in the heart. Cell calcium, 42(4-5), pp.503-512.
Humphrey, J.D., Dufresne, E.R. and Schwartz, M.A., (2014) Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 15(12), p.802.
Nair, R.R., Verma, P. and Singh, K., (2017) Immune-endocrine crosstalk during pregnancy. General and comparative endocrinology, 242(2), pp.18-23.
Neeb, L., Anders, L., Euskirchen, P., Hoffmann, J., Israel, H. and Reuter, U., (2015) Corticosteroids alter CGRP and melatonin release in cluster headache episodes. Cephalalgia, 35(4), pp.317-326.
Porcu, P., Barron, A.M., Frye, C.A., Walf, A.A., Yang, S.Y., He, X.Y., Morrow, A.L., Panzica, G.C. and Melcangi, R.C., (2016) Neurosteroidogenesis today: novel targets for neuroactive steroid synthesis and action and their relevance for translational research. Journal of neuroendocrinology, 28(2), pp. 12-14.
Pozo, K. and Goda, Y., (2010) Unraveling mechanisms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Neuron, 66(3), pp.337-351.
Shahjahan, M., Doi, H. and Ando, H., (2016) LPXRFamide peptide stimulates growth hormone and prolactin gene expression during the spawning period in the grass puffer, a semi-lunar synchronized spawner. General and comparative endocrinology, 227(5), pp.77-83.
Turrigiano, G., (2007) Homeostatic signalling: the positive side of negative feedback. Current opinion in neurobiology, 17(3), pp.318-324.
Turrigiano, G., (2012) Homeostatic synaptic plasticity: local and global mechanisms for stabilizing neuronal function. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, 4(1), p.a005736.
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